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For Reference 

Do Not Take 

From the Library 



Every person who maliciously 
cuts, defaces, breaks or injures 
any book, map, chart, picture, 
engraving, statue, coin, model, 
apparatus, or other work of lit- 
erature, art, mechanics or ob- 
ject of curiosity, deposited in 
any public library, gallery, 
museum or collection is guilty 
of a misdemeanor. 

Penal Cod* of California 
1915, Soct.on 623 



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in 2012 with funding from 

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BURUNGAMt 

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i DECORATION 




George Inness 

By Eugene V. Bre vster 

World War Monuments 



I 



Flaxman'*; Drawings 

By Petronius Arbiter 

The Art of Persia 

By Ananda K. Coomaraswamy 

The French Periods 

By Raoul ieittex 

The Academy Venter Exhibition 
Our Grandmother 5 China 

The Furniture cf William Sr Mary 
and Qu en Anne 

Orienal Rugs 





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BURLINGAMt 
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BURLlNGAMt 

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For many }!ears tne House of Demotte has 
occupied a unique field in Paris, specializing in 

FRENCH ART OF THE MIDDLE AGES 



We extend to you a cordial invitation 
to visit tne American Branch at 8 East 
57th Street, where a Private Collection 
of the finest Masterpieces, brought from 
Paris owing to the War, is on view 



SCULPTURES 

TAPESTRIES 

FURNITURE 



STATUARY 
PAINTINGS 
RARE FABRICS 



Tne interest now being taken by Americans in French Gothic 
art is particularly fitting, because the noble appeal and 
humanity of this art typifies France and her beautiful cathedrals 



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Juanita River near Harrisburg — By George Inness, 1856 




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In the Adirondack* — By George Inness, 1862 



116 
















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Late Morning, Hudson River — By George Inness, Early Period, 1848 



GEORGE INNESS, THE POETPAINTEK 

By EUGENE V. BREWSTER 
Illustrations by courtesy of Mr. George H. Ainslie 



THE almost fabulous prices paid for Inness 
paintings in recent years has caused many 
to wonder Why? Some critics have gone 
so far as to say that very few of the Inness works 
would now be accepted by the juries in our principal 
exhibitions, and others say that our more modern 
painters fall far short of equaling the delicacy of 
tone and the accuracy of depicting the moods of 
natures that made Inness world-famous. 

\\ hile it is true that there is a certain power, 
strength and brilliancy in our modern paintings 
that is quite lacking in the works of Inness, yet, 
everyone must admit that there is a softness and 
poetic sentiment to the latter that is often lacking 
in the former. 

However that may be,, the name of Inness has 
become a household word, and the first ambition 
of every collector is" to own an Inness. Why? Is 
it possible for anybody who is not a great man to 
paint a great picture? Is not art the result of an 
unfolding — of a desire to express what is within 
us? If so, how can we produce anything greater 
than ourselves ? Inness was a good man, an in- 
teresting man and a great man. Were he not all 
of these, perhaps his name would now head the 
list of American landscape painters. He loved 
nature, he loved its Creator, and he loved to try 
to reproduce faithfully its manifestations with a 
reverence that was almost sublime. 

He was born at Newburg, N. Y., May 1, 1825, 
son of a grocer. He was a delicate youth, and at 



fourteen, after trying storekeeping a while he took 
drawing lessons of a man named Barker, at 
Newark, N. J., whence his parents had moved. "I 
used often to wonder," he has since written, "If 
I should ever be able to do what he did." We 
next find him at work in a map engraver's in New 
York, where he remained for about a year. He 
then returned to Newark, made some sketches from 
nature, then became a student in the studio of 
Regis Gignoux in New York, and in a few months 
more we find him in a studio of his own. He sold 
one of his first landscapes, which contained some 
sheep to J. J. Mapes of New York for twenty-five 
dollars, and the Art Union soon became a good 
customer. Thus, the public seemed to be satisfied 
with the artist's work, but the artist himself was 
not. What made him dissatisfied was the perusal 
of some prints of European art which he came 
across. He observed in them the presence of a 
spirit which was totally lacking in his own work, 
and he took these prints with him out to Nature 
and tried to find what it was that produced the 
sentiment and poetry in the prints that he had 
missed. In 1847 he went to Europe to study art 
there and remained for fifteen months, then re- 
turned to America, but at that time there were many 
works of European artists coming to this country, 
and they so impressed young Inness that in 1850 
he went to France, to continue his studies and re- 
mained there for a year. In 1860 we find him in 
Medford, Mass., where he painted ?QnJ£ " ( his best 



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Perugia of the Valley — By George Inness, Italian Period, 1874 




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Springtime, Montclair — By George Inness, 1885 






118 






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GEORGE INNESS. THE POET-PAINTER 



119 



pictures. His style then was rich and full in color, 
strong and impulsive. "I always felt," he said, 
"as if I had two opposing styles — one impetuous 
and eager, the other classic and elegant," so that, 
as his early biographers state, while some of his 
pictures were dashed off under an inspiration, 
others were painfully elaborated. 

After four years in Medford, he moved to Eagle- 
wood near Perth Amboy, New Jersey, where he 
became a student of theology which for seven years 
was almost his only reading. He then returned 
to New York, lived there for a year, went again 
to Rome, remained there and in Paris for four 
years — his pictures gradually assuming a studied 
style — came back to this country, sojourned a year 
in Boston, and then returned to New York. It 
seems that nearly every part of the world has 
claimed him at one time or another, and we know 
that he painted a great deal at Milton, New York, 
at Montclair, New Jersey, and, judging from the 
great variety of his work, a little everywhere 
else. 

Every admirer of Inness has noted the wonder- 
ful texture of the grass in the foregrounds of his 
landscapes and the fulness and harmony of local 
color that are so true to Nature. These traits are 
characteristic of his landscapes. It may be interest- 
ing here to note his favorite process. First, he 
stained his white fresh canvas with Venetian red, 
but not enough to lose the sense of entire trans- 
parency. Then with a piece of charcoal he drew, 
more or less carefully, the outlines of the picture, 
afterwards confirming the outlines with a pencil, 
and put in a few of the prominent shadows with 
a little ivory black on a brush. His principal pig- 
ments were white, very little black, Antwerp blue, 
India red, and lemon chrome. He began anywhere 
on the canvas, and worked in mass from genera! 
to particulars, keeping his shadows thin and trans- 
parent, and allowing the red with which the canvas 
was stained to come through as part of the color. 
When the work was sufficiently dry, he added to 
his palette cobalt (for the sake of giving perma- 
nency to the blues), brown, and pink. The last 
steps were glazing, delicate painting, and scumbling, 
and the use of any additional pigments that were 
needed. Modern painters will probably look ask- 
ance at George Inness's palette, because we now 
know that some of his colors were not of the best, 
neither for effect nor for permanency. I have it 
from no less a master than Gilbert Gaul, N.A., how- 
ever, that his friend and tutor J. G. Brown used 
the lakes and chromes and that after forty years 
his paintings show no signs of fading. Mr. Gaul 
told me this himself a few days ago, when I saw 
him using Cremnitz white and the yellow chromes. 

George Inness sometimes painted for fifteen 
hours in a single day, the ler.gth of time depending 
upon his physical condition, state of feeling, and 



the nature of the emotion to be expressed. He 
painted standing, whether the canvas was large or 
small. His keenest pleasure was at the beginning 
of a picture. As it progressed, the labor became 
harder and harder, and he often laid a canvas 
aside for another one. Sometimes he had as many 
as twenty canvases in hand simultaneously, work- 
ing on four or five of them in a single day. 

The poetry in Inness's pictures was perhaps due 
to the fact that his was a deeply religious nature. 
When painting, he always felt that there was a 
power behind him teaching what was truth and 
what was the significance of things. Let me here 
quote from his own lips : "The whole effort and 
aim of the true artist is to eschew whatever is in- 
dividual, whatever is the influence of his own evil 
nature, of his own carnal lusts, and to acknowledge 
nothing but the inspiration that comes from truth 
and goodness, or the divine principles within him — 
nothing but the one personality, or God, who is the 
center of man and the source of all noble aspiration. 
For, just as it is impossible for him to personalize 
Nature on his canvas, so is it impossible for him 
to personalize himself. Like every other man, the 
artist is an individual representation of a personal- 
ity, which is God. This personality is everywhere 
to be loved and reverenced; but the assumption of 
it to self is the creation in man of his own misery — 
the subjection of himself to insults, to distresses, 
to a general disagreement with all the conditions 
of his existence. By eschewing as belonging to 
himself, he learns to love and to reverence it as 
represented in truth and good everywhere. That 
truth and good are God, existing from beginning, 
one with the beginning, creating all things. I would 
not give a fig for art-ideas except as they represent 
what I perceive behind them ; and I love to think 
most of what I, in common with all men, need most 
— the good of our practice in art of life. Rivers, 
streams, the rippling brook, the hillside, the sky, 
clouds, all things that we see, will convey the senti- 
ment of the highest art if we are in the love of 
God and the desire of truth." 

Now, the foregoing words are not copied from 
Mrs. Eddy's "Science of Health," nor are they a 
discourse by some theological high-brow. They are 
the exact words that flowed freely from the mouth 
of George Inness as he conversed with Walter 
Montgomery in 1888. Whether we believe in the 
Inness philosophy or not, whether it be true or 
false, whether he was misguided or inspired, the 
fact remains that George Inness was a deeply 
religious, devout, pious, thoughtful man ; and as he 
loved his Creator and revered Him, so he loved 
His Creation, Nature, and painted it with a devo- 
tion and fidelity that few artists have equaled 
before him or since. It might be said, therefore, 
that George Inness was an inspired painter, and 
this statement does not necessarily assume that any 



I 



120 



GEORGE INNESS, THE POET-PAINTER 



kind of religion is false or true. I wish to quote 
just once more from the poet-painter: 

"The purpose of the painter is simply to re- 
produce in other minds the impression which a 
scene has made on him. A work of art does not 
appeal to the intellect. It does not appeal to the 
moral sense. Its aim is not to instruct, nor edify, 
but to awaken an emotion. This emotion may be 
one of love, of pity, of veneration, of hate, of 
pleasure, or of pain ; but it must be a single emo- 
tion, if the work has unity, as every such work 
should have ; but the true beauty of the work con- 
sists in the beauty of the sentiment or emotion 
which it inspires. Its real greatness consists in the 
quality and force of this emotion. Detail in the 
picture must be elaborated only enough fully to re- 
produce the impression that the artist wishes to 
reproduce. When more than this is done the effect 
is weakened or lost, and we see simply an array 
of external things. If a painter could unite Meis- 
sonier's careful reproduction of details with Corot's 
inspirational power he would be the very god of 
art. But Corot's art is higher than Meissonier's. 
Let Corot paint a rainbow, and his work reminds 
you of the poet's description. The rainbow is the 
spirit of the flowers. Let Meissonier paint a rain- 
bow and his work reminds you of a definition in 
chemistry. The one is poetic truth, the other is 
scientific truth ; the former is aesthetic, the latter is 
analytic." 

This quotation from one of the conversations of 
George Inness before mentioned gives a fair insight 



into the poet-painter's mind, and again proves that 
he was a thinking man, indeed a philosopher. 

His landscapes, like those of Blakelock, Wyant 
and J. Francis Murphy, have given a new aspect 
to Nature and we now see beauties in Nature that 
were not visible before. As Browning says: 

"We are made so that we love, 

First, when we see them painted, things we 

have passed 
Perhaps a thousand times, nor even cared 

to see." 

He has opened our eyes to a new world and en- 
dowed us with a new sense. "He has made the 
desert to blossom as the rose," and has shown us 
that there are beauties in the lonely wood and even 
in the dismal swamp. Surely, he who can do this 
is a public benefactor for he has added to the sum- 
total of human blessings. I am not unmindful of 
the poetry in the paintings of Corot, Rousseau and 
Daubigny, whom Inness so admired, but there is 
no artist, living or dead, who has taught me to love 
Nature as has George Inness. He seems to have 
put in his art the idea that there is a suggestion of 
infinity in all Nature ; and now, as we roam through 
the fields, or wander along the brookside or country 
roads, our eyes are opened to new beauties and our 
souls awakened to the sublimity of Nature. Thus, 
we have learned to love Nature more deeply and 
to hold in still greater reverence the great Creator 
of it all. 




Autumn Woodlands — By George Inness, Last Period, 1890 






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I 



(2) Soldier Group at base of monument erected to General Chanzy at 
Le Mans, France. Base is surmounted by a statue of General Chanzy 



WORLDAVAK MONUMENTS 



WHEX we take a humorous view of life it 
is smile-provoking to contemplate people 
as they swing back and forth, like a town- 
clock pendulum, from one extreme to another. This 
must be a very ancient habit of mankind. For, 600 
years B. C, Buddha already wrote his "Dhama 
Pada" or "Path of Virtue," the burden of which 
was and is: "Follow the Golden Mean!"; and, on 
a temple at Delphi, the Greeks had about the same 
time carved the Hellenic motto: "Meyden Agan !" 
— "nothing too much !" The French for ages have 
been saying: "Cherchez le juste milieu!" — "seek 
the just mean!" So that a man, thinking himself 
statesman enough to try to serve as a mentor to his 
fellows, should by all means teach people to follow 
the Golden Mean in all things instead of rushing 
to extremes, which always meet at the point of 
stupidity. But here come various individuals who, 
in editorials and elsewhere in the press, advocate 
the building of the monuments to our soldiers and 
to Victory, in the shape of structures mainly utili- 
tarian — to serve as "Community Houses," etc., etc., 
and the discarding of purely architectural monu- 
ments, involving groups and statues in bronze and 
marble. And this because we have in this country 
some statues, even many, that are hideous, all of 
these writers forgetting that we have some magnifi- 
cent monuments commemorating our Civil War 
heroes, though they are willing that such "useful 



buildings" should contain bronze tablets bearing the 
names of the dead ! 

That they should advocate a combination of ser- 
viceable buildings, but highly ornamented with ex- 
pressive sculpture, in honor of our dead heroes, is 
conceivable and possible even if questionable. But 
to cry out for a purely utilitarian building devoid of 
triumphant sculpture — because many mistakes were 
made in the past in our soldier monuments, is truly 
"going some" in the direction of foolish extremes. 

We are heartily in favor of the idea that every 
county-town of the country, from which even 
one soldier went to Europe to fight for the 
lofty ideals which surely were the power that nerved 
them to surprise the world at Cantigny, Chateau- 
Thierry, St. Mihiel, the Argonne and Sedan, should 
have a practical and servicable Community-House, 
in honor of their fellow citizens and soldiers, for 
their pleasure and use. But then, we claim that, in 
addition to this, a monument of a purely ideal 
character should be placed in front, or near, such 
utilitarian building to celebrate in poetic form, by 
means of symbolic statues, bas-reliefs and inscrip- 
tions, the story of their deeds. There should be 
absolutely nothing utilitarian about the soldier 
monuments. The intention, the spirit of such monu- 
ments should be absolutely poetic, even if the form 
is disappointing because of the halting skill or 
artistic awkwardness ~ c the creat nri " of the '"lonu- 






121 



122 



WORLD WAR MONUMENTS 




(1) Statue of Sergeant Bobillot, erected in 
Paris, France 

ments. For even a bad monument with a poor 
granite statue, made by some "granite butcher," but 
pure and lofty in intention, is better than no monu- 
ment at all. 

Let the critics of our public statuary remember 
that during the entire Renaissance, from 1250-1550, 
there were produced scarcely half a dozen pieces 
of first-class public statuary in all Italy. And the 
number of great pieces of ideal statuary produced 
there during that time can be counted on the 
fingers and toes of a normal man. Moreover, many 
of the most mediocre public statues produced dur- 
ing the last generation have been set up in Paris 
and France, not to speak of England, Germany, 
Italy, etc. Do our critics expect great masterpieces 
in every monument erected — nearly always through 
"wild-cat" competitions, and for the lowest price 
possible — often ridiculously low — because of that 
very competition ? 

All this talk about an artist being morally bound 
to always do his best, no matter what his pay, is non- 
sense. He cannot sometimes do his best, even if he 
wishes to do so, unless he feels he is adequately paid. 
The amount of his pay usually acts as a stimulant 
or deterrent to extra effort. 

Again, those critics are just the ones who talk the 
most about the paramount need, not of beauty, but 
of "individuality," in a work of art. But, when a 
sculptor puts up an "individual" monument, it will 
please one man and irritate another. It will please 
a few cranks, daffy on "individualism," but dis- 
please the vast majority of normal people who, by 
instinct.- look, not for be"' ;i denng "individuality," 



but for beauty. True, it is almost impossible to- 
day to produce a beautiful work of art which will 
not recall, in some degree, some similar beautiful 
work. But, though it may recall it, it may yet be 
strictly original and have enough individuality to 
satisfy all men of intellect and true culture. 

The fact is, a public monument should be as im- 
personal and unindividualistic as possible — as to 
manner of surface execution. Its originality and 
individuality should be confined mainly to its co»i- 
position. 

Our public can be assured that there are no more 
bad monuments in New York City — in proportion 
to the number erected — than there are in Paris. 
However, where the Parisians beat us badly is 
in the superior placing of their monuments. In this 
matter we are either ridiculously incompetent or 
indifferent. 

• Most of the bad statues in this country are put 
up by noble-intentioned but inexperienced monu- 
ment-committees. Many of these think they know 
it all, or often do not care how poor the monument 
is, just so it be a monument — with inscriptions, the 
inscriptions and names on the bronze panels being 
the main matter with their members. Many of 
these committees are led astray by some member of 
the committee who, in league with the atrocious 
monument fabricators, cajole the remaining honest 
members of the committees to put up heaven-in- 
sulting piles of stone and bad bronze statuary, thus 
bringing ridicule upon themselves, their city and the 
dead heroes whom thev wish to honor. 



How can we remedy this? 

First : Our very children should be taught in the 
school-books that, from a civic standpoint, a public 
monument is the holiest thing in any city. And, 
once up, the best care should be taken of it by the 
city. And the entire public should learn that erect- 
ing monuments to our heroes is the highest form 
of public worship, because free from all silly dog- 
mas, and because expressive of our devotion to the 
highest ideals of personal conduct and public ser- 
vice. No man can do a more lofty civic act than to 
assist in putting up a public monument. 

■ Therefore, it is short-sighted to say : "Oh, Emer- 
son needs no public monument. His writings are 
his own monuments." While this is true, it is we 
who need it, as a means of expressing ourselves, to 
do which is the object of everything in nature, from 
a rosebush to the Creator. We should erect monu- 
ments to exalt those who have helped to advance 
civilization, in order to express our appreciation and 
gratitude, so as not only to exalt ourselves, but also 
to inspire each other to perhaps some day merit 
such a concrete manifestation of a people's gratitude 
such as is a public monument. Moreover, our 
children need these monuments to stimulate them 






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WORLD WAR MONUMENTS 



123 



to an exalting emulation of our heroes, everyone of 
whom is the holiest benefaction vouchsafed to a 
nation by the Creator. Therefore, there cannot be 
too many monuments — to those citizens who actu- 
ally deserved them. There were more than 6,000 
statues in Rome in the days of Nero. 

Second: The public should know that the 
quality of the monuments produced in any country 
is affected adversely by the neglect of those put 
up in the past, because it is disheartening to a 
sculptor. The manner in which public monuments 
are neglected in this country, after they are erected, 
is not only scandalous but astonishing. One would 
suppose the practice of this post-monument indiffer- 
ence to our national heroes w T as borrowed from the 
unspeakable Turk, who puts up structures, places 
them in the hands of Allah, and then — allows them 
to rot and rot from lack of care. One would 
suppose the members of the average American 
monument committee, when the erection of a monu- 
ment is finished, say to themselves : "There is your 
old monument. I suppose we had to follow the silly 
convention and give it to you, be you a real or a 
fake hero, but I am now through with the job. Ouf ! 
Tata !" And then they forget the monument. Then 
it begins to become dirty, unkept and to degenerate 
into a shameful state. Perhaps someone with a 
feeling of civic pride orders it "repaired," which 
is done in a perfunctory manner, thus making the 
decay of the monument even more glaring. 

Boston for years neglected the "Lincoln" monu- 
ment, with its splendid bronze group, showing Lin- 
coln emancipating the slaves, by Ball, one of our 
greatest sculptors — until it was a civic nuisance, as 
well as an insult to Lincoln. One would have 
thought Boston hated Lincoln and, for the purpose 
of showing its contempt, had this monument 
erected, then mutilated, then allowed it to fall into a 
state of sad decay, through deliberate indifference. 

There had in fact been four vases about the 
group. These were abstracted by someone and, for 
ten years at least, the four pieces of rusty gas-pipes, 
fifteen inches long, which had held the vases in 
place, lifted their complaining rust and unclean- 
liness to heaven for a withering and shaming philip- 
pic against the Bostonians of our "modern Athens." 
We wonder whether those gas-pipe ends still point 
their accusing fingers at Boston's citizens, as if 
telling them : "You are a lot of fakers when you 
pretend to have Athenian refinement and culture !" 
For, in truth, this Lincoln monument is worthy of 
the finest possible pedestal and the most sumptuous 
surroundings and of the perpetual, reverent care 
of the few really cultured citizens who no doubt do 
live in Boston and who revere the memory of Lin- 
coln. 

Another case in point is the "Washington" eques- 
trian statue, by H. K. Brown, here in New York, 
one of the six finest equestrian statues of the world. 



It stands on a pedestal of gray granite of a com- 
monplace design ; and, being unpolished — which no 
granite pedestal outside of a graveyard should be — 
it has become dirty, greasy and repellant, and be- 
littles the great statue it supports, at least to all 
those who do not know its worth. Thus, New York 
is nearly as bad as Boston. And the rest of the cities 
of the country are as bad as, or worse, than the 
Metropolis. This state of affairs is a disgrace to 
our nation and a final proof that, while we do not 
lack heart, we do profoundly lack the sacred public 
culture of keeping ever clean and beautiful the 
graves, monuments and memorials of those heroes 
who labored, frequently suffered, and often died, 
that we might live and be happy. When will our 
people begin this sublimest of all civic cults — the 
cult of paying perpetual homage to our self-sac- 
rificing dead? 

Our own Art Commission is guilty of woeful 
neglect of our public monuments. The Commission 
will say : "We are not organized to keep in repair 
our monuments and have no money for such a pur- 
pose." This is but a reason why the whole Art 
Commission should be expanded in its activities, and 
money voted for that purpose. 

Third: A public monument, like a beautiful wo- 
man, appears best in proper surroundings and set- 
tings. Therefore, before setting up a monument, 
a good site should be chosen for it. 

Fourth : Should by an error a public monument 
erected by a private committee, turn out unsatis- 




(3) Monument erected at Fiesole, Italy, showing 
Victor Emmanuel meeting Garibaldi on the 
field of battU 




124 



WORLD WAR MONUMENTS 




(4) Monument to Jules Anspach and the Anspach Square in Brussels 



factory, and in ten years be found to be an irritation 
instead of a joy, the city should proceed, on recom- 
mendation of the Art Commission, to have a new 
one made by another sculptor more competent, and 
passed on — not this time by the same private com- 
mittee which erected it, but by a larger public com- 
mittee, backed up by the city Art Commission, and 
made up of at least twenty-five leading citizens, 
willing to give their time to see to it that the monu- 
ment shall be first class — never mind about the 
expense, which cannot be exorbitant in any event. 

Example : The "Lincoln" statue in Union Square 
is absurd. It is badly placed, faces north, which 
no portrait-statue should ever- do, and was so badly 
modelled or cast that it leans backwards. All this 
aside from the fact that the statue is mediocre in 
composition and a depressing, untruthful, repellant 
effigy of Lincoln, representing him, not as a heroic, 
self-reliant chieftain who, in the construction of his 
head and face, recalls that of Caesar, and who, like 
Caesar, dominated his age with a confident and 
serene face, but shows him as a tear-filled, sad- 
souled rag of humanity, lugubriating on the shores 
of time — an object of pity instead of veneration. 

It should be pulled down; and, if desired as a 
memorial of the fact that Brown, a great sculptor, 
could make a sad "fluke" — as this Lincoln of his — 
it should be put in some historical museum. But 
another statue of Lincoln, worthy of New York 
and of Lincoln, should be put up in some much 
finer plage,, and the space now occupied by' this 



eye-sore "Lincoln" should be made 
free for traffic, or a beautiful foun- 
tain could be put in its place. 

The new "Lincoln" statue should 
be procured by the city, a good 
price being paid for it. One hun- 
dred thousand dollars is not too 
much for New York City to pay for 
a first-class and universally satis- 
factory monument to Lincoln. In 
fact a stranger would say: "New 
York is supremely indifferent to 
Lincoln's memory." 

Such a commission should not be 
given, outright, to any sculptor. It 
should be procured through open 
competition, to which ten first-class 
sculptors should be invited and each 
one paid $1,000 for his model, even 
if none of the ten is selected. And 
the sculptor selected should then be 
watched by a committee of twenty- 
five, made up of three sculptors, 
three architects, three painters, three 
writers, three heads of museums, 
and ten business men, presided over, 
but not dominated, by the city Art 
Commission. This to insure that 
very impersonal beauty and profundity of charac- 
ter-expression which should be found in every 
monument. 

For, we repeat, "a public monument is not a 
private snap," not a place for Bolshi-Modernistic 
"individualistic" modelling stunts, by some ego- 
maniac. Let him do those things in his private work, 
if he must do them. A public monument is pri- 
marily a public avenue for the expression of rever- 
ential public emotion, and only secondarily for the 
parading of a sculptor's vanitous tricks of modelling 
to show that he has an "individual temperament." 
The sculptor, in a public statue, should show his 
individuality — by which he means his originality — 
in his composition, thought and sentiment, not in 
his "deforming the form." 

If his composition is fine enough to easily win 
the competition, then his model should be enlarged 
to one-half the life-size and perfected. If then it 
still holds the jury, he should be allowed to carry 
out his composition in the full size, but always con- 
trolled, to make sure that every inch of it is proper- 
ly constructed and drawn and thus made lifelike, 
and the surface modelled with great restraint as to 
personal manner of modelling. For, in a public 
monument we do not care for a parading of a 
sculptor's flip "cleverness" or "artistic stunting," 
like those of Rodin, every one of whose public 
monuments occasioned a civic row and much hate 
in the cities where the)' were erected. 

What we want in a public statue is an expression 






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of the physical, intellectual, and spiritual character 
of the hero. This can he done and yet leave room 
enough for a modest and charming manner of per- 
sonal surface-modelling'. The great sculptors Rude, 
Dubois, Dalou, Falguiere and Carpeau never in- 
dulged in "individual stunts," but nevertheless each 
had a personal manner, recognizable as his own, 
and made charming by virtue of that restrained 
and modest kind of personal parading always found 
in the execution of the compositions of the truly 
great artists. 

Further, Union Square — where this Lincoln 
statue stands — should be completely remodelled ; 
and Brown's statue of Washington, a masterpiece, 
unlike his "Lincoln" opposite, should be placed in 
the center and faced south, looking down Broad- 
way ; and the pedestal should be either polished 
completely or, still better, a new one of polished 
red granite or Tennessee marble should be substi- 
tuted for its present ugly pedestal. No pedestal 
could be too line for it. Another fountain — to 
balance the one to be placed where the "Lincoln" 
now stands — could be put in its place, to balance 
the Lincoln fountain. Moreover, beautiful balus- 
trades and flower-beds could be introduced around 
the Washington statue in the revamping of the 
Square. Then' Union Square would begin to live 
once more by this increase of beauty and enhance 
the value of the abutting real estate — enough to pay 
for the expense. 

But we can already hear coming the howl about 
the expense — from some thick-headed Bolsheviki, 
governed only by what Victor Hugo so aptly called 
"the philosophy of the belly," and to whom a public 
monument is not a higher form of public worship, 
but "a robbing of the poor!" When will these be- 
nighted minds learn that every public monument 
actually helps to raise the level of, and is a pro- 
tection for, the poor? 

Fifth: There are about fifteen statues in New 
York City, among its forty or more, which should 
be remodelled by competent sculptors, governed by 
the large commission we speak of, and all at expense 
of the city, remodelled even if their composition 
is maintained, and most of them should have new 
and more artistic pedestals and should be replaced 
on better sites. The total expense of this would 
not be more than $250,000. But then, New York- 
would have a clean aesthetic bill of health, a lot of 
statues it could be proud of, above all, if these 
statues are all not only properly replaced, if needed, 
but put in surroundings that would set off the 
statues, as well as the surroundings themselves. 
All this would procure labor and pay for the work- 
ers, and lift the tone of the squares or parks where 
statues are placed. 

Sixth : Every square in the city should be fur- 
nished with a commemorative statue, or a fountain 
to serve the same purpose. A monument need not 



always call for a full-size statue of the person 
honored. It may be a fountain, with a medallion 
portrait of the hero on an obelisk, or a combination 
of arch and bust, or of a statue and exhedra, etc. 

Whenever the French government wishes to clean 
up and raise the quality of a plague-spot in Paris, 
it puts up a public statue or a fine fountain in the 
midst of it. Soon there is new life around the>e 
embellishments, and the resultant enhanced earning- 
power of the neighboring real estate soon pays not 
only for the embellishment, but for the handsome 
buildings that spring up around those works of art. 
When will our so-called "practical" amateurs of 
city government see the value of this common-sense 
French policy? 

Seventh : There are hundreds of soldier monu- 
ments in all parts of the country put up by devoted 
but woefully ignorant committees of men and wo- 
men. Most of these monuments are atrocious piles 
of martyrized marble or brutalized bronze, precious 
materials insulted by the wickedly ugly forms given 
them. These should all be pulled down and replaced 
by better ones — by the cities, counties, or states 
having jurisdiction over them. If there are no Art 
Commissions in the smaller cities, the aid of such 
commissions could be sought in other large cities 
by paying at least the traveling expenses of the 
commissions. 

Eighth: It would be a good thing if every state 







(5) Design for a monument to commemorate the peace 

and prosperity which followed the Civil War. 

By Bruce Price, Architect 



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WORLD WAR MONUMENTS 







(6) Monument erected in San Francisco to the 
California Volunteers. Douglas Tilden, Sculptor 

created a state Art Commission — to serve the 
smaller cities in each state which cannot afford such 
commissions. Such commissions could be made 
both fool-proof and graft-proof. Instead of howl- 
ing about the expense of this, it should be welcomed. 
Do our citizens expect to make a paradise of this 
earth without expenses, and hope to turn the fear- 
fully ugly holes, abounding in this blest country of 
ours, into beauty spots by simply the waving of a 
wand? When will our citizens give the lie to the 
monarchical reactionaries of Europe, who hate our 
Democracy, because they say : "Democracy means 
dem-ugliness"? When will they get it through their 
heads that happiness can only be established in any 
country by means of Liberty, Health and Beauty? 

No, instead of less monuments being put up, 
more and ever more should be erected, but ever 
better and better ones. And they will be better — 
if the public remembers, not only that a public 
monument is a lofty act of public worship, but that 
it also is a great commercial asset of heavy interest- 
bearing power. 

Ninth : Every city of 25,000 should have a large 
city embellishment committee, of men and women — 
especially of women — who should make it their 
special business to keep the public monuments and 
art works in our parks and squares in repair, clean 
and bright and, where possible, surrounded with 
flowers, so as to show that the city is not only com- 
mercially, but spiritually alive. People will go 
reverently to a cemetery, year after year, to keep a 
grave clean and deck it with flowers. Why not do 
the same thing with our monuments, most of which 
record the deeds of our finest and best citizens ? 
In the smaller cities there are no such embellish- 
ment commissions. 

Tenth : The committees which erect monuments 



should not disband when the monument is unveiled, 
but should resolve to hold together the organization 
and decide to eternally take care of the monuments 
which they have erected. 

- If these suggestions would be followed — and they 
could be greatly expanded as to details — our civic 
monuments would soon be a source of pride instead 
of chagrin. In the matter of public, monuments, as 
in government, a people always gets only as much 
as it works for. 



To show that modern monuments may be splen- 
did, and of universal appeal to normal people, and 
yet show artistic individuality, we reproduce some 
erected in this country and abroad. 

Fig. 1 is a reproduction of the statue of Sergeant 
Bobillot, which surmounts the monument to the 
French soldiers who fell in Tonkin in 1883-85. Bo- 
billot fell at Tuyen-Quan. The monument is erected 
on the Boulevard Richard Lenoir, Paris. It is not 
only one of the very finest statues in Paris, but one 
of the best "soldier statues" in the world. The man 
is so alive and full of movement — in restraint, that 
we do not think of any silly "technique," until we 
have been emotioned by the fine style of the com- 
position and the dramatic expression of the rugged 
manhood of a real man. The impression it makes 
is one of reality, and yet, when examined carefully, 
one notes that every needless detail is rigidly ex- 
cluded, in harmony with a rational worship of 
ideality, made up of fine taste and of a modest em- 
ploy of a sane individuality in the surface-model- 
ling. It is an example of the fusion of the uni- 
versal with the personal in art-expression. It is a 
masterpiece, and will serve as a model for all 
sculptors of soldier monuments. 

Fig. 2 represents the lower part of a monument 
erected to General Chanzy, in 1885, at Le Mans in 
France. Above this group stands the statue of the 
general — not shown in this picture. It is by the 
sculptor Croisy. The soldier group encircles the 
whole pedestal. It is one of the most dramatic 
soldier monuments ever put up, and speaks for it- 
self, needs no analysis, tells its own story, and 
leaves nothing for the critic to blame. 

Fig. 3 shows one of the most remarkable and 
successful soldier monuments erected in Italy dur- 
ing the last generation. It stands in a small square 
of the town of Fiesole on the high hill, back of 
Florence. It is an example of the combination of 
an obelisk with figures. It represents King Victor 
Emmanuel II. meeting Garibaldi on the field of 
battle, and, in passing, shaking his hand. Thus it 
brings together in actual work the two heroes who 
made possible the unification of the Italian people. 
It is altogether a masterpiece of originality in com- 
position, marvelous construction and drawing, of a 
group of two horses and two figures. Only those 
who have wrestled with an heroic equestrian statue 






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know what it means to successfully carry out such 
a splendid project and the difficulties to be over- 
come. The one fault about the monument is the 
cheap pedestal. But we were told that, later on, 
when Italy is less poor, a better pedestal would be 
provided. 

Fig. 4 shows the Place Anspach in Brussells, 
with the Anspach monument. This is a combination 
of an obelisk, a fountain and a medallion portrait — 
in this case shown in the marble disk on the shaft. 
It is one of the finest monuments in Europe. 

\\ here it now stands was once an open ditch for 
a small stream — the Senne. Jules Anspach, the 



Architect and Building News, of September 30, 
1899. 

Fig. 6 represents Douglas Tilden's monument to 
the "California Volunteers," in the Civic Circle, 
Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. It represents 
the American soldiers fighting for an objective, a 
poetic ideal, which is being shown them by America, 
in the shape of Minerva, pointing to it with her 
sword on the back of Pegasus — symbol of poetry. 
It is one of the finest soldier monuments created by 
Americans and, along with other fine things he has 
done, helped to place Tilden among our foremost 
and most original sculptors, of whom California 



mayor, who died in 1879, inspired the Brussells peo- ought to be proud. 



pie to cover it over. This was done for a distance 
of over a mile, and the square and monument and 
the fine houses back of it stand over this dirty 
creek. The monument was erected out of gratitude 
by the citizens of Brussells for what Anspach had 
done for them. It is not a soldier monument; but, 
by changing the character of the figures slightly, 
it could be made into a soldier monument. But it 



Fig. 7 represents the soldiers and sailors at 
Albany. It is by Herman A. MacNeil. In the 
center stands America with an armful of palms of 
glory, to be distributed to the soldiers and sailors 
represented on the frieze behind her, and which 
goes around the whole background. This is one 
of the largest and finest and most original monu- 
ments in the country, a credit to Albany and an 



does show the possibilities of combining a fountain, honor to the sculptor. It is Roman Classic in feel- 
obelisk, symbolic statues and small medallions to ing, but of a purely American quality, showing 
make a most effective monument to a great citizen, again that, in the hands of a competent sculptor and 
Incidentally this picture gives a good idea of one architect working together, the universal can 



of the most pppular quarters of Brussells before 
the Huns defiled it. 



But American artists have also designed and 
erected some magnificent soldier monuments which 
confute those who decry, in wholesale fashion, the greatest soldier monument in America, but one of 



always be handled in a personal way, ending in 
emotion-stirring beauty. 

Fig. 8 represents the high-relief of Saint Gau- 
dens's monument to Colonel Shaw, standing on the 
edge of Boston Commons. This is not only the 



monuments of America. 

Fig. 5 is from a drawing, made in 1899, by the 
late lamented architect Bruce Price. The project 
was for "A Monument Commemorative of the 
Results of the Conflict for the Union, a Federation 



the finest of all time. No sculptor in the world ever 
made a finer war-monument relief than this. Nor 
did any painter ever give a more convincing ex- 
pression, of a whole army passing, than St. 
Gaudens did in this relief. The marching of the 



of the States and the Peace and Prosperity that negroes is so wonderfully portrayed that they seem 
Followed." It was designed to go where the Flat- to move. Everything seems to move, even the 
Iron Building now stands, on 23rd Street and Fifth solemn figure of "inspiration" above floats along. 
Avenue and Broadway. 

It is a magnificent conception, 
worthy of erection in any city of the 
world, and shows what can be done 
in this line by an artist or genius. 
It would have been a large interest- 
paying investment for New York 
City had our materialistic pseudo- 
practical laymen been willing to 
spend the money necessary to carry 
out this sumptuous project. But, 
perhaps, if Price had lived, it might 
have been pushed to realization. It 
is not too late yet. There are some 
triangular squares still left on 
Broadway. Herald Square, for ex- 
ample; also on Columbus Circle, etc. 

Who will start the project? This 

... . , . . . (7) Soldiers and Sailors Memorial, Albany, Aew York 

illustration appeared in the American Hermon A. MacNeil, Sculptor 




128 



WORLD WAR MONUMENTS 



But, more than that — there isn't a man in the thirty 
or more modelled, or suggested, whose soul is not 
alive and in harmony with the spirit of the moment. 
Every man, from Colonel Shaw down, seems to be 
fully awake to the fact that he is marching to face 
almost sure death, but that he is determined, for the 
good of his race, to face it calmly, as they did when 
they lost their lives at Fort Wagner. 

Here we have another triumphant, and still 
different, example of what we mean by a mingling, 
a fusion, of universally appealing style in composi- 
tion and of a personal manner of surface execution. 
Those who do not know St. Gaudens' personal touch 
and "temperamental modelling," and don't care, 
will not see it; but those who know his work, will 
instantly see that this is the work of St. Gaudens 
and of no other sculptor. There is one capital error 
in this work, but to point it out convincingly would 
take too long here, and few sculptors even will 
note the error. 

But, in the face of this great masterpiece as a 
whole, and which will stir the emotions of men 
for ages to come, is there any reason for any critic 
to demand more individualistic surface-modelling 
than St. Gaudens here displayed? And yet there 
are modernists sufficiently ego-mad to say : "No, 
it is not personal enough, it is too academic!" 



If space permitted we could point out two score 
more American monuments that are very fine in- 
deed and an honor to the sculptors who reverentlv 
made them. Therefore, will any of the extreme 



lovers of the "useful" still contend that we should 
raise no ideal monuments to our soldier heroes, and 
erect only "useful liberty buildings," "community 
houses," etc., because they happen to be familiar 
with some very bad soldier monuments? Let them 
remember that all countries have many bad soMier 
and other kinds of monuments. Let our material- 
ists also remember that every step in advance 
towards civilization that the race has made was 
in answer to the call of ideal, the spiritual, the 
poetic ; and every fall barkwards was, through the 
worship of the crassly material and the earth- 
earth}'. 

What we do not want is a butting-in into the 
ranks of the monument-makers by a lot of "monu- 
ment - butchers" who have reduced monument- 
making from the plane of poetic creation to com- 
mercial fabrication, and to keep these out of the 
world of art will require great alertness on the part 
of firm men. These must find out who are the 
"assassinators of golden opportunities," and bar 
them out, by degrees, from all public monument 
competitions and confine them to the field of private 
monuments for cemeteries, etc., a large and growing 
field. 

What we do want is more monuments that are 
really great, as works of art, and such can be had, 
if the public would look upon monument-raising 
as the loftiest possible public worship, and then be- 
come willing to share in this worship and help to 
lift it to the highest plane — by paying the price, 
both in money and in the loving care, which such 
a sublime civic cult makes imperative. 




(8) Monument to Col. Shaw and his Negro troops. Erected on Boston Commons 



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Portrait of John Flaxman 
Pencil drawing by Sir Thomas Lawrence 

FLAXMAN'S DRAWINGS 

Illustrating Homer's "Iliad" and "Odyssey" 
By PETRONIUS ARBITER 



A MOST important exhibition of seventy- 
three outlined drawings by John Flaxman, 
the great English artist, illustrating 
Homer's "Iliad" and "Odyssey," which were for- 
merly in the Hope collection, at Deepdene, England, 
was shown in December at the galleries of Scott & 
Fowles. And they can be congratulated on being 
privileged to offer these incomparable drawings for 
purchase by the American public ; and America can 
be felicitated on being privileged to purchase these 
illustrations of the world's greatest epic. 

But again we can say: "There is no rose without 
a thorn." For it is a great pity that no body of 
men saw fit to buy the entire collection and set apart 
for them a special room in some great museum in 
New York or Washington. Because now they will 
be scattered and become part of private collections 
closed to the public. This is bad enough. But 
what makes it worse is the fact that nearly every 



year we hear of some private mansion being burned 
up, and with it priceless treasures of art which can 
never be duplicated or, in some cases equalled. And 
if we are willing to spend 50 billions of money and 
50 thousand lives — as we just have done — to 
guarantee the liberty of our descendants, why not 
spend a few millions also for their happiness — by 
leaving them intact the real art-masterpieces of 
our epoch ? Such should be lodged in fire-proof 
museums and not in fire-inviting country palaces. 

And so we hope some museum will offer to re- 
purchase the whole of these Flaxman drawings 
from the various buyers — at a slight advance on 
the selling price — and that these buyers will sell 
them to the museum and help to fit up a special 
room for their exhibition to be called "Homer 
Hall" or "Flaxman Hall," so they will be forever 
safe. 

A rich man who will outbid another rich man to 



129 



130 



FLAXMAN'S DRAWINGS 




"Minerva pacifying the Furies" 
Illustration of Act V of "The Eumenides," by Aeschylus 



acquire a unique masterpiece of art, and will then 
house it in a country villa that is imperfectly fire- 
proof, is in reality an enemy of society and of its 
highest manifestation of culture. For he thereby 
reduces art to a mere commodity, like wall-paper or 
carpets, made by machinery. Worse, he discourages 
the spread among artists of the feeling that a work 
of art will be safe — above all, a great masterpiece — 
once it has been created by an artist who hopes to 
immortalize himself by his art and, of course, hopes 
that, when his work, upon which he has perhaps 
sweated blood for years, will be preserved. This 
indifference to the certain preservation of art 
masterpieces is a positive deterrent to the growth 
of such an art atmosphere as will alone make the 
creation of such masterpieces in any quantity pos- 
sible. Therefore, Whistler, and all other artists like 
him, were justified in being nervous about letting 
their works go to private houses, preferring to keep 
them in their studios as long as possible, in the hope 
that they would find their way into some museum 
that would be a safe-depository. Hence, it is a 
species of crime against such artists as deny them- 
selves all sorts of social pelf in order to be able to 
create the very works of art these careless rich men 
allow to burn up in their insufficiently-protected 
mansions, works which the artists hoped would 
endure for ages, at least. 



These drawings by Flaxman are so extraordi- 
narily beautiful and marvelously skilful that it is 
safe to say that they hold their own with the finest 
drawings made by the greatest masters of the past, 
like Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael, Rembrandt, 
Holbein; and Ingres, Boulanger or Lefebvre of 
modern times. 

It must be remembered that very few of even the 
greatest artists are able to draw — with pencil or 
paint and in outline — and reach perfection of move- 



ment and proportion, expression and beauty of de- 
tail — leaving the matter of composition out of the 
question. 

To carefully draw a single figure in charcoal or 
paint and patiently refine it by rubbing out parts and 
correcting the drawing until perfected, is not so 
difficult. But to draw quickly, and without much 
re-drawing, and with an exquisite result, is so diffi- 
cult that the world has not produced half a dozen 
men who could do it. 

Painters, as a rule, excel sculptors in drawing — 
in outline on paper, because they are forced to 
visualize figures more in detail. Sculptors, as a rule, 
are careless about fine drawing, on paper, since 
they must see figures all around and make their 
final drawing in the clay — for they build up slowly 
by adding and subtracting clay until the figure is 
perfect. It is a difficult process enough at best, 
but it does not require such dexterity and clever- 
ness as outline drawing. 

To draw the human figure in outline requires the 
special gift of visualizing it in the mind to an ex- 
traordinary degree if we wish to draw it to perfec- 
tion. Few artists see very clearly in their minds 
the small details of figures. Hence they are rather 
builders, constructors, than free and easy drafts- 
men. Not one in a thousand can draw even a foot, 
fore-shortened, as Flaxman did, without much la- 
borious correction. And only such as have strug- 
gled with an outline drawing know how difficult 
it is. 

Bandinelli, a sculptor, and rival of Michelangelo, 
made a series of outlined drawings, similar in 
character, but inferior to these of Flaxman ; Rem- 
brandt did some marvelous drawing in outline in 
his etchings ; Holbein likewise in his portraits ; 
Ingres and Boulanger have left some wonderful 
drawings also. But it is safe to say that no artist 
who ever lived has left so many drawings, of such 
extraordinary finesse of line expression, of beauty 



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of proportion, of beauty of movement, of loving 
suppleness and of exquisite grace, as did Flaxman. 
He seems to have been able to see "in his mind's 
eye" and in his imagination not only an entire 
figure, with the correct curve of every detail of 
every toe and finger, but he visualized in his mind 
an entire page, full of figures and objects and of 
their details, this to a degree of clearness never be- 
fore manifested by any human being, except in rare 
cases. He seems to have been able to draw the 
human figure, or anything else, in any position, and 
as easily as we write A, B, C. For, had that not 
been so, he could never have made the great number 
of drawings he did and which, though not all on 
the same level, are yet all of a high quality. 

He made 39 plates in illustration of Homer's 
"Iliad" and 34 of the "Odyssey"; of the works of 
Aeschylus he made 31 plates; of Dante's "Divine 
Comedy" he made 101; of the work of Hesiod he 
made 37, besides a great many others. All these 
are so full of invention and of charm of composi- 
tion, of truly expressive drawing, that one is 
astonished in contemplating such an output, made 
almost as a side issue, as it were. For he did also 
a large number of statues and groups in marble. 
Besides that, he did a lot of the finest work turned 
out by the Wedgwood Pottery Company, main- of 
which are gems of the highest beauty. 

But, leaving his skill as a draftsman out of the 
question, what is astonishing, especially and above 
all in the drawings of the "Iliad" and "Odyssey," 
is the way he seemed to have inherited the very 
psychology of the Greeks, and of the finest epoch 



of their culture. These drawings of Greek life are 
so redolent of the Greek spirit, as manifested in 
the finest Greek sculpture, has reliefs and vase- 
drawings, that one is inclined to have one's belief 
in a previous incarnation of the human soul 
strengthened in contemplating them. Nothing so 
wonderful and mysterious has ever happened be- 
fore or since in the world of art. Says Mr. Birn- 
baum : 

"Flaxman had a genuine flair for ringing the 
finest shades of sentiment out of the slightest 
Homeric episode, and when we turn the pages of 
one of the engraved folios in the dim shadows of 
a library our commonplaces disappear and we join 
the assemblies of the radiant gods of Olympus, 
follow the fortunes of the glorious heroes of Troy, 
mingle with the graceful companions of Nausica, 
mourn with Achilles over the body of the youthful 
Patroclus, or sail the perilous seas with crafty 
Ulysses. The pellucid beaut) - of the drawings is 
never meretricious. The lovely draperies with their 
slender folds, the subtly ordered combinations of 
figures, the economy of means employed, the Hel- 
lenic severity, tempered by Flaxman's rare sweet- 
ness, all these elements recall the highest periods of 
art, whereas the union of noble tenderness and dig- 
nified reticence exactly suited the temper of the 
sculptor's own era. . . . 

"In after years, when he was the artistic oracle 
of fashionable London, Flaxman assured his au- 
ditors that the most successful of his figures, dis- 
played in his illustrations of Homer, Aeschylus and 
Dante, were procured from innocent street vagrants 







Venus presenting Helen to Paris 
Illustration for Book III of the "Iliad,' by Homer 



132 



FLAXMAN'S DRAWINGS 




"Phemios chanting" before the suitors of Penelope" 
Illustrating Book I of Homer's "Odyssey" 



and similar natural and unsophisticated sources. 
The drawings are, indeed, instinct with inspiration 
and animation which only Nature can give, but he 
carefully studied classic sources as well. 

"The designs have the inexhaustible gift of sug- 
gestion that the old vase-drawings can boast of, but 
although he made their beauties his own, and his 
designs are archaeologically correct, they are never 
mere pastiches of Greek originals. He handles the 
antique in a wonderfully penetrating way as though 
he enjoyed some subtle affinity with Hellenism, and 
all his works are characterized by a serene vigor 
and placid elegance which easily justifies their uni- 
versal celebrity." 

We will go further than the above and say, on 
not one of the vases of Greece, that have come down 
to us, do we find such perfect outline drawing as 
in some of these Homeric drawings by Flaxman. 
Homer had to wait until this English sculptor ap- 
peared, to be adequately and sympathetically in- 
terpreted in illustrations. As to this the great 
painter Romney said: "I have seen the book of 
prints for the Odessey by our dear and admirable 
artist, Flaxman. They are simple, grand and pure ; 
I may say with truth, very fine. They look as if 
they had been made in the age when Homer wrote." 

We can, therefore, understand why the great 
sculptor, Canova, said to some Englishmen: "You 
come to Rome to admire my works while you pos- 
sess in Flaxman an artist whose designs excel in 
classic grace all that I am acquainted with in modern 
art." Fuseli, the Swiss artist; Byron, the poet; and 
Schlegel, the German aesthetician, highly praise 
them. And in more modern times Ingres, himself 
one of the greatest draftsmen that ever lived, 
praised them highly and painted Flaxman's portrait 



in his great decoration, "The Apotheosis of 
Homer," now in the Louvre. 

Perhaps had our museum authorities known all 
this they would have bought the whole set of these 
Homeric drawings instead of allowing them to be 
scattered and buying only a very few of them. 

Flaxman was born in 1755 and died in 1826. 
"The entire nation mourned him, and shortly after- 
wards Sir Thomas Lawrence delivered a eulogy on 
his deceased friend to the students of the Academy." 

The acquisition by this country of the 73 drawings 
is a precious and highly stimulating event in Amer- 
ican art. For their silent influence will be to help 
throw back still farther the now receding tide of 
brutal ugliness, commonplace realism and down- 
right degeneracy of so much of what is now called 
"Bolshi-Modernistic" art — bad in drawing, bad in 
composition and crapuleux in spirit — with which 
for a generation the world has been cunningly be- 
wildered and cynically afflicted by a number of 
aberrated and a number of commercial souls, to 
whom refined strength is effeminacy, and lack of 
brutality is dubbed "want of force," and who boil 
with rage at the very sight of a fine classic work, 
or one of common-sense beauty, like a Spanish bull 
at the sight of a red rag. For, to cite again the 
writer before quoted, and who treats these "mod- 
ernists" with gloves too velvety indeed : 

"To us the drawings which are now universally 
recognized to be Flaxman's most important works, 
have a special contemporary significance. They 
afford a kind of standard by which any artist might 
take the measure of his graphic ability. The power 
of Van Gogh, the theoretical importance of Picasso 
and the dignified failures of the post-impressionists 
have temporarily blinded us to obvious beauty. We 









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need something to liberate us from the tyranny of 
our more or less ugly art, and these superior draw- 
ings, incisive, suave, tender or voluptuous, vigorous 
yet serene, aerial in their delicacy, quiet in their 
loveliness and elegant in execution, like the playing 
of a Heifetz, a Casals, or the singing of Galli-Curci, 
will again exercise their imperishable influence and 
help to carry us back to a time when the highest 
form of civilized life was a manifestation of noble 
beauty." 

Xobody of common sense aims to force the world 
to go back to classic forms — before its disgust with 
the ugly will lead it to go back. No man of sense 
believes in the slavish following of antique forms- 
no great classicist like Flaxman ever did that. Nor 
did Canova or Thorwaldsen do it. The mania for 
the copying of someone, either classic or modern, 
is exhibited only by those simpletons who do not 
yet know that, as Emerson said : "There comes a 
time in the career of every man when he learns 
that envy is ignorance and imitation is suicide." 

But the standard of the Greeks — that is, that the 
creation of beauty alone is an excuse for the deflec- 
tion of energy from such basic labor as digging 
potatoes and carrying a hod — has always been up- 
held by the truly great artists, even up to this day. 
The choice by a misguided artist of an ugly subject 
and the "expression of its character," however ugly, 
may result in a clever piece of "craftsmanship," but 
never in a great work of art. And these drawings 
of Flaxman will powerfully help to swing the 
American public to demand beauty more than mere 



character expression in a work of art and so force 
the artists to supply, not antique, but every-day 
twentieth century beauty. 

Let us hope that all those clairvoyant American 
citizens who have purchased these drawings which 
the museums here failed to acquire, and which they 
should have snapped up as the carp at Fontaine- 
bleau do the crumbs that are thrown to them, will 
gradually make a gift of their purchases to that 
museum which showed the largest amount of wis- 
dom by purchasing the largest number of these 
drawings, so that they may finally be united again, 
as they were in the Hope collection in England, and 
exhibited in one room to be known as the "Homer" 
or "Flaxman Hall." . 

We offer to our readers a reproduction of a pen- 
cil portrait of Flaxman, by Sir Thomas Lawrence, 
his friend, which itself is a gem of pencil drawing; 
also four of the drawings of Flaxman. 

Figure 1, a magnificent composition, is illustra- 
tive of Aeschylus's Act V of "The Eumenides," 
showing "Minerva pacifying the furies who had 
pursued Orestes for the killing of Clytemnestra and 
Aegisthus in revenge for the murder of his father, 
Agamemnon." Apollo, who had defended him be- 
fore the Court of the Areopagus, stands beside 
Minerva, while Orestes stands behind her and be- 
fore the Court which had acquitted him. Minerva 
pacified the furies by promising that a shrine should 
be built to them on the Areopagus Hill. 
(Continued on page 181) 




I 



"The torture of the thieves in Hell'' 
Illustrating Chant XXIV of Dante's "Divine Comedy'' 




Star tile, lustre — Rhages, 13th century 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 



ASIATIC AKT 

PART III.— PERSIA 

By DR. ANANDA K. COOMARASWAMY 

(of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) 



IN speaking of Persian art, we shall confine 
ourselves to the arts of the Musalman period, 
subsequent, that is, to the year 622 A. D., the 
commencement of the Mohammedan era. Leaving 
aside the architecture, notwithstanding that this is 
the most important of the arts of Islam, we shall 
find that for a different reason we shall also have 
nothing to say of sculpture, for to all intents and 
purposes, Musalman sculpture is non-existent. This 
is a result of the well-known objection to the mak- 
ing of likenesses of living things, which is clearly 
expressed in Mohammedan scripture. It is in spite 
of this objection, on the other hand, that we find, 
an extensive development of painting — the illustra- 
tion of books and the decoration of pottery — in 
Persia. Rut it is a consequence of the objection 
referred to, that Persian painting should have re- 
mained from first to last — in sharp distinction from 
Indian and far Eastern painting- essentially a secu- 
lar girt: it is by rare exception that we meet with 
illustrations of such subjects as the Ascent of the 
Prophet, and even here, the Prophet's face is veiled. 
The beginnings of Persian painting take us back 
to Mesopotamia and Bagdad where we meet with a 
number of works, some in the Fatimid stvle of 



Egypt, and others of an Arabian character, and 
showing also some curious Indian influences. The 
MS. of Dioscorides, a medical treatise, of date 1222, 
leaves of which are in many collections, and the 
MS. of the Manafi-al-Hayawan in the Morgan 
collection are among the most precious and im- 
portant works of this period. The drawing is 
distinguished, vigorous and realistic; as Dr. Martin 
has remarked, "They give living pictures of the 
kaleidoscopic scenes of Bagdad, and depict all the 
phases of life from parturition to death with a 
truth, vivacity and fidelity to nature that is without 
parallel in the history of European art during the 
early Middle Ages." Artists of the same school 
decorated magnificently the Syrian glass vessels, 
bowls and mosque lamps of the same period and 
in the fourteenth century. 

But the Abbasid art of Bagdad was destroyed 
when the Khalifate was broken up by the Mongol 
conquests: Bagdad fell in 1258 A. D. But these 
events, so disastrous to Islamic culture, were also 
the foundation of Persian unity and political auton- 
omy, and coincide with the birth of Persian art as 
commonly understood. An important part of Per- 
sian literature, especially the full development of 



134 



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Sufi mysticism, belongs to the centuries follow ing 
the fall of Bagdad. Firdausi, however, who com- 
posed the great Persian epic, the Shah Nama, which 
became the favorite subject of the Persian illus- 
trator of books, had died already early in the 11th 
century, whilst the greatest Persian poets, Nizami, 
Jami, Rumi and Sadi, had also passed away before 
the end of the 13th century, so that, although Hafiz 
is later, the essential characteristics of Persian 
poetry were already fully determined. 

In Persian painting the far Eastern influences 
are at first very conspicuous: the Mongol Khans 
brought with them both Chinese artists and works 
of art. We see immediately that a change has come 
over the manner of drawing — the outline is now 
quite different, consisting of fine, nervous strokes, 
quickly made, in place of the more uniform and 
continuous line of the Bagdad school. The taste 
for drawing in grayish tones and a generally low- 
ered tonality appears at the same time ; the draw- 
ing, moreover, exhibits already those calligraphic 
and elegant tendencies which carried to extreme 
expressed the decadence of Persian art in the seven- 
teenth century. The finest monument of the Mon- 
gol period is to be recognized in the Jami-al- 
Tawarikh MS. of which a part is in London and 
part in Edinburgh. Another MS. of the same his- 
torical work is in a more definitely Persian style, 
showing how rapid was the assimilation of the 
Mongol elements. This is characteristic of the 
whole of the 14th and early 15th centuries. 

The art of the 15th century has been called 
Timurid, from the family name of the same Mongol 
dynasty — to which belonged the great Tamerlane 
(Timur) — of which a branch later on established 
itself in India, where they are known as the Mug- 
hals. These Timurids, "the most artistic princes 
that ever reigned in Persia," were lavish patrons 
of art and letters ; they possessed extraordinary 
libraries, and not only collected books but created 
them. Baisunghar (d. A. D. 1433) was the grand- 
son of Tamerlane. Under his patronage forty 



artists were employed in copying and illuminating 
MSS. By lavish presents and high salaries he re- 
tained the most accomplished calligraphers in his 
personal service. Naturally, the influence of Timu- 
rid patronage continues through a great part of the 
16th century. The newer dynasty, the Safavids, 
continued to employ the artists of their predecessors 
and to produce the most exquisite and costly 
volumes. We come now to the name of the most 
famous of Persian painters, the great Bihzad, court 
painter of Sultan Husain Mirza, who reigned in 
Khurasan (1473-1506), and of his successors, Shah 
Isma'il and Shah Tahmasp. The works of Bihzad 
are marvels of skill ; as a portrait painter he must 
be compared to Memling and Holbein. The dates 
for Bihzad are approximately 1450-1525; he lived 
in Herat and Tabriz. Herat was then a city of 
beautiful gardens and a centre of a highly sophis- 
ticated culture. Dr. Martin has drawn a charming 
picture of the master in his workshop : "Assuredly 
Bihzad had no studio such as European painters 
possessed, but simply a room with white walls 
whose only ornaments were texts from the Koran, 
written by the chief calligraphers of the East. On 
the floor were yellow straw mats, while in one 
corner were a few cushions and a carpet on which 
guests and admirers were invited to sit down. Be- 
yond the doorway, on which he often sat when the 
daylight in the chamber was insufficient, was a 
garden containing a great basin of placid water 
reaching up to the stone edge. Trees and bushes 
grew so densely that it was scarcely possible to pass 
between them. . . . Thousands upon thousands of 
roses grew on bushes and walls so closely that no 
green leaf, nothing but a mass of varied hues was 
visible. In such surroundings sat Bihzad day after 
day, handling a brush and pen finer than any used 
before or after." 

The fineness of the lines employed by Persian 
and some Mughal artists is indeed so extraordinary 
that the miniatures seem to have been executed 
under a magnifying glass, and it is said that brushes 




Battle from the Mahabharata — Jami-al-Ta\varikh, Mongol school, 1310 



136 



ASIATIC ART— PERSIA 




«?«&£ 



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Burning Idols — Mongol school, 14th century- • 
Author's collection 

of a single hair were sometimes used in India. 
These delicate lines and curves betray no tremor 
of the hands and no hesitation in intention, and 
witness to the self-command their makers must 
have possessed. In his preference for the portrai- 
ture of dervishes and teachers, and the neglect of 
the epic and warlike themes, Bihzad diverges to a 
considerable extent from the tradition of his art; 
in depicting sunny landscapes of the spring or 
summer, often with royal personages and beautiful 
ladies taking their pleasure amidst the flowers, he 
is more in accord with the general tendencies of the 
late Persian painting. How rarely this art is con- 
cerned with anything approaching the tragic or 
philosophic! It is really an art designed to give 
pleasure; in this limited aim it rarely fails to 
succeed. 

A famous painter, pupil of Bihzad, is Mirak, who 
was still alive in 1543. He shows more feeling for 
Chinese and Timurid art than Bihzad himself, 
whose taste was perhaps more serious and not to 
the same extent merely decorative. The pictures 
of Mirak possess an indescribable charm and 
allure; but in the unceasing sweetness of treatment 
we feel that we are already upon the eve of de- 
cadence. Mirak is associated with the school of 
Bokhara. It may be remarked that the Timurid 
turban has even folds with small projecting ends, 
the Bokhara turban very large with irregular folds, 
the Safavid turban is wound about a high pointed 
cap; these are convenient means of distinguishing 
styles and periods in some cases of doubt. 

Sultan Mohammed was again a pupil both of 



Bihzad and Mirak. The British Museum Nizami 
(MS. Or. 2265) is probably the finest 16th-century 
Persian MS. in existence, and contains the work of 
Mirak, Sultan Mohammed, and the' great calli- 
grapher Mirza Ali ; the picture of the Prophet's 
ascension to Heaven is a rare example of the treat- 
ment of a religious theme, and in a very grand 
style. 

In the time of Shah Abbas and his court painter 
Riza Abbasi, Persian art is actually in decadence. 
It has become an art of display much more than 
of feeling, and the brilliant draughtsmanship is 
acrobatic — in looking at one of these calligraphic 
figures, one remarks involuntarily, "How clever !" 
rather than "How fine !" All the figures are 
swathed in tightly-fitting garments evidently in the 
height of fashion; and the elegant ladies are sitting 
at their, ease on flowery lawns, where all is for the 
best in the best of all possible worlds. It is the 
world of Watteau, rather than of Benozzo Gozzoh. 
There are pretty girls reclining in indolent attitudes, 
and effeminate young men who much resemble the 
girls — there is nothing much more serious here than 
in the art of the magazine cover of the present day, 
although the mastery of method and sense of de- 
sign are, of course, infinitely superior in the Per- 
sian works. It is not in Persia, but in India in the 
late 16th and early 17th century, that Musalman 
pictorial art — in which the Persian elements are 
chiefly those of the school of Bihzad — is of real 
significance. 

The discovery of Persian pottery is a matter of 
recent years ; but already the products of excavation 
scattered through the museums of the world reveal 
the history, achievement and decadence of a bril- 
liant and distinguished art, all the more interesting 
because it is not an art of mere decoration, but of 
use. The origins of Persian pottery are to be 
sought in Egypt, Assyria and Babylonia. A Per- 
sian traveller in the eleventh century describes the 
lettuce white glaze of Egypt. In any case, the 
Fostat (Cairo) potteries, made by Arabian and 
Syrian workers, antedate any Persian work so far 
•recognized. It was at Bagdad, as we have already 
seen, that Persian art first attained to any full and 
rich development. Rakka, Rhages, Sultanabad in 
turn became great centres of production. Rakka 
potteries of the 10th or 11th centuries often exhibit 



'V 







Copper Bowl, 16th century 
Rothschild collection 



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the characteristic turquoise blue, and to the beauty 
of this color is often added that of iridescence due 
to decay. The forms of the pitchers and vases are 
graceful and varied. It is, however, at Rhages that 
Persian pottery was produced in its most remark- 
able forms — from the ruins of this city destroyed 
by the Mongols in 1221 have come innumerable 
bowls and fragments painted in polychrome by the 
same great artists who are responsible for the early 
Mesopotamian MSS. and for the splendid ornamen- 
tation of the 13th and 14th-century Syrian glass 
lamps and vessels. The figure-drawing is masterly 
to the last degree. The formulae employed by these 
artists were so entirely at their command that they 
seem to have been able to draw whatever they 
wished without the slightest hesitation and to endow 
the movements of their figures with an imperishable 
vitality. 

The employment of glazed pottery tiles, too, is 
very characteristic of the decoration of Persian 
buildings, and nothing can be more lovely than the 
turquoise blue dome of a mosque seen over a group 
of cypress trees, or more decorative than the in- 
scriptions in Cufic characters at its doors. Many 
of the earlier "star" tiles are painted in the same 
brilliant style as that of the Rhages pottery. 

Persian velvets and brocades exhibit two leading 
types, an earlier in which the geometrical construc- 
tion is severe and rigid, the compartments enclosing 
floral ornaments of the palmette or aster type, and 
a later, from the 14th or 15th century onwards 
where everything becomes more flexible and real- 





Persian Carpet — Kevorkian collection 



Dervi.sh from Bagdad — By Bihzad 
Martin collection 

istic. Figures are introduced — for example, of 
Laila and Majnun — and the tulip and fleur-de-lys, 
peach tree and cypress are constantly introduced. 
The influence and interaction with western produc- 
tions through the trade with Venice is well marked, 
while in India the production of silk brocades of 
more or less Persian character under the Mughals 
was greatly stimulated. The beautiful designs of 
Kashmir shawls, too, though elaborated in Kash- 
mir, go back to the wind-blown cypress of Persian 
art, which in the cone or mango form has spread 
all over India. 

The carpets of Persia might form the subject of 
many volumes. Apart from the simpler rugs of the 
nomadic tribes, it would seem that in Egypt and 
Bagdad the earlier coverings for floors and hang- 
ings for walls were elaborately designed and done 
in needlework. The date of the earliest woven pile 
carpets is quite uncertain, but probably the finest 
are those of the Timurid period. Indeed, through- 
out the 15th and 16th centuries in Persia, as well 
as the 17th in both Persia and India under the 
Mughals, the most magnificent carpets ever made 
were woven. It is mainly by comparison with the 
pictures that they can be dated; in fact, it is the 
painters who designed the carpets, just as even at 
the present day it is the draughtsman and not the 
weaver who creates the design of the Kashmir 
shawl. In the East, it is by no means always the 
{Continued on page 180) 



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NOTES OF THE BOOK WORLD 



By CHARLES HENRY DORR 



THE notable event in the book world for 
December was the dispersal of part one of 
the literary collection formed by Herschel 
V. Jones at Anderson's. 

It developed some surprises, and, as usual, certain 
rarities among these literary treasures did not 
realize the figures anticipated, and other gems 
soared upwards to the tune of spirited bidding and 
keen rivalry for their possession. 

Prices ruled at a high average, however, and 
numerous records were achieved during the three 
sessions of the sale. 

A number of the prizes, volumes more than three 
or four centuries old, were secured by Mr. George 
D. Smith, who was a frequent bidder for books of 
historic and romantic interest. 

Among these treasured items was the interesting 
old work in Latin, Saint Augustine's "City of God," 
a monument of the first press in Italy and printed 
at the Benedictine Monastery in 1467. This rare 
work was presented by the printers to their hosts, 
the Monks at Subiaco, with manuscript inscription. 
When printing the book, one page of the third leaf 
was omitted, and it was then filled up by hand, by 
Pannartz himself, for it was known that he was 
the scribe of the press. There is a copy of this rare 
work in the Morgan library, but none in the Huth 
or Hoe collections. The Jones copy brought $6,000, 
and I believe at that figure Mr. Smith obtained a 
bargain in this unique old copy of Saint Augustine, 
a gem for any library. 

Another work that I recall with interest was 
"Europe: a Prophecy," by William Blake, one of 
but two colored copies in America, and the other 
in the Morgan library. It is Blake's sequel to 
"America," and richly executed in gold and colors 
by the author-artist. This prized first edition of 
Blake was purchased by George D. Smith for 
$4,600. 

It is interesting to note that Blake's "America," 
which preceded his "Europe," and the rare first 
edition brilliantly colored in gold and bronzes by 
the author, was secured by A. W. S. Rosenbach, 
of Philadelphia, who paid $3,600 for this literary 
treasure. The other copy of this work in America 
is also in the Morgan collection. 

Both of these copies of William Blake brought 
record prices. 

The so-called Malermi Bible, beautifully illus- 
trated, and printed in Venice, in 1494, notable for 
its relation to the history of Italian Renaissance art, 
was secured by George D. Smith for $2,750, a 
record figure. 

There is an imperfect copy of this artistic trea- 



sure in the Vatican library, and a perfect copy in 
the library at Florence. 

There were several Dickens items of interest in 
part one of the Jones library, including original 
manuscripts, autograph letters and first editions. 

A presentation copy of the first edition of "The 
Cricket on the Hearth," from Dickens to George 
Cruikshank, was purchased by James F. Drake for 
$1,250. 

The top notch of the sale was attained by the 
early play, Gammer Gurton's "Needle," a ryght, 
pithy, pleasant and merie comedie, imprynted in 
Fleetestreat, by Thomas Colwell, 1575. It was 
secured by the G. A. Baker Company for $10,000. 
A copy of this play is in the Huntington library, and 
there is also one in the British Museum. 

I understand that the second division of the Jones 
literary collection will be dispersed this month, and 
the third portion will be offered at Anderson's in 
March. 

The famous Milton Comus, which has an interest- 
ing history, will doubtless prove a feature of the 
second part of this notable library. It will be re- 
called that it was once in the possession of Mr. 
Henry E. Huntington, who secured it from the 
Huth collection. 

The Elizabethan period is represented by the 
famous Shakespeare quartos. Milton's master- 
works and the Shakespearana will make the dis- 
persal of part two of the library an important event 
in the early new year. 



PERFECT COPIES IN DEMAND 

Not so very long ago, in the auction literary mart, 
the faulty condition of a book or treasured manu- 
script did not depreciate the price, if the item 
happened to be scarce and in demand by biblio- 
philes. It was the scarcity of the item, which 
governed its value, although of course a perfect 
copy is always to be desired. 

In a notable literary collection dispersed this 
season the uniform fine condition of nearly the en- 
tire library and of manuscripts and illuminated 
books dating back centuries ago, occasioned con- 
siderable comment among collectors. But it illus- 
trated the fact that the bibliophile of to-day is pay- 
ing more attention to the condition of rare books 
and early manuscripts, and perfect copies are more 
in demand and bring the highest prices when 
offered at public sale. The collector is desirous of 
possessing perfect copies for his library, and if a 

(Continued on page 182) 

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Adaptation of the French style which utilizes the recesses formed by the 
projection of the mantel breast 



THE FRENCH PERIODS AND THEIR 

APPLICATION TO THE DECORATION 

OF AMERICAN HOMES 

Bv RAOUL HEITTEX 



NEVER in the history of the decorative arts 
were decoration of the house and tire fur- 
nishing so elaborate and luxurious as in 
the 17th and 18th centuries. The splendor and 
majesty of the court of Louis XIV., the exquisite 
refinement of manners of that of Louis XV., and 
the charm and poetry of the short reign of Louis 
XVI. and Marie-Antoinette — that only period in 
modern history when philosophers and writers had 
a predominant influence upon the ideas and dreams 
of their epoch — were the motive of the constant 
endeavor of the great artists of those past centuries 
and' the cause of the many masterpieces which, 
nowadays, solicit our admiration. 

Much is known of the life of the court and of 
the nobility of those times. Fontainebleau, Chan- 
tilly, Compiegne, Versailles and the Trianons have 
successively been the stage of numerous splendors 
which the world shall see no more. 

Not only these royal dwellings were of a pro- 
found luxuriance of design and execution but the 
palaces of the nobility were of the same superlative 
order. The royalty and higher nobility were bound 
with very close liens and sometimes the dwellings 



of the latter were the envy of the monarchs them- 
selves. 

But there were also throughout France a great 
many nobles of smaller rank, who lived on their 
lands. Traveling in coach or en horseback was 
most uncomfortable and unsafe at the time and 
many a nobleman made the journey to the palace 
of Versailles but once. 

We now realize that all the life of the country 
was not that of some of the courts. The numerous 
beautiful chateaux and mansions everywhere in 
France which are still in a splendid state of preser- 
vation, tell us better than any chronicle the life of 
the times. 

During the whirlwind of the Revolution all 
chateaux of the nobility were declared to be "na- 
tional property" and as such sold at auction. When 
the turmoil was over and the emigres and their 
families were allowed to return to their country, 
most of those chateaux were bought by old French 
families and transformed into country residences. 

The tourists and travellers do not realize how 
extensively this occurred. They have seen in France 
the museums and palaces, now national properties 



143 



II 



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MODERN FRENCH DECORATION 
SHOULD BE AN INTERPRETATION 
OF THE PAST RATHER THEN A 
SERVILE COPY 



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and which were formerly the residences of the 
kings. They have admired at Versailles, the Tri- 
anons, Compiegne the ever beautiful, elaborate, 
sumptuous furniture, priceless treasures which 
adorned these palaces — and which were made mere- 
ly for the personal enjoyment of the kings or to 
please the fancy of their favorites. 

Amongst these Sir Richard Wallace gathered a 
collection to which his name shall forever be at- 
tached. These and the marvels of which we spoke 
before are priceless objects made only for one. 

The "ton" was then given by the court, but there 
were also at the time numerous noblemen who 
followed the same mood on a smaller and more 
modest scale. The tourist and student may tind 
in Paris and all throughout France old mansions 
and country residences in which one feels, as soon 
as he enters, the very charm and inner feeling of 
the period above named. Simplicity, harmony, sub- 
ordination of the details of the "ensemble" have 
ever been the characteristics of the French taste, 
and perhaps still more those of the latter part of 
the 18th century, known as the Louis XVI. period. 
Exquisiteness, extreme refinement and discreetness 
in ornamentation, softness in colors were also the 
rules followed by the decorators of that time, whose 
main endeavor it was to make the beauty of a room 
depend upon the proportions and dispositions, so 
that instead of attracting the whole attention, the 
walls be a background that would concur to set off 
the attractiveness of the distinguished company. 

Owing to this misunderstanding, the idea has been 
spread that French decoration and furniture of the 
18th century was showy, factitious, necessarily ex- 
pensive and uncomfortable, when no other country 
has done so much for the comfort and charm of 
informal life as France at the time of Louis XVI. ; 
when the king and queen themselves enjoyed the 
charm of the simple country life and the poetry of 
nature. 

The modern French decorators are not merely 
copyists of the old. They applied to the solution 
of new problems the same spirit as that of the old 
masters and so the modern French decoration is 
rather an interpretation of the works of the past 
than .a servile copy. Nothing tends to a better 
adaptation to the decoration of American country 
homes than the Louis XVI. period and some houses, 
recently decorated and furnished in the taste of the 
late 18th century, will give an opportunity to show 
how the French decorators of to-day have inter- 
preted the formulas of the old masters. 

In the French room, the fireplace has always 
been the centerpiece of the room, and next to it 
windows and doors are used as decorative centers. 
Mantlepieces have sometimes of late been excluded, 
with no small consequences for the aspect of the 



room: the fireplace being the centerplace around 
which the company preferably gathers. 

In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance they 
were of huge size, the opening being large enough to 
allow a large company to receive the warmth of the 
flame of the burning wood. During the 17th cen- 
tury they were reduced in size and known at the 
time as "cheminee d'appui." 

Nowadays, although very seldom needed, as we 
have undoubtedly better ways of heating than two 
or three centuries ago, we have kept the fireplace 
as an ornamental and useless centerpiece and almost 
in all cases, until recently, set aside the unmistakably 
ugly and inartistic radiator. 

As the lack of mantlepiece is very often prej- 
udicial to the aspect of the living-room, many a 
trial has been attempted to preserve the appearance 
of the decorative mantlepiece and combine it with 
our modern system of heating. 

According to the French taste it is right to have 
a marble framing for the mantlepiece, for wood or 
any other soft material may warp or split on ac- 
count of the heat. A good way to combine both 
practical and artistic wants is to set the radiator 
right into the fireplace and to fill the whole opening 
with an iron-wrought "grille" of good decorative 
character. 

A variation of this may be obtained when the 
owner's wish is to combine both systems of heating, 
that is to say, to keep the mantle as an open fire- 
place that could be utilized when needed and also 
to use the mantle as a register or radiator. In this 
case the fireplace must be left wide open and the 
radiators put on each side of it, back of the facing. 
This facing may, then, be treated in a coved shape 
on which a symmetrical ornament would form a 
"grille" through which the heat radiates. 

Very often, especially in the country houses, the 
radiators are set in front of the windows with the 
good result of warming the air that comes through. 
This disposition is very successful when the win- 
dows are put in a recess so that the radiator fills 
the space and does not project very much in the 
room. The low radiator may then be utilized as a 
window seat, the seat being of wood with caned 
or grilled panels ; loose cushions piled on the top 
making a very informal and studiolike arrangement. 

The irregularities of construction may in many 
cases be utilized to advantage in the decoration of 
a room, especially recesses in the walls. 

In the decoration of a dining-room I have seen in 
Paris, another treatment has been used for the 
radiators. They were originally put between the 
windows ; they have been left there and an interest- 
ing arrangement has been built to cover them up ; 
the radiator is set behind the ornamental grill and 
the space above is used as an oven to warm the 



146 



THE FRENCH PERIODS 



plates, this disposition having the advantage of being 
at once practical and very artistic. 

In another dining-room, the projection of the 
mantel breast has allowed to have on either side of 
it a large closet fitted with glass shelves in the upper 
part, which was used as a china closet. 

In another case an eighteen-inch recess in the 
wall of a bed-room has been used as follows : The 
cornice has been run straight, so as to have a 
regular ceiling and the recess used as an alcove for 
the bed. It is crowned with an arch and the light 
draperies around it make a simple and very effective 
treatment for a bed chamber. 

Windows — After years of overdecorated win- 
dows, overstuffed windows and portieres presenting 
an incumbrance of heavy curtains, lace curtains, 
shades and brise bise, the decorators have now come 
to the extreme simplicity of olden times. 

When the sashes of the windows are flush with 
the wall the simplest way is to hang the curtains 
from a metal rack set at the top of the trim. A 



more decorative treatment is furnished by having 
on top of the same curtains a scalloped or draped 
valence covering the rack. The valence is some- 
times crowned with a small cornice matching in de- 
sign and shape the woodwork of the room. 

When there is a recess in the wa'll a much better 
way of decorating a window is to treat the trim 
as a part of the woodwork and have the curtains 
hang behind, reserving inside all the necessary 
space, which will contain the fulness of the curtains 
when folded. 

It has been our endeavor to show that the French 
periods rightly understood, applied in a proper way, 
are of an easy adaptation to the decoration of 
American country houses — that the works of the 
past have not been done only for the kings and 
high nobles, and that — whether for the great nobles 
or for a nobility of lesser rank, whether in the royal 
palaces or in the small country residences — the 
French decorators of the 18th century have ever 
maintained in whatever circumstances the same 
standard of discreetness, harmony and refinement. 




Decoration in the French style need not be showy or factitious 



:niil!!l!!l!llll!!lll!! 







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THE EDWIN BOOTH MEMORIAL 



IN Gramercy Park, this city, on November 13, 
1918, was unveiled a bronze heroic statue of 
Edwin Booth, the greatest Actor who ever 
trod the American stage. It was the anniversary 
of his birth. 

What invests this act with extraordinary im- 
portance is this — that it is the first statue erected 
in this country to an Actor, who is here shown at 
the age of thirty-five, about to begin Hamlet's 
soliloquy on life and death. 

The cost of this monument was met by voluntary 
contribution by the members of "The Players" Club. 
The sculptor was Edmond T. Quinn, and the 
architect of the pedestal was Edwin S. Dodge. The 
price paid Mr. Quinn was $25,000; the Club's other 
expenses were about $2,000 ; making the total cost 
$27,000. Here is the 

PROGRAMME 
"Blow, Blow, Thou Winter Wind," from "As You 
Like It" — Sung by a Quartette, directed by 
C. L. Stafford. 




Statue of Edwin Booth — Edmond T. Quinn, sculptor 
Gramercy Park, New York 

Invocation — Rev. George T. Houghton, D.D. 
Presentation of Memorial to The Players — By 
Howard Kyle, Secretary of the Executive 
Committee of the general committee which 
made the monument possible. 
John Drew, the veteran actor, then spoke as 
follows : 

"Mr. President, it is with a sense of deep grati- 
tude that we meet vou at the base of this finished 



memorial, designed to perpetuate the memory of 
our common benefactor — a great actor — the en- 
chantment of whose art is still an abiding influence 
in many of our lives. The Committee, speaking for 
the membership of the Club, whose voluntary con- 
tributions have met the cost entailed, have the honor 
to ask that The Players now accept the monument, 
free from encumbrances, and assume the duty of 
its preservation. In doing this, we are confident 
the beauty of the figure and pedestal will elicit from 
you a tribute to the sculptor and the architect, and 
the warmest appreciation is due the trustees of 
Gramercy Park, without whose full cooperation our 
end could not have been realized." 
Unveiling of Memorial — By Edwin Booth Gross- 
man, grandson of Edwin Booth. 
Acceptance of the Memorial on behalf of The 
Players and acknowledgment of ihe coopera- 
tion of the Trustees of Gramercy Park. 
Response on behalf of the Trustees — By John D. 
Pine of the Trustees, in place of Stuyvesant 
Fish, its Chairman, who could not attend on 
account of absence from the city. 
Appreciation of the character and art of Edwin 

Booth — By Prof. Brander Matthews. 
"Who is Sylvia?" from "Two Gentlemen of 
Verona" — By the Quartette. 



The statue, of dull green bronze, on a dull green 
stone pedestal, stands in the centre of the Park, 
looking south — as all portrait-statues should look — 
in order to always have the face in the sunlight. 
Circular flower-beds have been made around, in 
front, and in back of the statue. 

Those who often saw Booth, and 'earned to love 
him, between 1863 and 1903 — the year of his death 
— and remember the size, the bulk and lines of his 
body and face, can find only words of praise for the 
work of Mr. Quinn. From the primary and 
fundamentally necessary standpoint of truth, it is 
one of the best portrait statues ever erected in this 
country. Truth radiates from every inch of the 
work. We feel it is Booth, as nearly so as it will 
perhaps be possible to represent any man. 

This truth is the necessary element of every 
successful statue. This is the universal element. 
The element that every normal mind demands in 
every work of art put forth by an artist in order 
to captivate the hearts of his fellow citizens. This 
is the element without which no work of art can 
arrive at a permanent popularity, and therefore im- 
mortality. This element of universality has not 
been obscured in this statue by any childish Rodin- 
esque departure from nature by any sort of cheap 
and easily achieved "deformation of the form." The 
artist was not pushed by a call of ego-mania to do 
(Continued on page 188) 



147 







PORTRAIT OF MY WIFE 

BY LOUIS BETTS 

Awarded the Thomas A. Proctor Prize 



t 



148 







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Mrs. B. with Ralph and Franklin — By Marv Fairchild Low 



THE ACADEMY WINTEK EXHIBITION 



THE winter exhibition of the National 
Academy opened on December 11th and 
will continue until January 2nd, 1919. 
There are on exhibition 269 paintings and 53 
pieces of sculpture. 

The Carnegie Prize of $500, for the most 
meritorious oil-painting in the exhibition as a 
whole, was awarded to John F. Carlson's "Winter 
Rigor"; the Thomas R. Proctor Prize of $200, for 
the best portrait, was awarded to Louis Betts for 
his "Portrait of My Wife"; the "Isidor Medal" 
for the best composition painted by an American 
artist thirty-five years of age or under, went to A. 
W- Blondheim for his "Decoration"; the "Airman 
Prize" of $1,000, for a Figure or Genre painting 
by an American artist, was given to Victor Higgins ; 
the "Altaian Prize" of $500, for a Figure or Genre 
painting by an American artist, went to Leopold 
Seyffert for his "Lacquer Screen"; the Julia A. 
Shaw Memorial Prize of $300, for the best work 
produced by a woman, was awarded to Evelyn B. 
Longman for her statue, "The Future" ; the Eliza- 
beth N. Watrous Gold Medal, for a work of sculp- 
ture, without restriction, was accorded to Charles 
Grafty for his bust of "Childe Hassam" ; the Helen 
Foster Barnett Prize, for the best sculpture by an 



artist under thirty-five years of age, was given to 
Leo Friedlander for his "Mother and Infant Her- 
cules." 

The exhibition is of a very good quality. There 
are no extremes. There are no great masterpieces 
or any inept or insane creations such as have found 
their way into the Academy-shows of the past, for 
which the normal citizen is no doubt grateful. 

But while there are no astonishing works, there 
is a notable evidence of one gain: the artists seem 
to have gone back somewhat to a realization of the 
truth that beauty of composition is the first requisite 
in any enduring work of art. So that there are 
fewer "stunts" at mere ping-ponging of pigment 
over poorly designed canvases, and many more 
than usual of real pictures with beautiful and 
therefore charming and lovable patterns. There 
are many tender works fit to embellish any home 
and worthy of being purchased by such of our citi- 
zens as feel like encouraging our American artists. 



We noted the following as worthy of special 
notice: In sculpture — a marble bust of "Prof. H. 
F. Osborn," by Chester Beach, excellent ; a medal 



149 




"%*& 



WINTER RIGOR 

BY JOHN F. CARLSON 

Awarded the Carnegie Prize 



150 











R^T S 



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THE ACADEMY WINTER EX1 IHWTH >X 



151 



for "Bide-A-Wee Home," three dogs, by Laura 
Gardin (Fraser), charming; "Caprice," head of a 
child carved in wood, very clever; "Ten Portraits," 
small medallions in bronze, excellent; "Mother and 
Infant Hercules," by Leo Friedlander, recalls too 
much the work of Paul Manship and of the Greek 
archaic, no future life in that path; "Theresa," 
charming small mask by D. C. French; "The Light 
That Failed," by C. Scarpitta ; "Simpson Lyle, 
Esq.," bust by A. H. Atkins; "Ignazio Puccino 
Montana 2d," by P. Montana, charming bust of a 
baby; "Bronze Head," by A. Piccirilli ; bust of 
"Childe Hassam," by Charles Grafly, excellent, even 
for Grafly; "The Future," by Evelyn B. Longman, 
life-size nude girl, very well copied from life and 
deserving of the Shaw Memorial Prize, but lacks 
real style and significance, clever but still feminine ; 
"On the Summit," by Edmund T. Ouinn, a small 
but good bronze figure of a woman buffeted by the 
wind. A beautiful, significant and savant piece of 
sculpture is "To Our Fallen Heroes," by C. L. 
Hinton, a third life-size nude woman running to 
offer a crown to our returning heroes. 



Among the paintings we noted the following: 
"Procession, Chartres Cathedral," by William F. 
Kline; "Sand Beach and Cliffs," by Dewitt Par- 
shall; "September Moonlight," by George H. Bo- 
gert ; "Gunsight Pass," by Arthur T. E. Powell ; 
"The Big Hill," by Roy Brown ; "Winter, Belmont," 
by A. T. Hibbard; "A Congo Kitchen," by Johanna 
K. W. Hailman ; "In the Spar Yard, East Glouces- 
ter," by Anna Fisher ; "The Morning Xews," by 
Gretchen W. Rogers ; "October Morning," by 
Leonard Ochtman ; "The Desert, New Mexico," by 
A. L. Groll; "The Valley," by Hobart Nichols; 
"Morning in the Harbor," by Charles Morris 
Young; "Hackensack Meadows," by Wm. J. Baer; 
"The Dust of Battle," by Charles S. Chapman; 
"Waterloo Place," by Robert Spencer; "Portrait of 
Mrs. Richard F. Maynard," by Richard F. May- 
nard ; "The Enchanting Hour," by Louis F. Ber- 
neker ; "New Wakefield," by George H. Smillie ; 
"Portuguese Woman," by Lotiise L. Heustis ; 
"Autumn on the Home Pond," by R. V. V. Sewell ; 
"Winter on the Litchfield Hills," by A. T. Van 
Laer; "Spring," by Edward F. Rook; "Salem Bay, 
Massachusetts," by Charles Hopkinson ; "Gray 
Weather," by Henry B. Snell ; "A Busy Harbor," 
by Jane Peterson ; "The Waning Year, Blue Moun- 
tain Lake," by Gustave Wlegand; "Resting Fire- 
side," by E. Irving Couse ; "The Wind Flurry," by 
Charles C. Curran; "And There Was Light," by 
W. Ritschel ; "Winter Rigor," by John F. Carlson ; 
"Study in Blues," by Maud M. Mason ; "House by 



the Stream," by Jonas Lie; "Springtime," by 
Charles Bittinger ; "Greater Love Hath No Man 
Than This, That He Give Up His Life for Others," 
by Gilbert Gaul; "Night," by Ernest Albert; "A 
Day in Spring," by H. Bolton Jones; "Reflection," 
by Kyohei Inukai ; "The Brook, Autumn," by 
Charles Rosen ; "Morning in the Connecticut 
Valley," by Wm. H. Howe; "Under Midsummer 
Skies," by G. Glenn Newell ; "James B. Taylor, 
Jr.," by William Thome; "Sun Behind the Hem- 
locks," by Walter L. Palmer; "Coming Storm," by 
Wm. H. Lippincott; "Heloise," by Oscar Miller; 
"From the Garden in June," by Maude M. Mason; 
"Victory," by Will H. Low; "Riverside Drive," by 
William A. Coffin ; "Autumn Hills," by Eliot Clark ; 
"Noon, Wakefield, R. I.," by R. W. Van Boskerck; 
"Mrs. B. with Ralph and Franklin," by Mary Fair- 
child Low; "Coast of Maine," by Cullen Yates; 
"The Rustic Gate," by Colin Campbell Cooper; 
"The Spanish Brazero," by Dines Carlsen ; "Octo- 
ber," by Emil Carlsen ; "Snake Hill," by Reynolds 
Beal; "The Interview," by F. S. Church; "After- 
noon Stroll," by Edward Dufner; "The Fan," by 
W. A. Kirkpatrick ; "Central Park and the Plaza," 
by William A. Coffin ; "November Woodland," by 
G. Glenn Newell; "Decoration," by Adolph W. 
Blondheim; "The Mountaineer," by Carl Rungius; 
"White Cottage in Moonlight," by Howard Russell 
Butler; "Morning," by John W. Bentley; "Eagle 
and Shark," by Howard Russell Butler; "Portrait 
of Albert M. Todd, Esq.," by Kenyon Cox ; "The 
Old Tower of Gloucester," by Paul Cornoyer ; "The 
Little Village," by George Wharton Edwards ; "A 
December Morning," by Bruce Crane ; "The White 
Morning," by Walter L. Palmer; "Chrysanthe- 
mums," by Dorothy Ochtman ; "Portrait, Edward 
D. Smedley," by W. T. Smedley; "Portrait of 
Elizabeth," by Sergeant Kendall ; "October Clouds," 
by Henry Kenyon; "Portrait of My Wife," by 
Louis Betts; "Portrait of Ensign Stanley T. Cur- 
ran," by Charles C. Curran ; "Mrs. O. and Chil- 
dren," by Mary Fairchild Low ; "Evening's Home 
Coming," by Wm. H. Howe ; "Over in Goshen," 
by Ben Foster; "Mademoiselle De Grand," by E. 
C. Phelps ; "II Tricolore," by S. A. Guarino ; "The 
Print," by Francis C. Jones; "Evening, Wakefield, 
R. I.," by R. W. Van Boskerck; "Portrait of G. 
Glenn Newell," by J. Campbell Phillips; "Golden 
Moonlight," by Birge Harrison ; "Jungle Tigers," 
by W. H. Drake. 

All of these have some quality that makes them 
worthy either of our love, our admiration or our 
respect. Some are very beautiful in composition, 
some of unusual technical delicacy and charm. 
Therefore we repeat: the average quality of the 
exhibition is good and promises well for the future. 




Early Queen Anne chairs and secretary 



Courtesy of Stair & Andrew 



THE STYLES OF CHARLES II., WILLIAM AND 
MARY, AND QUEEN ANNE 



DURING the long reign of Louis XIV. (from 
1643 of the Commonwealth to the reign of 
1715), corresponding nearly to the period 
Charles II., James II., William and Mary, and 
Queen Anne, England became decoratively sub- 
servient to France and Holland, and the square and 
flat Elizabethan and Jacobean furniture shapes 
were replaced by Dutch twists and French cabi- 
noles. Even during the Jacobean period gate-leg 
tables with their slender turned legs had been in- 
troduced. In 1660, when Charles II. returned to 
England after his long exile in France, he brought 
back with him French manners and tastes, and dur- 
ing the next half century the style of Louis XIV. 
was dominant at the court and in the royal palaces 
of England, and was followed or imitated by the 
more fashionable of the English nobility. 

The decorative surroundings of Charles II. were 
luxurious to a degree previously unknown in Eng- 
land. The bedrooms and antechambers of his fair 
friends, such as Castlemaine and Portsmouth, made 
duchesses by him, were among the sights of London, 
and very quickly swallowed up the 60,000 francs a 
year that Charles received from Louis XIV. The 
diarist Evelyn was particularly moved by the silver 
furniture in the apartments of the Duchess of Ports- 
mouth, a French woman, Louise de la Kerouaille, 
in the secret service and pay of Louis XIV., and by 
her new French tapestries (Gobelins) which he 



describes as "incomparable imitations of the best 
paintings, far beyond anything that I had ever be- 
held. Some pieces had Versailles, St. Germain, 
and other palaces of the French King, with hunt- 
ing-figures and landscapes, exotic fowls and all to 
the life ready done." 

Nell Gwyn, another of the royal mistresses, had 
a silver bedstead with embossed representations of 
the king's head, slaves, eagles, crowns, cupids, and 
Jacob Hall, the tight-rope dancer. The king's head 
weighed 197 ounces and the other ornaments 2168 
ounces, costing altogether £906. Several pieces of 
silver furniture, still preserved at Knole, are illus- 
trated by Latham in his English Homes. 

The most prominent English architect of the 
period was Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723), who 
rebuilt a large part of London after the great fire 
of 1666. His most famous building was St. Paul's 
Cathedral. He is said never to have visited Italy, 
but was in Paris in 1665, returning thence as he 
himself says "with all France on paper." While in 
Paris, he met the Italian architect Bermini, who 
gave him a glimpse only of designs he was then 
making for the faqade of the Louvre. Wren said 
afterwards that he would have "given his skin" for 
a chance to copy them. 

Upon the accession of William and Mary, Wren 
was commissioned with the enlargement of Hamp- 
ton Court Palace, and constructed the existing suite 



152 



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THE STYLES OF CHARLES II.. WIL1 IAM AND MARY, AND QUEEN ANNE 



153 



of State apartments in avowed imitation of the 
splendor of Versailles. Hampton Court is fifteen 
miles southwest of London, is open to the public 
daily, and should be visited and studied by every- 
one interested in English domestic architecture and 
decoration. 

An important room at Hampton Court is Queen 
Anne's chamber, with elaborate four-poster in crim- 
son Genoa velvet, walnut chairs, benches and stools 
to match, all very good Louis XIV. in style. The 
mural paintings, each 20 by 35 feet, picture Queen 
Anne and Prince George in allegorical scenes, with 
Europe, Asia, Africa and America come to offer 
homage. They were painted by Antonio Verrio, 
an Italian summoned to England by Charles II. to 
help revive the Mortlake tapestry works, whose 
talents were from the first diverted in another 
direction. LTitil his death in 1707 he was kept con- 
stantly busy decorating ceilings and walls. His 
earliest work at Windsor was less flamboyant in 
color and design than his later manner that drew 
from the Pope the couplet : 

"On painted ceilings you devoutly stare, 

Where sprawl the saints of Verrio and Laguerre." 

Laguerre w5s a French painter who assisted 
Verrio in his portrayal of gods and goddesses, 
Caesars, columns and pilasters, nymphs, satyrs, 
muses, virtues, gephyrs, cupids, etc.. drawn from 
Roman history and mythology, together with 
apostles and saints and their persecutors, from 
sacred and legendary history. One of the best ex- 
amples of Verrio's work are the paintings on the 
walls and ceilings of the King's (William's) Great 
Staircase at Hampton Court, of which a contem- 
porary poet said : 

". . . Great Verrio's hand hath drawn 

The gods in dwellings brighter than their own." 

But the guide-book of Hampton Court, by Ernest 
Law, speaks of these paintings as "meretriciously 
magnificent — a good specimen of that gaudy French 
taste which was first imported into England by 
Charles II. and his courtiers, and finally triumphed 
in the reign of William and Mary over our less 
pretentious, but purer and more picturesque native 
style." 

The most famous residence built during the reign 
of Queen Anne was Blenheim, tribute of a grateful 
nation to the Duke of Marlborough. For years 
under Charles II. and James II. England had played 
second fiddle to Louis XIV., and under William 
had struggled against him ineffectually. When at 
last, under Anne in 1704, came the overwhelming 
victory of Blenheim, Englishmen went mad with 
relief and joy. The Queen endowed the Duke with 
the Royal and Historic Honour of Woodstock, 
covering some 22,000 acres, and Parliament was 



willing to spend half a million pounds to house him 
suitably. 

I agree with Sir Joshua Reynolds that the archi- 
tect Sir John Nanbrugh executed his commission 
magnificently, in spite of the fact that Horace 
Walpole speaks of Blenheim as "one of the ugliest 
places in England." It is about eight miles from 
Oxford and is open to the public in summer on 
Tuesdays and Fridays from 12 to 2. Especially 
interesting are the three state-rooms in the style of 
Louis XIV., illustrated in Latham's English Homes, 
that contain contemporary tapestries picturing the 
Duke's victories, woven by Josse de Vos, who also 
wove the "Apollo and the Muses," in the New York 
Public Library. In one of the three rooms is a 
portrait of the present American Duchess, Consuelo, 
by Carolus Duran. 

Another monument of the period is Kensington 
Palace in London, part of which was built by Sir 
Christopher Wren for William and Mary, and in 
which both sovereigns died, as well as Queen Anne 
and her husband, Prince George of Denmark. 

Wren was wonderfully fortunate or wise in the 
choice of his assistants. Most remarkable among 
them was the carver Grinling Gibbon, whose work 
in wood and stone has never been surpassed, and 
was not equalled by that of any artist at the court 
of Louis XIV. He carved cherubs, foliage, birds, 
flowers, shells and fish in great variety and extra- 
ordinary complexity. There are splendid examples 
of his work at Hampton Court, Kensington, St. 
Paul's and the Library of Trinity College at Ox- 
ford, and few of England's wealthy men who built 
during the fifty years of Gibbon's activity were 




Bureau in the style of William and Mary 



154 



THE STYLES OF CHARLES II., WILLIAM AND MARY, AND QUEEN ANNE 



satisfied when the famous decorative sculptor was 
not represented in at least one of their rooms. This 
meant large workshops and many helpers, and also 
many more or less independent imitators. Gibbon's 
favorite woods were pear, cedar and lime, especially 
the last. 

During the reign of William and Mary the Dutch 
influence was, of course, particularly strong, and 
the importations of furniture from Holland were 
many. 

During the reign of Charles II. walnut furniture 
came into common use in England for the first 
time, walnut being more suitable for the twists and 
reversed curves that, in oak, on the cross grains are 
likely to chip. The frame and linings of cabinet 
work continued to be made of oak, but outer sur- 
faces were veneered with walnut and had applied 
mouldings of walnut. Caning also came into 
fashion. For wainscoting oak continued to be the 
predominant wood, with cedar also used for doors. 
When the woodwork was painted or gilded, as was 
common, pine was usually substituted because 
cheaper. 

About 1675, clocks and small tables began to be 
ornamented with marquetrie laid down as veneer. 
At first the designs were of Italian inspiration, 
acanthus-leaved arabesques and birds inlaid in 
brown and buff woods, and later, flowers and birds 
in the more realistic Dutch style. The two styles 
amalgamated toward the end of William's reign, 
and then by degrees the marquetrie became merely 
an intricate series of fine scrolls. 



The standard type of small oak table in the last 
half of the seventeenth century was the "gate-leg," 
few examples of which date from earlier than the 
reign of Charles II. Even in the larger sizes for 
dining-room use, it is comparatively light of appear- 
ance and lacks the massiveness of the Elizabethan 
and Jacobean square and rectangular tables. The 
increased use of small tables is attributed to the 
introduction of tea into England, and the social 
drinking of tea, coffee and cocoa. Card-playing also 
became the fashion during the reign of Charles II. 

The earlier chests of drawers were comparatively 
small, usually with raised panels or mouldings, and 
with bracketed corners or ball-feet. Later the 
drawers were mounted on twisted or turned legs 
fixed to a shallow plinth or joined near the ground 
by shaped stretchers. The "high boys" or "tall 
boys" that began to appear during the reign of 
Queen Anne are the response to a demand for more 
storage space. They were made in two sections, 
upper and lower, for convenience in moving and 
grace of line. 

Of the late Stuart period as a whole (1660-1714) 
it may be said that it is distinguished by the sub- 
stitution for Elizabethan and Jacobean straight lines 
and rich, flat and low-relief ornament, of Baroque 
curves and ornament in high, real or painted relief ; 
of the styles of Charles II., William and Mary, and 
Queen Anne, individually, that they are in no sense 
developed and perfected styles like that of Louis 
XIV., but nevertheless often interesting and beauti- 
ful, especially when not over-pretentious. 






The chairs at either side are William and Maty ; 
the centre chair is James II. 








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480 Primro» Road 

nm. wit m* 



PRINTING IN COLOK 



THE art of Printing in Color from an en- 
graved metal plate passed through many 
years before it reached its final goal in the 
18th century. Both France and England were 
taking great interest in its development, both finally 
obtaining their objective, but in different ways. 
France being the first to arrive, we will endeavor 
to describe in a general way their method of pro- 
cedure. Attention must be first drawn to the fact 
that their finest printing has been with aquatint- 
plates, employing three in their earlier printing, in- 




Courtesy of M. Knoedler & Co. 

Miss Farren, Countess of 'Derby 

Stipple engraving by F. Bartolozzi after the painting by 

Sir Thomas Lawrence. Published Jan. 1, 1792 

creasing the number as more colors were required. 
The three plates mentioned were for the three 
primary colors, Red, Blue, Yellow, superimposing 
one over another, where the combination would re- 
sult in the sought-for color. This process was the 
invention of an artist named James Christopher Le 
Blon, who, although of French extraction, was born 
at Frankfort-on-the-Main, May, 1667. He lived, 
as many of the artists did at that time, a wandering 
life, receiving most of his training at Zurich. From 
there he journeyed to Rome, finally leaving that 
city with a Dutch friend to live in Holland, set- 
tling down there as a miniature painter at Amster- 
dam in the early part of the 18th century. It 
was here that he learned about the Isaac Newton 



theory, that the variegated hues of the spectrum of 
white light are merely combinations of certain pri- 
mary colors, which are simple and uncompounded, 
i. e., are not the product of any other combination. 
He held that all other tints and shades in nature are 
the result of combinations of these in varying pro- 
portions. He was of the opinion that there were 
about seven of these primary colors, whilst Hooke, 
another scientist, held that there were but two, Scar- 
let and Blue. The Newtonian color theory was sub- 
sequently modified to the present one, that there are 
three color-sensations which can be represented by 
Red, Blue and Yellow. Le Blon seems to have been 
attracted to this idea, and has been given the credit 
of having first applied it to the processes of printing 
in color by the means of separate plates. 

This all transpired in the early part of the cen- 
tury. Le Blon died in 1741, but he left a number of 
pupils who carried on his ideas, improving them, 
with the final result of producing in the last quarter 
of the century the perfection in printing with 
separate plates, increasing the number as more 
colors were required ; the final printing was usually 
black. 

The following are some of his most prominent 
pupils and imitators : 

J. G. Dagoty, his sons, Edward Gautier Dagoty 
and Armand E. Gautier Dagoty ; A. Robert, Carlo 
Lasinio and Jan L' Admiral. 

The really great French artists were those who 
came in the last quarter of the century, viz. : P. L. 
Debucourt, Louis Bonnet, P. M. Alix, J. F. Janinet, 
Charles M. Descourtis, J. M. Moreau le Jeune, etc. 

Most of these artists were born within a year of 
each other. 

Jean Baptiste Le Prince was the inventor of 
Aquatint Engraving about 1768. The exact year is 
not known. 

In regard to the 18th-century English Prints 
in color, both from Mezzotinto plates and Stipple 
Engraved plates, printing in color was brought over 
to England from France by an engraver named Wil- 
liam Wynne Ryloned (born in London, 1732), sup- 
posed to be about the year 1774, whose work con- 
sisted mostly of prints from the Stipple engravings, 
inking the plate with several colors with the aid of 
a stump brush. The invention of the process of 
printing in a number of colors from one plate at a 
single impression must be chiefly credited to a Lon- 
don engraver, Robert Laurie (1749-1804), who 
communicated to the "Society of Arts in 1776 a 
method of producing copperplate pictures in colors 
at a single impression by inking the plate with 
stump brushes." This method requires great care 
and patience, and the printer must be an artist, not 
an artisan, for the colors which are generally thick 
(Continued on page 181) 



■'ii i 111 limn 




"The Bracelet Seller" — By Albert Besnard 








"Winter in the Forest" — By Anshelm Schultzberg 



■ 



156 







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'On the Quai, Paris" — By Jules Pages 




"The Pilgrimage*' — By Adriano de Sousa-Lopez 






. 



157 







Nineteenth Century English ware. The mug at the left carries quotations from 
Dr. Franklin's "Poor Richard" 




Dark blue printed ware, Nineteenth Century, English 



158 



____^^_ 










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-^ 




Liverpool pitchers 



OUr\ GRANDMOTHER'S CHINA 



By EDWARD B. ALLEN 



OUR grandmother's china (the famous Colo- 
nial Staffordshire, as most of us, I imagine, 
remember only as such), those exquisite 
blue and white or brown and white pieces with 
such interesting pictures and decorations, so care- 
fully treasured by her — she would let you as a 
child, see them but not touch them, were once 
articles of common use, in fact, the only ones to 
be had. Then so common, now, so rare and valu- 
able, that it is difficult to find good pieces outside 
of a museum or private collection. Who would 
ever imagine that the rich blue color (Staffordshire 
blue) was first used merely to cover up the im- 
perfections of the cheap grades selling from six- 
pence to a shilling a plate? 

This ware is especially interesting aside from 
family tradition or sentiment because it was so 
closely allied with the lives of the founders of our 
Republic, and portrays so many scenes of historic 
importance, including famous buildings here and 
abroad, land and sea battles of the Revolution, 
portraits of famous men beginning with General 
Washington and including the Marquis La Fay- 
ette, Benjamin Franklin and others. Then later 
appear the earliest railroads and steamships, the 
opening of new canals, state emblems, the cities of 
New York, Boston, Baltimore, and many others. 

In fact, it was the custom of the English potters 



to reproduce at once on their pottery all important 
events that would catch the American trade, even 
while the Revolution was in progress. Surely this 
was astonishing business enterprise. 

There was also the well-known Willow ware 
with its Chinese scenes in typical blue and white. 
One unique custom of ship-owners was having a 
Liverpool pitcher made to celebrate the launching 
of new ships, with a picture of the ship on one 
side and an appropriate verse on the other. This 
always graced the banquet which followed the 
launching, always a joyous time, although fraught 
with many possibilities. 

These Liverpool pitchers, noted alike for their 
shapely outlines, soft ivory tone and distinct black 
printed designs, are quite famous now. 

Although primarily made for ship owners, those 
destined for America seem to have been devoted 
to the glory of Washington and America, as his 
portrait and tomb and the figure of Columbia ap- 
pear on most of them. 

In addition to these historical pieces are the 
fascinating literary ones. First and earliest are 
those bearing the maxims of Poor Richard, which, 
published first in almanac form by Benjamin 
Franklin, soon appeared on mugs, plates, cups and 
saucers, to carry this good advice to all the house- 
holds in the land. It was a unique way of con- 






159 



160 



OUR GRANDMOTHER'S CHINA 




"Dr. S. painting a portrait" 

stantly giving good advice in a manner that would 
not offend and also attract the child. 

The climax of the literary interest of the pot- 
tery was reached, however, with the production 
of the Dr. Syntax series, about 1809, when the 
first of those satirical poems were a great hit in 
London. They were divided into three tours: 
First, Dr. Syntax in Search of the Picturesque; 
Second, Dr. Syntax in Search of Consolation; 
Third, Dr. Syntax in Search of a Wife. 

The three series were by the potter Clews, most- 
ly in the dark rich blue of Staffordshire, and were 
at <>nce much sought after. The scenes were from 
Rowlandson's -eighty illustrations, which accom- 
panied the original text in Ackerman's Poetical 
Magazine, as fast as written by the strange and 
then unknown author, Wm, Coombs. Dr. Syntax, 
as portrayed by the drawings, became a famous 
imaginary character, and wigs, coats, hats, etc., 
were named after him. 

The second tour appeared in 1820 and the last 
one the next year. Each piece of the series is a 
combination of fine drawing and color effects, with 
the added interest of the story, its wit and allusion. 

The author, sometimes called the English Le 
Sage (the similarity of their satire, force and real- 
ism thus drawing together Gil Bias and Dr. Syn- 




"Dr. S. reading his tour" 

tax) ; that strangest of men, a highly-cultured gen- 
tleman of the fashionable world, a rare wit and 
genius, once rich beyond the dream of avarice, was 
later for many years an inmate of a debtors' prison. 
Here he wrote the poems under an assumed name 
as the illustrations were brought to him one by one, 
till again he had a large income and fame which 
he could not openly claim, lest once more his debt- 
ors take it from him. So, clinging to his room in 
the prison as the only part of earth he could call 
home, and be at peace, he burrowed among his 
books and manuscripts, protected by the prison 
walls from prying eyes and malicious tongues ; 
spinning his literary cocoon, which later gave him 
fame, as well as the artist who made the drawings, 
the magazine which published them, and the pot- 
ter who reproduced them. Thus humor and pathos 
are blended together by the whimsical design of 
the plates. 

Alas, that this style of china decoration has not 
continued to give us something of real interest and 
beauty of a national import to decorate our tables 
and china-closets, as in the past. 

In this way our artists and designers might make 
a real effort at pleasing decoration, rather than by 
pictures and drawings which so often do not corre- 
spond with surroundings. 





R^T 5 





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480 Primrow Road 






PAINTING PAST AND PRESENT 

A Contrast and a Conclusion 



By ELIOT CLARK 



IN the beginning art was ornament, created to 
adorn. Art served an idea or purpose. This 
idea was not personal ; it was universal, a sym- 
bol which all could read. It was the manifestation 
of the ideas and ideals of a given time. In this 
sense the art of the Old World was truly popular. 
The artist was first of all the craftsman. Not 
a genius in our modern sense, as one endowed with 
a particular temperament, he was essentially a 
superior workman, using a universal language. 
Style and manner were intimately interwoven with 
the craft. Thus we note that with every change 
of method, of medium or of the surface to which 
the medium was applied, we have a change in style 
and manner. We conclude, therefore, that the dis- 
tinctive styles in painting flourished under set 
limitations : the limitation of the idea or subject 
matter, the limitation due to the particular place, 
and the limitations due to prescribed methods and 
canons. These limitations established the conven- 
tion. This convention we call style. In Chinese 
and Japanese art, where we see some of the most 
distinctive of all style, we note the most precise and 
rigid restrictions. It is apparent, then, that the 
great distinction between ancient and modern paint- 
ing is that, whereas the ancient worked under pre- 
scribed limitations, the modern works under no 
limitations. 

Freed from the restraint imposed upon the earlier 
painters, no longer conversant with the symbolical 
art of the past and its more impersonal expression 
and appeal, the modern would express himself, his 
own impressions, his own emotions. In striking 
contrast to the serenity and nobility of the art of 
the past, its abstract ideas, its poetical aloofness, 
we have the modern prose painter, the material 
modern, the one for whom the personal impression, 
the momentary sensation, the record of a fleeting 
phase is paramount. 

Social unrest at the close of the eighteenth cen- 
tury and the struggle for liberty and freedom led 
to the association of nature and the natural wish 
for the true and the free as opposed to the arti- 
ficial and the aristocratic. We see in every mani- 
festation of this period an endeavor to annihilate 
form and convention. Art follows this struggle 
for freedom that would be free. Painting should 
recognize no limitations. The artist must be his 
own voice. Only the original work is important ; 
only that which smacks of the personal and the 
peculiar. The modern artist has refused to bow 



to tradition. He would create his own idea, his 
own methods. He himself, to be entirtly free and 
original, must be isolated and apart. Thus we have 
the dictum of Whistler: "The master stands in no 
relation to the moment at which he occurs — a 
monument of isolation." 



In modern art two main tendencies are clearly 
defined : the desire to represent or reproduce an 
image of nature, and the desire to express the emo- 
tions aroused in the artist by nature. One school 
we may call the realistic or naturalistic, the other 
the romantic or ideal. In discarding the methods 
and conventional limitations of the old masters the 
modern artist in his endeavor to express himself, 
)o become free and individualistic, at once estab- 
lished new dogmas and unaware became enslaved 
by new ideas, the limitations of which were un- 
happily not so conducive to beauty as the limita- 
tions of the ancients. The movement of the re- 
turn to nature which found its expression in the 
philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, allied as it 
was with truth and equality, became the dominant 
thought in the modern democratic State, also found 
its expression in Art. 

This explains the importance and significance 
of landscape painting in the nineteenth century. 
As the creation of God, nature could not be per- 
fected by man; inasmuch as every manifestation 
originated from the divine, the natural became the 
divine. To paint the natural was the painter's 
highest purpose. Art became pantheistic. The 
realists or naturalists have changed from one style 
or manner to another, but the idea or intention of 
creating an image of nature has not changed. This 
is their dogma; this their ideal. Realists we call 
them ; but, inasmuch as they follow a fixed idea, 
they are idealistic enslaved by that idea. 

Naturalism can never produce a great work of 
art. The naturalists admit a rival in nature her- 
self never to be rivalled. The perfect imitation of 
nature is impossible ; but were it possible, it has 
little in common with creative art, the aim of which 
is to create beauty through the harmonious relation 
of shapes and colors as expressive of an idea. 
Naturalism does not admit of invention or creation. 
Imitation has in itself no relation to a particular 
place or particular purpose. It is here when imita- 
tion ceases that decorative design begins. Its in- 
tention is to create a work of art which shall 






161 



162 



PAINTING PAST AND PRESENT 



beautify, and be in harmony with, a given place. 
It is precisely this limitation that stimulates the 
artistic imagination and creation. 

In seeming contrast to the realist we have the 
romanticist. They have one idea in common which' 
marks them as children of the same time. They, 
too, would be free — free to express the individual 
self, knowing no tradition. The modern romanti- 
cist is interested only in his personal feeling about 
particular things. He would express his emotional 
nature. It is not the subject itself which is of 
significance, it is the emotion produced by the sub- 
ject in him which is all important. This is the real 
truth, of which the visual manifestation is merely 
the illusion. Freed from representing the natural, 
he would represent his impressions of the natural. 
Despite his desire of freedom, he, too, becomes 
enslaved by the limitations of a fixed idea. The 
emotional manifestation being the supreme truth, 
he, too, serves truth. But in him the purely emo- 
tional seldom takes definite form ; it is too vague, 
too elusive. Inasmuch as design demands clarity 
and definition, design for him must be sacrificed. 
The sentitive illusive effect is expressed by what is 
loosely called "tone." The romanticists become the 
"tonalists." 

Both schools would be free from traditional limi- 
tations. They become free only to be enslaved by 
a new idea. But whereas the ancients recognized 
the limitations of the craft and worked within these 
limitations to beautify a particular place for a 
particular purpose, the modernist, following the 
ideal of truth, does not recognize any limitations. 
Both schools have completed themselves. The 
naturalistic proved itself estranged from beauty 
when, in following the creed of truth to nature, it 
attempted to represent all of the natural facts 
(the Pre-Raphaelites, Ruskin, Bastien Lepage and 
the photographic idea). Also, when later the 
naturalistic movement become lost in the illusion 
of light and atmosphere (Monet, the pointillistes 
and the painters associated with the scientific 
analysis of light and color). 



When, at the present time, force of representa- 
tion and startling impression become the goal, we 
have the same idea in different guise. The earlier 
naturalists were affected by the form of the facts; 
the later naturalists by the momentary effect of 
the facts. One school was particularly interested 
in counting the leaves on a tree ; the other school 
is not interested in the leaves of the tree at all. 
It is interested rather in the shape of the tree, its 
value, its color and its relation to surrounding 
forms and colors. Both schools are, however, par- 
ticularly interested in recording the facts, in ex- 
pounding the truth. 

The romantic idea has also taken many forms 



and manifestations. Less enslaved by subservience 
to literal truth, the romanticist is more creative in 
design composition. He uses his forms and colors 
as objects representing ideas. In this respect Dela- 
■croix is akin to the old masters. He is, however, 
controlled by the emotional nature, and in conse- 
quence loses control over his medium. This is true 
also of Turner. His later work tends to annihilate 
form. As a result his technique becomes more 
mannered, hazardous and inefficient. In the later 
development of romanticism the emotional assumes 
less the voice of general ideas and, being associated 
with a particular impression, it becomes more per- 
sonal. Thus we see less interest in design and its 
relation to the idea. The emotion becomes more 
vague — we have the tonalist (Whistler's nocturnes, 
the later work of lnness and many present - day 
painters). 

The latest emotional manifestation, the supreme 
struggle of the personal and the peculiar — doomed 
to death before birth — is cubism, futurism and 
other isms. 

Notwithstanding the fact that in the beginning 
of the modern era the methods of the old masters 
were lost, it is primarily the change of thought and 
purpose that marks the modern from the ancient. 
But the pictorial thought and the means of ex- 
pressing it are so intimately interwoven that we 
can not change the one without influencing the 
other. We can not dissociate the creator from the 
craft. 

Modern art therefore begins with modern meth- 
ods. Whereas the methods of the old masters are 
characterized by indirect painting and the use of 
transparent color, the modern method is character- 
ized by direct painting and opaque color. The 
dominant value in the pictures of the old masters 
is about midway between black and white. It is in 
this scale that the colors are the most rich and 
intense. The color was produced by glazing a 
darker warm color over a lighter cool color. This 
not only created the desired brilliancy and vibra- 
tion of color, but allowed the use of the warm 
colors for glazing, which from their chemical na- 
ture are the most transparent colors of the palette. 

Change to the modern color scale was inevitable. 
It is the result not alone of the endeavor to ap- 
proximate the values and colors of nature, but it is 
also the natural outcome of the change of method. 
With direct painting it at once becomes necessary 
to introduce opaque pigment, and with the addition 
of white the colors of necessity are lighter and 
cooler. The raising of the register and the cooler 
scale of colors were therefore a natural result in 
the development of painting. But although the 
moderns have extended the scale of values and 
added an entirely new range of colors, in doing 
(Continued on page 185) 




R^T 5 





"BURLINGAMt" 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 
480 Primros* Road 




AMERICAN' MINIATURE SOC 
EXHIBITION 



rv 



F 



,ROM November 20th to December 10th in- 
clusive, there were on exhibition at the 
Arden Galleries eighty-one examples of 
miniatures painted on ivory. 

In order to encourage the Society, we give the 
names of all those who have entered works at this 
exhibition : 

Mary Coleman Allen, Ichiro E. Hori, A. Mar- 
garetta Archambault, Annie Hurlburt Jackson, 
William J. Baer, Julie Kahle, Martha Wheeler 
Baxter. Margaret Kendall, Eulabee Dix Becker 
Elizabeth A. McG. Knowles, Alice Beckingto- 
Lydia Longacre, Clara Louise Bell, Selma M. ' 
Moeller, John Bentz, Katherine S. Myrick, Mile 
L. Bulena, Elsie Dodge Pattee, Eva L. Carm 
William Sherman Potts, Marjorie S. Coll 
Heloise G. Redfield, Grace E. Daggett, Jennia 
Sage, Frances Evans, Carlotta Saint Gaud 
Annie M. Fender^on, Edith Sawyer, Bernice F 
Fernow, A. W. S. Siebert, Harriette Draper C 
Mabel Beatrice Smith, Alexandrina Robertson I 
ris, Lucy M. Stanton, Margaret Foote Hav 
Maria J. Strean, Cornelia E. Hildebrandt, Mabf 
Welch, Laura C. Hills, William J. Whitterr 
Alyn William. 

Though the quality of the work of these a 
varies, there is not one bad example of mini 




Portrait of Homer Saint Gaudens 
By Carlotta Saint Gaudens 



paintir 
encou 

of iv< 
in F 







COL 

of such in.. 

in their ensembn. 

of such as are not pc 

jects, as landscapes or j. _..,_->. Here 

is a field for great triumphs ioi our miniature 

artists. Mabel R. Welch, for example, exhibits a 

small "Landscape," charming in composition and 

color. She should be encouraged. Had we been 

able to obtain a photograph of her work, we would 

have reproduced it. 

Perhaps the most attractive "portrait-picture" 
that is a combination of frame and portrait is the 
portrait of "Homer Saint Gaudens," by Carlotta 
Saint Gaudens, which we reproduce. It recalls the 
fine taste of sculptor Saint Gaudens, showing a 
lovely landscape back of the head, as a back- 
ground. Tt is an admirable piece of work. 



16.1 







OLD HOME AT WESTPORT, CONK. 
By Colin Campbell Cooper 
at the Water-color Exhibition 



' 164 



" ' 



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480 Pnmro* Roed 






■ « T"« 







A Message to American Book Lovers 

from L'ACADEMIE FRANC AISE, the World's Highest Authority 

"America may rest assured that she will find in this series of crowned works all that she may wish to know of France at 
her own fireside — a knowledge that too often escapes her, knowledge that embraces not only a faithful picture of contem- 
porary life in the French provinces, but a living and exact description of French society in modern times. Americans may 
feci certain that when they have read these romances, they will hare sounded the depths and penetrated into the hidden 
intimacies of France, not only as she is but as she icould be known." /" 

Secretaire Peryctuel de L'Acadcmie Francaise 




m 



4V?\t4 



France 
Her 



Offers 
Rarest 



America 
Gems 



America has been missing the greatest masterpieces of French literature — the writings 
by which France wants to be known to the world. But now the famous French 
Academy, the "World's Supreme Court of Literature," has acted to give to America 
the most splendid romantic and dramatic novels ever produced in France. 

In full session, L'Academie Frangaise selected the finest examples of French writing, 
and formed them into a set called "The Immortals." These works, translated into Eng- 
lish, arc now offered to American Book Lovers in the name and under the seal of the 
celebrated Academy. 



Every Work Is Crowned By 
The French Academy 

and this is the world's highest literary honor. 
Every Author represented is, or was during his 
lifetime, a member of the Academy. Every 
volume has an introduction by a livimj Acade- 
mician and the general introduction is written by 
M. Boissier. Permanent Secretary of the Academy. 
This set. without doubt, will be one of the mo- 1 
famous in print, for it represents the richest cream 
of all French literature and is sponsored by the 
highest authority in the literary world. Not only 
was literary excellence considered in selecting 
these works. Each one had to picture faithfully 
some phase of French life, and the result is a 
most vivid and intimate insight into the lives of 
the French people. 



FREE 

Flaubert's Romances 

To everyone who orders "The Immortals" with- 
in thirty days, we will send absolutely free the 
complete works of Gustave Flaubert, in ten vol- 
mnt>. Flaubert wrote with sensational truth and 
startling frankness. In his novels he lays bare 
the lives of his characters with a directness and 
understanding that are irresistible. Among his 
works you will find Mine. Bevary, one of the 
greatest examples of realistic writing, which de- 
scribes the life of a girl who took the wrong pat'i 
in her search for happiness; Salammbo, a superb 
romance of the Orient; Sentimental Education, a 
powerful and vivid portrayal of Parisian life, 
showing all that is lofty and all that is base; and 
many others of the same grpping interest. Thi . 
set admirably supplements 'The Immortals" in 
giving the reader the fullest tnderstandin,; of all 
phases of trench life. 



Let These Frenchmen Intro- 
duce You to France 

Among the superb novels in this set you v:'.l 
find Cinq-Mars, by Alfred de Vigny. This stirring 
story of the great conspiracy against Richelieu 
was proclaimed by Dumas to be the greatest his- 
torical novel ever written. The Red Lily, the 
story of a heartless coquette, by Anatole France, 
is one of the most powerful warnings against 
faithlessness to duty, falseness to love, and yield- 
ing to temptation, ever produced. Fromont and 
Risler, by Alphonse Daudet, is a powerful romance 
which introduces the reader to the life of the 
Parisian working people, and shows their gaieties, 
sorrows, temptations. Madame Chrysanthcmc, by 
Pierre Loti, is a piece of oriental writing of ex- 
traordinary beauty and charm. It is the love story 
of a French naval officer and a pretty little 
Japanese mousme. Zibeline, by Philippe de Massa, 
is a sparkling and original story of an American 
girl who captivates Paris. Fascinating glimpses 
are given into the drawing rooms of the most 
exclusive Parisian society, into the historic green 
room of the Comedie Francaise, etc. There are 
many others, and each has an individual charm. 

After Reading These Books You 
Can Say "I've Lived in France" 

So truly and in such intimate detail is the so- 
ciety of the time depicted in these works that one 
obtains a much deeper knowledge of the true 
psychology of the French people than could be 
hoped to be gained from a superficial visit to the 
country itself, for the passing stranger is not 
admitted into the inner circle of French homes nor 
favored with the close friendships made possible • 
through the works of these great writers. 



Some of 
"THE IMMORTALS" 

Serge Panine. 

By Georges Ohnet. 

The story of an unprin- 
cipled Prince. 

Jacqueline, 

By Theo Bentzon. 

Tile story of a young 
girl in high Parisian life 
is drawn with the vivid- 
ness and accuracy of one 
who knows thoroughly the 
intimate sides of French 
society. 

The Ink-Stain. 
By Ki'iir Bazin. 

A charming story of 
joyous youth and inno- 
cent love. 

A Woodland Queen, 
By Andre Theuriet. 

An exquisite idyl of the 
forest, full of appealing 
glimpses into French ru- 
ral life. 

Gerfaut, 

By Charles de Bernard. 

The story of a man's 
struggle between the wiles 
of Venus on one hand 
and the call of duty on 
tile other. 

Confessions of a Chili of 
the Century. 

By Alfred de Musset. 

This story incorporates 
the passionate experience 
of de Musset with George 
Sand. 

Monsieur, Madame, and 

Bebe. 
By Gustave Droz. 

The veil is lifted from 
the romance of matri- 
mony by a hand as deli- 
cate as it is daring. 
Monsieur de Caninrs. 
By Octave Feuillet. 

The wild career of a 
man who cared nothing 
for men or women except 
as lie could use them for 
pleasure or advancement. 
Prince Zilah, 
By .lules Claretie. 

This story of strong 
emotions and passionate 
deeds describes the tragic 
love affair of Zilah and 
Marsa the Gipsy girl. 
Conscience. 
By Hector Malot. 
Cosmopolis, 
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NOTES OF THE STUDIOS AND GALLERIES 



165 



We reproduce also "Eirene," by William Sher- 
man Potts. It is a very beautiful little nude, well 
drawn, charming in composition, chaste in spirit and 
altogether lovely in color, fit to hang even in a 
Cardinal's library. We hope Mr. Potts will keep 
on in this direction — towards the ideal. 

We urge the public to visit this most interesting 
and well arranged show, which is beautifully set 
off by a display of fine examples of pottery from 
the Durant Kilns, and by some sumptuous tapestry. 



EXHIBITION OF THE AMERICAN WATER 
COLOR CLUB 

AT the Fine Arts Gallery, 215 West 57th 
Street, New York, there was held a most 
interesting exhibition by the American 
Water Color Club, from November 2nd to No- 
vember 24th, consisting of three hundred and 
thirty-one exhibits. 

We believe the public does not know as much as 
it should about the difficulties, and the intimate 
nature of water color painting and therefore we 
have frequently insisted that every university, 
college and school in the land should have an art 
department, in which all the arts should be taught. 
This not, to "make by hand,'' more and more artists 
— for we cannot make artists since they must be 
born — but every student should be taught the diffi- 
culties, the beauties, and significance of every art — 
in order that his mind may be opened to the im- 
portance of every art. For by this study will be 
opened to him an entirely new and unsuspected 
world, and be a source of ever increasing pleasure, 
which will never die, and which alone will make 
life in semi-poverty a joy, here in the future, as it 
now is in Paris and Rome, and as it was in Athens 
in the past. 

There is so much beauty at every turn in Paris 
that thousands of highly intellectual men are content 
to live there poor, and in a garret — since every 
beauty belongs most to him who is able to see it 
and appreciate it the most. If you, reader, are able 
to appreciate more than he does, the palace of 
Rockefeller, you in reality own it more than he 
does — if he allows you to see it. Even if he is 
the proprietor and pays the taxes and looks after 
it, he provides you with an architectural and artistic 
feast ever} 1 time you pass by it. Why should any- 
one grieve at not owning great works of art — so 
long as he can see them, and thus own them when- 
ever he feels disposed to? Thus, in order to pro- 
foundly enjoy any art, whether painting, etching, 
keramics, sculpture or water colors, we should 
study the fundamental law of these arts and the 
difficulties to be overcome in each. And the more 
we know and feel the difficulties of an art, the more 
we will appreciate a successful piece of art, and 
nothing so teaches us the difficulties of an art as 



trying our own hand at it and seeing how weak we 
are in that particular line of endeavor, however 
strong we may be in another line, for the excelling 
in which we were born. Why does the average 
boy sit agape when a skilful juggler does his stunts? 
Because he has tried to do them himself and, so, 
knows how much more skill it requires to juggle 
three oranges than two, and how much more diffi- 
cult it is to juggle one orange, a cigar, a bottle of 
champagne and a Japanese sword, all at the same 
time. Juggling is a matter of skill. 

Water-color painting is also a matter, principally, 
of skill. Above all a pure water-color. That is a 
real water-color painting — one in which white and 
black colors are used only to modify the other 
colors, and in which the pure whites are obtained 
only by not covering the white paper at all with 
any color whatsoever — thus forcing the white paper 
to furnish the high lights. Moreover, since water- 
color flows and thus overflows easily it requires 
great skill and dexterity to use it so as not to spoil 
good drawing and to avoid obtaining "muddy" 
colors. Also water-colors when first applied to 
paper look darker than they will when dry. This 
requires almost an uncanny intuition and judgment 
which is the very essence of all cleverness. So diffi- 
cult is this process that few of even the best water- 
color artists observe the rule ; they obtain their high- 
lights by using not only white water-colors, but 
guache. 

These are only a few of the difficulties of pure 
water-color painting but they are enough to make 
the contemplator take a deeper interest in the efforts 
of our American water-color artists than he could 
before lie knew of the difficulties. 

The general study of art in our schools will 
gradually develop an art atmosphere which, pene- 
trating into the soul of all, will gradually insure the 
birth of greater and greater artists, born with the 
powers needed to create truly great works of art. 
And the study of water-color painting in the various 
schools will very soon lift our water-color schools 
to a level equal to that of any foreign school. 

Because the American is by nature clever. More- 
over there should be a room in the Metropolitan 
Museum specially devoted to water-colors as there 
are in the Louvre Museum and in Luxembourg 
Museum. 

We believe that some of our American water- 
color artists hold their own with those of any other 
country and should be encouraged by all means 
possible so as to nerve them to surpass all comers, 
in this always cheering and sometimes exquisite 
art. This show at the Water Color Club was on a 
level above the previous ones which was gratifying 
and promises well for the future and we trust that 
the public will take an increased interest in the 
exhibitions of this admirable Society, visit them 
and buy the pictures. 







PERSIAN CARPET 

IN THE 

METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 



4 

166 



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ORIENTAL RUGS FOR HOUSEHOLD PURPOSES 



EACH year shows the growing popularity of 
Oriental rugs, and a greater appreciation of 
their value for purposes of decoration as well 
as of utility. In the mystery of their symbolic fig- 
ures, in the graceful rhythm of floral patterns, in 
the rich, deep coloring of the long nap, is a lure that 
few observers escape. There is also the charm of 
association, since they call to mind pictures of burn- 
ing desert sands, slowly moving caravans, gilded 
domes of Moslem mosques, and all the luxury and 
splendor of the land of Aladdin and Sinbad. They 
also appeal to the keenest sense of taste and refine- 
ment. So it is that throughout this land there is 
hardly a home with any display of luxury but has 
a few if not many of these knot-tied rugs. 

Most people, as a rule, even though they find lit- 
tle difficulty in selecting other furnishings, are at a 
loss to know which are the best rugs to purchase. 
Nor is this surprising, since technical qualities as 
well as taste are important elements in the decision. 
For this reason salesmen of some of the largest re- 
tail dealers of this country take particular pains to 
learn all the conditions affecting a proper choice, 
and advise their customers from an impartial stand- 
point. But as this is not always the case, it is well 
to call attention to the essential qualities that should 
be considered by a purchaser. 

He should first decide for himself the largest 
amount he is willing to pay for a rug, since some 
can be bought for the equivalent of a dollar per 
square foot, while others cost ten or even one hun- 
dred times as much. He should decide, too, 
whether he wishes large or small rugs, and whether 
they are for hallways or for rooms. He should con- 
sider to what extent, if necessary, durability should 
yield to artistic qualities, and should choose rugs 
that harmonize in color with the other furnishings 
of the rooms where they are to be placed. 

Careful attention also should be given to the 
effect produced by the use of aniline dyes for color- 
ing the yarn. Only modern rugs contain this un- 
desirable taint : and those made of wool colored 
with such dyes should be rejected. On the other 
hand, many rugs which are "washed" or treated 
with some artificial process to soften the fresh, raw 
colors, are not altogether to be despised. Some, to 
be sure, are injured by the improper use of acids, 
but many are treated in a way that does little per- 
manent harm. The beautiful Kermanshahs, Sa- 
rouks, Kashans. in fact, nearly ninety per cent, of 
the ruge made to supply the Occidental demand, 
have soft tones that are obtained by some artificial 
process; yet these pieces are frequently desirable 
as floor coverings. Unfortunately it is very diffi- 
cult for an inexperienced person to judge correctly 
if a rug is colored with aniline dyes or is "washed," 

167 



but any reliable dealer, when asked, will state the 
facts. 

Of still greater importance from the standpoint 
of the ultimate pleasure to be derived from Ori- 
ental rugs are the charms of individuality and asso- 
ciation. A very large number of those which are 
made by exporting companies to meet the market 
demands follow formal patterns which show but 
slight variation. They may display perfect balance 
of drawing, perfect harmony of colors ; but they 
lack the originality of a rug woven for use in Ori- 
ental homes, one which often contains nomadic fea- 
tures, and a symbolism associated with a primitive 
faith and early philosophies. There is, too, an un- 
tiring interest in the companionship of such rugs 
as a Shiraz, which has been taken on one of the 
yearly pilgrimages to Mecca as an offering of pro- 
pitiation, in an old Mosul woven near the ruins of 
Ancient Nineveh, or among the valleys where once 
Abraham tended his flocks, or in a well-woven 
Beluchistan on which the knees of a dark visaged 
Moslem have often knelt in the sandy deserts. 
These are qualities which merit careful considera- 
tion. 

From the standpoint of the general purchaser, 
rugs may conveniently be separated into three 
groups: the inexpensive, those of moderate price, 
and the expensive. 

Among the inexpensive rugs are the Afghans, 
Beluchistans, Mahals, Muskabads, Mosuls, Kurdis- 
tans, Kazaks, Genghas, and Shirvans. Of these the 
Afghans, Mahals, and Muskabads are almost in- 
variably of carpet size; while the Mosuls, Kurdis- 
tans, and Genghas are usually runners, or pieces 
much longer than wide; and the Beluchistans, Ka- 
zaks, and Shirvans are slightly oblong or of small 
size. 

When once an Afghan, which is sometimes called 
a Khiva, is observed, it will never be mistaken for 
any other class. The pattern of the field consists 
of perpendicular rows, usually three in number, of 
octagonal designs placed end to end, and of a cor- 
responding number of small diamond-shaped fig- 
ures between these rows. From the very broad 
webs of the ends hangs a loose fringe, which is 
often of got's hair. Equally conspicuous are the 
colors, for the field is always a dark red or reddish 
brown relieved by the deep blue and lighter red of 
the octagons. These rugs are the work of the fierce 
tribes that wander across the mountain ranges of 
Northern Afghanistan onto the plains of Turkestan, 
bidding defiance to the march of civilization, and 
leaving the impress of their own untrammeled spirit 
in their fabrics It is still possible to buy many ex- 
cellent pieces of this class at the rate of a dollar and 
a quarter or a dollar and a half per square foot. 




168 



ORIENTAL RUGS 




~ 



though it should be remembered that rugs are al- 
ways sold by the piece and never by their super- 
ficial area. 

At Sultanabad in Persia are located some of the 
principal companies who exploit the manufacture of 
Oriental rugs, for they not only constantly employ 
large numbers of weavers in the city, but encourage 
the natives in all the surrounding hamlets and vil- 
lages by supplying them, if necessary, with wool 
and dyes to be paid for upon the completion of their 
work. In this district are woven the Mahals and 
Muskabads, which are invariably large rugs of al- 
most square shape. The patterns frequently con- 
sist of concentric medallions covered with small 
conventionalized floral figures, so that the colors 
are broken into small masses. These pieces are 
stoutly woven and are among the most inexpensive 
of Persian rugs, since they cost little more than 
Afghans. 

Such a great similarity exists between the Mo- 
suls and Kurdish rugs, that they are constantly mis- 
taken for one another. Nor is this surprising when 
it is considered that they are woven in adjacent 
districts and by tribes who have affinity of race. 
The Mosuls come from the country surrounding the 
city of Mosul, which is almost on the site of ancient 
Nineveh, while the Kurdish rugs are made by the 
descendants of the fierce Carduchis, who opposed 
the march of Xenophon and his ten thousand 
Greeks, and who now live among the head waters 
of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, as well as in the 
western borderland of Persia. Both these classes 
are made of stout woolen warp and weft and have 
long or medium length nap. Their nomadic char- 
acteristics also appear in the coarse finish of sides 
and ends, as well as in some of the bold designs. 
In the Mosuls tawny yellow is often conspicuous, 
and in the Kurdistans is much brown. On account 
of the inaccessibility of these districts from lines 
of travel, it is still possible to get sterling pieces of 
these weaves free from all taint of aniline dyes, . 
and with rich colors that have matured by natural 
processes. Good old specimens, which can still be 
bought at the rate of a dollar and a half to two dol- 
lars per square foot, represent some of the best 
values of the price. 

The Beluchistanh are almost as nearly distinguish- 
able as the Afghans. Their small size, the very ' 
wide webs at the ends, and the goat's hair selvage 
at the sides, at once differentiate them from all 
other classes. They are woven by uncivilized tribes 
who live principally in Western Beluchistan, but 
often wander with their goats and sheep over the 
desolate plains of Southeastern Persia. The long 
nap, dyed with brown, green and clai-et red, acquires 
a beautiful sheen rarely seen in any other rugs. 
Many of them have the prayer pattern with high, 
almost square mihrabs, and now and then are just 
enough worn at the center and lower end to show 



where the knees and toes of a devout Heathen have 
often pressed in supplication. The oldest pieces 
have often crude little designs, perhaps a star, goat, 
or some mysterious symbol of occult thought. A 
purchaser should never lose the opportunity to get 
the genuine piece of half a century ago, for they 
are fast disappearing, yet even now can be bought 
for forty or fifty dollars apiece. The saddle-bags 
of this class are among the choicest woven by any 
nomadic tribes, and are often more beautiful than 
the rugs. 

The Kazaks are made by some of the warlike 
Cossack tribes who settled in Southern Caucasia, 
but who inherit the marauding spirit of their ances- 
tors. Few other rugs more truthfully reflect the 
unconventional life of their weavers. Their long, 
almost shaggy nap suggests the rigors of winter 
and shelterless nights on high pateaus. Their large 
geometric designs surrounded by smaller crude 
figures, that are frequently of animal or human 
form, are unlike those of any other rugs; and their 
large masses of rich, unshaded color, in which red, 
blue and yellow predominate, and green is very 
seldom absent, give them a truly barbaric aspect. 
They are never elegant, but their vigorous drawing 
and color awaken an interest that cannot be shared 
with many of the more delicately woven fabrics. 
For use rather than display, for comfort rather 
than luxury, they are well adapted to many places 
in the home. 

Genghas, also, come from a district in Southern 
Caucasia, and are frequently mistaken for Kazaks; 
yet in many respects they are very different. They 
are not so stoutly woven, and their nap is rarely 
as heavy. They are also more oblong in shape, and 
they less frequently contain the color green. Since 
they are made by tribes of different races who often 
wander back and forth, the patterns are heteroge- 
neous, but they rarely contain the large unrelated de- 
signs of the Kazaks. The wool is often colored with 
aniline dyes. Most of those now offered for sale 
have been recently made and are undesirable, but 
not infrequently old pieces of moderate size and 
good workmanship can be bought for forty or fifty 
dollars. 

Probably the largest number of any one class of 
rugs which come to this country from Caucasia 
were made in the province of Shirvan in the south- 
eastern part. It is a district which for long periods 
at a time has been under the sway of Persia, so 
that it is not surprising that the pattern of Shir- 
vans often consist of conventionalized floral forms. 
Nor are they, as a rule, the work of nomads, but 
rather of the inhabitants of villages and cities, so 
that they display greater evidences of refinement. 
On account of the medium length of the hap, even 
the smaller designs stand out clearly. They show 
to great advantage in the borders which, to a large 
extent, reflect foreign influences. The main stripe 



! 






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ORIENTAL RUGS 



169 



so often consists of what is known as the "serrated 
leaf and wine cup" pattern that it is almost typical 
of this class ; and very frequently one of the sec- 
ondary stripes has the beautiful carnation pattern. 
In fact, some of the old Sirvans are among the most 
attractive and choicest of the Caucasian rugs; and 
when they can be found are well worth obtaining, 
since they are rapidly growing scarce. 

Of the moderately expensive rugs those most 
usually seen are the Bokharas, Yomtids, Mesheds, 
Khorassans, Hamadans, Sarabends, Kirmanshahs, 
Gorevans, Daghestans and Kabistans. 

On account of the simplicity of the geometric 
patterns of Bokharas and Yomuds, and also on ac- 
count of their prevailing tones of brownish red, 
blue, green and ivory, which are found in some of 
the oldest Oriental rugs, it is not improbable that 
these two classes resemble much more ancient types. 
Moreover, it is interesting to note that they are 
woven by tribes who from time immemorial have 
inhabited both the oases and the great sandy des- 
erts of Turkestan, which is regarded as the cradle 
of the Aryan race. Yet because of the excellence 
of their wool and dyes, all but the modern pieces 
which are made to sell, glow with rich, deep color 
rarely found in the products of sedentary weavers. 
They are the embodiment of barbarous art pulsat- 
ing with life, and kindle feelings of attachment that 
grows with acquaintance. The Bokharas are of 
small size. Those with the field covered with octa- 
gons are known as Royal Bokharas, and those with 
the field divided by narrow bands into four rec- 
tangles are known as the Princess or Prayer Bok- 
haras. The Yomuds, on the other hand, are in- 
variably of large size, and in most examples have 
the field covered with diamond-shaped patterns. 
Moderately old Bokharas in good condition are 
worth eighty or one hundred dollars, while the 
choicest are valued at even one thousand. Yomuds 
of similar quality have a greater value because of 
their size ; yet even so they find ready buyers. 

The extensive province of Khorassan in North- 
eastern Persia and its capital Meshed have given 
names to two well-known classes of rugs. The 
Khorassans are woven in different parts of the 
province, and are generally older than the Mesheds. 
They usually contain particular tones of rose, or a 
color .that is almost magenta. They also frequently 
have a central medallion surrounded by a field of 
one of these colors, or the field may be covered en- 
tirely with large pear designs ; while the pattern of 
the Mesheds consists usually of innumerable small 
figures. Both have the peculiarly soft, glossy, un- 
even nap which is a distinguishing characteristic of 
these two classes. Unlike many other rugs, they 
have the charm of association. For the Khor- 
assans call to mind the warlike Partheons of classic 
times, who lived in the same country, and when 
forced to retreat from a more powerful foe sought 



escape among its salt marshes and desert wastes. 
The Mesheds are woven near the most sacred 
mosque in Persia, whither caravans of one hun- 
dred thousand pilgrims go yearly to kneel at the 
shrine of a departed saint, and where was spent 
part of the lives of Omar Khayyam, the poet phi- 
losopher, and of Firdousi, the Homer of Persia. 

The Hamadans also vividly awaken recollections 
of historic events, for they are made near the site 
of the ancient Ecbatana, capital of the Medes, and 
not far from the tomb where even to-day faithful 
Jews guard the remains of Esther and Mordecai. 
Their weavers dwell in one of the most peaceful 
and attractive spots of Persia, on the flanks of the 
lofty Mt. Elwund, among vine-clad hills, and within 
littie orchard-filled valleys. Most of these rugs 
have a character peculiarly their own, for not only 
are they runners, but the nap is almost entirely of 
camel's hair, which usually is enriched by a sup- 
pressed diaper pattern or is slightly modulated in 
tone from one end of the held to the other by the 
use of the light fleece of the young camel and the 
deep, dark chestnut of the old one. Moreover, a 
broad band of camel's hair, which is usually plain 
but now and then contains a small figure, forms an 
edging to the border. Old Hamadans are now 
greatly prized, and though the patterns are not al- 
ways beautiful, they have an individuality with 
which the eye seldom grows tired. 

Of equally striking character are the Sarabends, 
which also are woven in Northwestern Persia. 
Their pattern consists of numerous small pear de- 
signs arranged with regular precision, and extend- 
ing over the whole field. The border has a large 
number of stripes, of which at least one has an 
angular vine and narrow pendant pears on a white 
ground. No one knows the origin of these designs. 
By different authorities they are regarded as rep- 
resenting a pine cone, an almond, a flame of fire, a 
human hand, and also the bend of the river Jhelum 
as it winds through the vale of Srinagar. Their 
shape is always graceful ; and their prevailing col- 
ors contrast with the color of the ground, which 
may be blue, red or white. If it were not for the 
monotonous character of the pattern, these rugs 
would be more interesting; yet on account of their 
excellent wool and dyes and their careful weaving, 
they take high rank among the rugs of Persia. The 
best are the Mir-Sarabends, and other are called 
Royal Sarabends ; but they should never be mistaken 
for the much loser-woven and inferior rugs which 
often follow the same pattern and are known as 
Irans. 

The Kermanshahs and Gorevans, like the Mahals 
and Muskabads, are typical representatives of those 
classes of commercial rugs which follow stereotyped 
patterns and are woven to supply the market. Over 
ninety per cent, of them have been made within the 
last ten years, and have been treated by some arti- 



170 



ORIENTAL RUGS 







ficial process to soften the raw colors. Yet rarely 
are they injured by this treatment and the resultant 
tones are very pleasing. The Kermanshahs are 
found in all sizes from small mats to large car- 
pets, and more frequently contain the prayer arch 
than any other Persian rugs. Their light tones of ' 
cream, pink, delicate blue and light green harmonize 
well with one another and are in keeping with most 
any furnishings of a room. These colors are also 
well suited to give expression to the graceful lines 
of tendril, leaf and flower, which comprise the 
elaborate pattern. The Gorevans are made only in 
carpet sizes and are colored with stronger, harsher 
tones, which better suit the larger, bolder patterns 
and the more angular archaic designs. They are 
not as well woven as the Kermanshahs, but in turn 
are superior to the Mahals and Muskabads. 

Among the workshops of Sultanabad are made 
large numbers of Sarouks, which take their name 
from a little mud-walled and poplar-shaded village 
between there and Hamadan, where, once on a time, 
the women wove a beautiful pattern. Graceful 
arabesques and a tracery of delicate stems and 
leaves, brightened here and there with dainty flow- 
ers, reflect the aesthetic instincts of the uncultured 
weavers. The drawing somewhat resembles that of 
Kermanshahs, but is more refined, and the colors 
are more sombre — deep, melancholy reds and black- 
ish blue, dark olives and rich greens, with some dull 
yellow or fawn, are the prevailing colors. Almost 
all of these rugs have been "washed"; yet their ex- 
cellent colors, clear definition of drawing, and short 
velvety nap, place them among the finest products 
of modern Persian rugs. Those of average size, 
five by six and one half feet, can be bought for one 
hundred and twenty-five or one hundred and forty 
dollars. Unfortunately a large number of those 
made within the last two years are more coarsely 
woven, and are accordingly less valuable. 

On the western shore of the Caspian sea, and 
to the north of the Caucasus range, is the province 
of Daghestan, the "mountainous country," where 
the rugs known as Daghestans and Kabistans are 
woven. They are, as a rule, the gems of Caucasian 
rugs. This is partly due to the fact that until re- 
cent years the weavers largely escaped the perni- 
cious Western influence, and absorbed some of the 
artistic taste of the Persians who from time tc 
time have made inroads into that country. In the 
old types was generally a noticeable difference be- 
tween the two classes, but the resemblance of mod- 
ern pieces to one another is so great that it is often 
almost impossible to distinguish between them. 
Unlike the Kazaks, which have long nap and show 
an inclination to reds and greens, these have me- 
dium or short nap, and contain a great deal of blue 
and ivory. Also, while the Kazaks have large, bold 
patterns, these have either small patterns, or if they 
are large, they are subdivided into smaller figures 



that give the appearance of delicate mosaic work. 
So it is that if the former denote barbaric vigor, 
the latter are more suggestive of culture. Yet the 
drawing is never stilted, nor has it the appearance 
of factory work. Many of the old Kabistans with 
fields of rich, dark blue are very beautiful ; and 
some of the old prayer Daghestans with fields cov- 
ered with conventionalized bushes are works of art 
that will well repay the long hunt that may be nec- 
essary to find them. Such choice rugs are rarely 
in the market, but modern pieces, which are inva- 
riably of moderate size, can be bought for thirty- 
five or forty dollars apiece. 

Much more expensive are the Kashans and Kir- 
mans from Persia, and the Bergamos, Ladiks and 
Ghiordes from Asia Minor. 

The Kashans are sometimes described as a higher 
grade of Sarouks, because they greatly resemble 
them. They are, however, more closely woven, the 
nap is a little shorter and more velvety, and usually 
there is a greater number of stripes in the border; 
but they have the same dark shades of voluptuous 
color and the same graceful arabesques and foliage 
motives. They also come in the same sizes as 
Sarouks, but cost about a quarter more. All of 
them are recently made and treated by artificial 
processes to mature the colors, yet they are among 
the most perfect products of modern Persian looms, 
and suggest more than any others the royal mag- 
nificence of the East. 

Once in a while are offered for sale genuine old 
Kirmans that were made in the city of Kirman in 
Southeastern Persia, where even in the thirteenth 
century Marco Polo found the women weaving 
beautiful shawls and carpets. Almost without ex- 
ception they are too valuable to be trodden under 
foot, for those of usual size, five by six and a half 
feet, are worth many hundred and even a thousand 
dollars each. But they may well serve to take the 
place of tapestries, which they resemble in their 
dainty colors and the clearly defined drawing of 
the short trimmed nap. Their typical patterns re- 
semble those of modern Kermanshahs, but the floral 
forms are usually less conventionalized, so that leaf 
and petal often suggest the work of a painter. 
Roses arranged in formal boquets or placed in 
vases are the principal motives, but birds, animals 
and human beings are occasionally introduced. 
These rugs represent the earlier traditions of the 
Iranian textile art. 

In one of the most classic fields of Asia, about 
the city of Pergamos, once famous as a centre of 
Grecian culture, and where the apostle Paul estab- 
lished one of the seven churches of Asia, are woven 
what are known as Bergamos. To the rule that the 
best Oriental rugs have a short nap, they are an ex- 
ception, since not infrequently the nap is almost an 
inch in length. Because of this feature prevailing 
tones of their dark reds, blues and greens display 






A R^T 5 




BURLINGKWF" 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 
480 Primros* Road 




ORIENTAL RUGS 



171 



unusual opulence of color. No other rugs show 
Mich idiosyncrasies of the weaver, who, in order to 
arrest the evil eve. will often attach to the long 
striped wehs of the ends some simple talisman : a 
cowrie shell from the Aegean sea, a button, or a 
piece of the frock of an unexpected visitor. They 
possess beauty and the charm of association; they 
awaken the interest and kindle the imagination. 
Some of them are small pieces, not over three and 
a half by four feet, which cost from forty to sixty 
dollars, but others are worth many times more. 

Less frequently seen are the Ladiks, which are 
woven not far from Konia in Asia Minor. They 
are also more expensive, as those in good condition 
are worth from four hundred to a thousand dol- 
lars, and even at these prices are very difficult to 
find. In a search of the rug stores of New York 
city not long ago, very few old prayer Ladiks were 
seen : yet there are a number of collectors in this 
country who have three or four or even more. 
Their tones of strong red, blue and sable brown 
are very impressive. The pomegranates of the wide 
panel of one end, the delicate drawing of Rhodian 
lilies in the border, and the bold, unconventional 
mihrab give them an individuality that is never 
commonplace. 

The prayer Ghiordes from the town of Ghiordes 
that lies a day's journey to the east of Pergamos, 
are the best woven and the most beautiful of all 
Asia Minor rugs. They correspond to the Kirmans 
of Persia and are far too delicate to be trodden un- 
der foot, but make excellent hangings for a wall. 
Beneath the high arch of many of them a moslem 
lamp hangs on a field of red, blue, green or ivory; 
and in the blue spandrel, typical of the vaulted 
heaven, are conventionalized floral forms or occa- 
sionally a tracery that is singularly delicate. The 
origin of the usual patterns is unknown, but the 
mihrab is undoubtedly of Mohammedan inspiration, 
and some of the smaller designs may be attributed 
to the Persian weavers, whom Soliman the Mag- 
nificent once brought to Western Asia Minor. The 
best of these examples show a remarkable work- 
manship in the perfect balance and accuracy of 
drawing, and are resplendent with chaste color, 
which has a symbolism of its own. It is not sur- 
prising then that some of these rugs are valued 
at two and even three thousand dollars. 



Indian rugs are not very well known in this coun- 
try, but within recent years excellent pieces have 
been imported from Aniritsar, the most populous 
city of the Punjab, and also from Lahore, where, 
about 1580 A. D., Shah Akbar established an im- 
perial carpet factory. Many of these are exact 
copies of well-known Persian patterns, and unfor- 
tunately lack much of that individuality that is one 
of the greatest charms of Oriental rugs ; but on the 
other hand they possess the advantage of being 
stoutly and carefully woven. Most of them are 
large size and differ but slightly from the Kerman- 
shahs in workmanship and price. 

Still less known are the Chinese rugs, which are 
comparatively few in number. They can never be 
mistaken for the products of Western Asia, since 
their colors and patterns are such as are peculiar 
to Chinese art. The reddish tones suggest the tints 
of a ripe peach, apricot or pomegranate, the blues 
are often a dark sapphire, and the yellow is usually 
what is known as "imperial" or "mandarin." The 
patterns sometimes symbolize the philosophic and 
religious thought of the people, and sometimes form 
a harmonious grouping of naturalistic leaves and 
flowers. Because of their scarcity, beauty and in- 
terest, the old pieces that have been brought to this 
country are highly valued. 

There are altogether about one hundred distinct 
classes of Oriental rugs, but from those mentioned 
it is possible to select whatever may be necessary 
to furnish most homes. For the hallway a Mosul, 
Kurdistan or Hamadan, all of which are stoutly 
woven and usually of good dyes and workmanship, 
will prove serviceable. A large Afghan, Mahal or 
Gorevan makes an excellent central carpet for a 
dining-room. In the reception-room a Kermanshah, 
Meshed or Khorassan will, as a rule, be found to 
add life and color, and may be supplemented with 
the smaller Sarouks, Kashans or Chinese rugs. The 
rich, deep tones of a Yomud, Bokhara, and Bergamo 
make them particularly suited for the library ; and 
according to the prevailing colors of the bedrooms, 
Shirvans, Daghestans, Kabistans or other small rugs 
may be chosen. But whatever selection may be 
made, the value of artistic and harmonious execu- 
tion and the subtle charm of suggestive association 
should be considered as well as excellent workman- 
ship. 







JUULT_IJLXJ-Z_* l t i J ' 'JUCJLO* « 







I 



INTERIOR DECORATED 
BY STANFORD WHITE 
White was noted for introducing 
rare works of art into his interiors. 
The carved door to the left is at- 
tributed to Giovanni Marliano da 
Nola— 1500-1550— the famous sculp- 
tor-architect of Naples 




172 



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BURLINGAMt 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

480 Primrost Rwd 




INTERIOR DECORATED 
BY STANFORD WHITE 
The book cases in this library are 
wonders of renaissance workman- 
ship that once formed parts of 
stalls and of the sacristy in an 
Italian chapel 



i IHIIIIIIIIIIII n 



173 



"DECORATIVE TEXTILES" 



A REVIEW BY MATLACK PRICE 



I 



WITH the grim visage of war no longer 
frowning upon the peaceful progress of 
decorative arts and industries, we look 
about us, as "the tumult and the shouting dies," 
and reopen the closed studio, revisit the art galleries 
and book-shops and find with distinct gratification 
that the vast war industries of the past year have 
not entirely arrested all else. 

At the dawn of what may well be a new era of 
general interest and delight in the decorative arts, 
appears a book which would have been conspicuous 
even in times of normal production — "Decorative 
Textiles," by George Leland Hunter, who is too 
well known as an authority on tapestries to require 
any introduction to readers of this magazine. 

Before entering upon the subject-matter of 
"Decorative Textiles," a word upon the mechanical 
excellence of the book must be regarded as a part 
of any intelligent editorial comment. The illustra- 
tions, of which there are nearly six hundred, in- 
clude twenty-seven color-plates and all are admir- 
able engravings, printed with such mechanical 
quality as to constitute a fine testimonial to the 
skill of the printers. Good type, pleasant margins, 
beautiful paper and a richly dignified binding unite 
to make a notable addition to the finer books which 
bear American imprints. The making of beautiful 
books is, in itself, one of the most interesting of all 
the arts of peace, and this volume arises phoenix- 
like from the ashes of the world conflagration. 
Within the last few years the use of decorative 
textiles has greatly increased, and more attention 
has been given to the accurate and intelligent re- 
productions of weaves and designs characteristic 
of the historic periods. Manufacturers of furniture 
have thus been enabled to produce copies and 
adaptations of historic forms, with the knowledge 
the decorative resources of to-day would provide 
correct coverings. Decorators have been assured 
of ample material with which to create interiors 
of any period, drawing upon the stocks of several 
enlightened manufacturers, and being no longer 
forced to the necessity of ordering specially woven, 
fabrics. 

Decorative resources, indeed, have never existed 
in such quantity and variety as at the present time, 
and this has led to a constantly increasing activity 
among those who use, buy, manufacture or deal 
in decorative materials. 

For all such, Mr. Hunter's present volume must 
prove an indispensable aid, being the result of its 
author's long and intimate familiarity with both 
ancient and modern weaves, and the evolution of 
textile design and production. "Decorative Tex- 



tiles," furthermore, affords a source for ready refer- 
ence without the necessity of consulting technical 
libraries where most of the more important works 
are in foreign language. 

A broad conception of the subject is shown by 
the inclusion of chapters on rugs and carpets, wall- 
papers and illuminated leathers, which, indeed, have 
a legitimate connection, because their decorative 
uses as well as their designs were developed from 
textiles. 

It is difficult, in limited space, to give, without 
being categorical, an adequate idea of the variety 
of decorative textiles discussed and analyzed. The 
author has always been a close student of texture, 
considering this basic trait of textiles not only from 
the technical, but the decorative point of view. 
Added to this essential and ever-present considera- 
tion of texture, ample attention is given to design, 
pattern and color. 

The first three chapters are given over to a care- 
ful history and analysis of Damasks, Brocades and 
Velvets, with remarkable photographs, especially 
taken to show weaves and textures. "Fundamental 
and Modern Weaves," the next chapter pursues this 
detailed consideration further, with additional de- 
tail photographs. 

Laces and Embroideries are discussed in the two 
succeeding chapters, again with exceptionally well- 
chosen and specially photographed illustrations. 

Five chapters are then given over to Carpets and 
Rugs, both European and Eastern. There has been 
a marked interest of late in Chinese rugs, originals 
and reproductions, and in this connection the reader 
will welcome a chart of the ancient Chinese symbols 
that recur as design motifs in many Chinese rugs. 
Caucasian, Turkish, Indian and Persian rugs afford 
fascinating material for two successive chapters, 
the text pointing out the fundamental as well as 
the superficial differences which distinguish these 
products of the primitive Eastern looms. 

"Tapestries and Their Imitations" — here the 
author embarks upon his favorite subject, with 
which he is probably more familiar than any au- 
thority to-day. In five chapters he presents an 
illuminating summary which carries the develop- 
ment of the tapestry from the fine old Gothic ex- 
amples through the tapestries of the Renaissance 
and the products of the Gobelins, Beauvais and 
Mortlake looms, with a special chapter on Tapestry 
Furniture Coverings. 

Some of the most interesting illustrations in the 
chapter which deals with Chintzes and Cretonnes 
are those which show examples of the printed 
chintzes of William Morris, whose efforts played 



174 






A R^T 5 



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BURLINGAMt 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

480 Primrose Road 



January, 1919 



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The illustration shows a Seamless Axminster Rug, which in texture, design and coloring 
closely follows the well-known French Savonnerie weave. 

SEAMLESS AXMINSTER RUGS 

Of Decorative Character 

These distinguished -looking Rugs represent the finest product of a leading 
American Textile manufacturer, and are admirably adapted to the requirements which 
formerly were met by the most expensive Floor Coverings imported from Europe. 

Our Seamless Axminster Rugs are available in any coloring and design, 
up to 30 feet in width. Appropriate effects for any room are obtainable within 
a reasonable time and at moderate cost. 

Full particulars and samples sent upon request. 

W. & J. SLOANE 

RETAIL CARPET DEPARTMENT 
Interior Decorators Floor Coverings and Fabrics Furniture Makers 

FIFTH AVENUE AND FORTY-SEVENTH STREET, NEW YORK 
Washington, D. C. San Francisco, Cal. 



175 



176 



BOOK REVIEWS 



such an important and widespread part in bringing 
about a renascence of aesthetic conscience and per- 
ception on both sides of the Atlantic. 

The work of another great English designer 
appears in several illustrations in the chapter which 
deals with wall-papers — several of the more im- 
portant works of Walter Crane. 

The publication of this book will not only bring 
about a more intelligent knowledge of decorative 
textiles among all who are engaged in problems of 
interior decoration — amateur or professional — but 
will inevitably have an effect upon the manufac- 
turers of decorative textiles as well. Certain manu- 
facturers, sensing the trend of general discrimina- 
tion in everything pertaining to interior decoration, 
have for some time been producing decorative tex- 
tiles of the finest quality, carried out in historically 
accurate designs. With the spread of popular 
knowledge on the subject, it may be assured that all 
manufacturers who are enlightened will seek to 
meet the new demand, exactly as was the case in the 
production of furniture. Cause and effect is clearly 
marked in both cases — a general public which is 
educated to demand better things will soon demand 
further knowledge, as the response of the manu- 
facturer presently exceeds the public demand. 

If there had existed no widespread interest in 
the history and technique of decorative fabrics, Mr. 
Hunter's admirable work might have been unfruit- 
fully expended upon barren soil. In view, however, 
of the present and almost universal interest in all 
matters connected with interior decoration, this 
book on "Decorative Textiles" will be of great 
significance as indicative of this interest, and an 
important step forward in the furtherance of in- 
terest in the subject, and in the development of an 
even higher standard of production than exists to- 
day. 

Decorative Textiles, by George Leland Hunter. 
J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, Pa. $15.00 net. 



THE SPRINGTIDE OF LIFE 

Poems of Childhood 

By Algernon Charles Swinburne 

Illustrated by Arthur Rackham. 8 color plates and 

many illustrations in the text. Net $3.00 

J. B. Lippincott Company, Publishers 

As the close of his life approached Swinburne 
frequently expressed his intention to gather in one 
volume those poems of his which were addressed to 
children or were descriptive of child life. He died 
without having found occasion to carry out his plan. 
Edmund Gosse has made a labor of love of his 
efforts to carry out the poet's plan as nearly as 
possible as Swinburne might have done it. 

One reason why Swinburne never brought out 
such a collection was his failure to find an artist 



who could interpret to his satisfaction the sim- 
plicity and freshness of his verses. Arthur Rack- 
ham, whose delicate and romantic fancy is in sensi- 
tive harmony with Swinburne's and who under- 
stands, no less than he did, how "the face and the 
voice of a child are assurance of heaven," has given 
exquisite interpretation to these flowers of the poet's 
imagination. 

There 'are thirty-five of the poems, from "A 
Birth Song": 

"Out of the dark sweet sleep 
Where no dreams laugh or weep 

Borne through bright gates of birth 
Into the dim sweet light 
Where day still dreams of night 

While heaven takes form on earth. ..." 

through such studies of child life as "Etude Real- 
iste," "Cradle Songs," "First Footsteps," "A Child 
Future," to "Sunrise": 

"Where children are not, heaven is not, and heaven 
if they come not again shall be never; 

But the face and the voice of a child are assurance 
of heaven and its promise for ever." 

Lovers of the beautiful in poetry and the poetic 
line will find this beautiful volume a rare addition 
to their treasures ; surely one among the chiefest. 



"American Anniversaries," by Philip R. Dillon, 
is a unique and timely — shall we say creation — that 
will prove extremely useful when fully known. 

In a book of 349 pages Mr. Dillon presents 750 
important events in the history of the United 
States from the discovery of America to the present 
day. Some of these events are of less importance 
than others, but there is one event for every day in 
the year which may serve as an anniversary some- 
where in the country and worthy of being talked 
about or commemorated. 

To merely collect that number required more 
than ordinary patient research during many years. 
But when this has been done with real judgment 
and with every line backed with interesting informa- 
tion, often rare, with the least possible padding of 
words, it rises to a work of art in the field of 
reference books. It will prove invaluable to jour- 
nalists and writers of all kinds, above all to public 
speakers who wish to have a text with which to 
begin a discourse or furnish a sufficient reason for 
appearing at all before an audience upon a certain 
day of the year. 

Students of history will find much of value and 
a number of corrections of false ideas. For ex- 
ample: To C. C. Pinckney has been accredited the 
famous remark: "Billions for defense and not a 
cent for tribute," in answer to the effort of Talley- 
rand to bribe him. Even the New York Tribune 






A R^T 





BURLINGAMt 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

480 Primro» Boad 



-January, 1919 



The ART WORLD and ARTS & DECORATION 



177 




-^g£g& i^C^^R! 




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S. Altaian & GI0. 



INTERIOR DECORATION 



Cabinet Making 



Upnolstery 



iHabtBnn AtfauK-Jftfttf Awtm?, Nrtu fork 

Sljtrtg-fimrttj £»tmt ©tjtrtg-ftfiij g>imt 



178 



BOOK REVIEWS 



fell into the error as late as December 22nd, 1918. 
Mr. Dillon proves that Pinckney did not coin that 
phrase and that R. G. Harper did, and at a dinner 
given in Philadelphia. Mr. Dillon also shows that 
the naval battle of Lynn Haven Bay, fought Sep- 
tember 5th, 1781, between the French Fleet under 
de Grasse and the English Fleet under Graves, was 
the decisive battle of the Revolutionary War. 

The book is so arranged that at a glance an anni- 
versary can be found for any day of the year. Be- 
sides it has a good cross-index to enable one to find 
facts noted in the book. It also gives the principal 
dates of the Great War from 1914 to the signing of 
the armistice. Bound in red cloth and published by 
the Dillon Publishing Company, 314 West 53rd 
Street, New York, price $2.50. 

"Flowers in Verse," a book of 37 short poems 
by Gabrielle Mulliner, one on a page, celebrating 37 
different kinds of flowers and trees and what they 
suggest and inspire, has come to hand. It is a 
beautiful book full of charming thought and senti- 
ment from a woman of fine feeling. Very appropri- 
ate as a present from one friend to another. It is 
Mrs. Mulliner's first venture into the field of art 
and shows that she has enough talent, as a crafts- 
man, to justify us in expecting with strong hopes 
to her giving us equally fascinating creations in 
verse when she lays bare her adventures in the 
realms of life and death, the pain of defeat and the 
joy of success. Printed privately and embellished 
with eight half-tones of beautiful flower-pictures 
by famous masters from Daniel Zetaghers, 1590- 
1661, to Richard Purnikle, 1770-1838. It is a 
distinguished book. It is on sale at Brentano's, 
price $2.50. 

"California, the Wonder Land," by the poet, 
Edwin Markham, is no doubt the best book on that 
country yet written. To those who have lived in 
California, this is particularly true and to such it 
is more satisfying of the strange nostalgia for that 
land of golden sunsets and wonder pines and sub- 
lime aspects of nature's work, both ordinary and 
freakish, than any other book. Markham has with 
a keen insight and affectionate sympathy grasped 
the mystic suggestions of that strange land — where 
the coldest days are often encountered in July and 
where we have seen a man water his flaming gera- 
niums in January. 

Markham spent 40 years in the state, from his 
earliest boyhood, and knows the state, its people 
and history. 

To those who long for a land of sunshine, for 
restfulness, for a glorious climate, or for hunting, 
or for some of the sublimest of scenecry in the 
world, California offers an inexhaustible feast, and 
such as contemplate visiting the state next Spring 
should arm themselves at once with Markham's 
most informing and inspiring book of 400 pages 
and numerous fine half-tone illustrations and por- 



traits of literary people who have lent lustre to the 
state and a relief map to be bought at Hearst's In- 
ternational Library Company, New York, price 
$2.50. 

"Architecture and Democracy," by Claude 
Bragdon, is one of the most suggestive books that 
has been written on architecture, above all in re- 
gard to the architecture of the future. We can do 
no better than say that the following extract from 
a prospectus is true: "This latest book of Mr. 
Bragdon's, though as far as possible from being 
what is called a war book, nevertheless concerns 
itself with those 'transvaluations of all values' 
brought about by the war by the light of that great 
conflagration." He tries to refer more clearly than 
has yet been done in the past and future to archi- 
tecture. 

There follows a clear presentation of his theory 
concerning the relation between "Ornamental and 
Mathematical" with interesting sidelights on the 
fourth dimension of space, and a discussion of the 
new art of mobile color, a field in which he is 
generally recognized as a pioneer. The book in- 
cludes also an appreciation of Louis Sullivan (the 
greatest living exponent of so-called "functional" 
architecture), enriched by quotations from Mr. 
Sullivan's little known, but highly significant writ- 
ings and chapters on Color and Ceramics and 
"Symbols and Sacrament." The two last are highly 
mystical and will delight those readers who value 
most highly this side of the author's talent. The 
book contains Mr. Bragdon's most mature thought 
and is notable for its 35 very remarkable illustra- 
tions. Published by Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 
price $2.00. 

"Light and Shade," by M. Luckiesh, Physicist 
of the Nela Research Laboratory, is a most inter- 
esting, unique and valuable contribution to the 
study of the effects produced by difference of Light 
and Shade as they fall on objects, in nature and in 
the field of art. The object of the book is best told 
in the preface : 

"Inspired by a conviction that there is much 
more to the art and science of light than is com- 
monly practiced, I began several years ago a study 
of the appearance of objects. Attention was na- 
turally directed toward those factors which influ- 
ence light, shade and color, because vision is ac- 
complished through the distinction of differences in 
brightness and color. In other words, the aim 
throughout the study has been to unearth the fun- 
damentals of lighting. It early became evident 
that the problem of light as affecting the appearance 
of objects could be divided into two parts, namely 
the consideration of quality and of the distribution 
of light, the former chiefly effects color and the 
latter light and shade." 
- He deserves not. a scientific spirit on the influence 
(Continued on page 180) 



A R^T 5 





BURLINGAMt 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

480 Primrose Road 



kinuary, 1919 



The ART WORLD and ARTS & DECORATION 



179 






" ininiii nm nisn up: "it i. <v<;\a is »r is i:ih n ■»■' : i 'T,iti~i '■ a«e< : ,i er* <r. su :';si;i f':i :■ nil 



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180 



The ART WORLD and ARTS & DECORATION 



January, 1919 



KEVORKIAN 

ANCIENT ARTS OF ASIA 




SPECIAL EXHIBITION of 

SCULPTUKES and PAINTINGS 

of ANCIENT INDIA 

40 West 57th Street New York 



AMERICAN ART NEWS 

AMERICA'S ONLY ART NEWSPAPER 

PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN ART NEWS CO., Inc. 

15-17 EAST 40th STREET NEW YORK 



Now in its seventeenth year of 
successful publication, and uni- 
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the United States and Europe. 

All important picture, print and 
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Weekly letters from Paris and London 
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PUBLISHED WEEKLY— $3.00 A YEAR— 37 ISSUES 

Canada, $3.35; Foreign Countries, $3.75 
(Weekly from Oct. 15 to June 1 — Monthly during the summer) 



ASIATIC ART— rERSIA 
(Continued from page 137) 
case that design and execution are by the same 
hand. 

The general scheme of a Persian carpet is related 
to the designs of gardens; beds of flowers, highly 
conventionalized, or groves of flowering or fruiting 
trees occupy the centre, surrounded by borders. In 
rare and very beautiful types, the central scheme 
exhibits four channels of running water proceeding 
from a common centre, after the fashion of the 
springs of Paradise. In other cases, the central 
area is occupied with hunting-scenes, or again, with 
elaborate floral arabesques, sometimes with a 
mosque lamp hanging in the centre, of which there 
is the famous and magnificent example of the 
Ardebil mosque carpet in the South Kensington 
Museum. The manufacture of carpets has been 
carried on in Asia — in Turkey, Persia, India and 
China — up to the present day. But there has never 
been a better instance than is to be found here, 
of deterioration in quality that results from quan- 
titative production — in this case, a deteriora- 
tion not only in design and material, but above 
all in dyes, for the cheap aniline dyes of western 
manufacture have replaced, except in special cases, 
the glowing vegetable and animal colorings of the 
past, which required a succession of elaborate 
processes, sometimes lasting over a year, to produce 
the desired results. There are no short cuts in 
art, and those who will not wait for the best must 
be content with the worst. 



BOOK REVIEWS 
(Continued from page 178) 
of light and shade in nature, sculpture, architecture, 
painting, stage-craft, photography, etc. The style 
is clear and pleasant. The book is of 266 pages 
with 135 illustrations and 10 tables and index, and 
is published by D. Van Nostrand Company, New 
York, price $2.50. 

"The Chemistry and Technology of Paints," 
by Maximilian Toch, is another unique book, pub- 
lished by D. Van Nostrand Company of New York, 
being the first book ever written on the subject of 
mixed paints and their constituents. The volume 
is intended for the student in chemistry who desires 
to familiarize himself with paints, or the engineer 
who desires a better knowledge of such, or for the 
paint manufacturer and paint chemist, as a work of 
reference, and is not intended for those who have 
no previous knowledge or training on the subject. 
It is therefore of large interest to the artist who 
wishes to learn about fundamentals of color manu- 
facture and mixing. The book is its second edition, 
is of 366 pages with an index and with 83 photo-- 
micrographic plates and other illustrations. Price 
$4.00. 




ICT 



BURLINGAMt 

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lamiarv, 1919 



The ART WORLD and ARTS & DECORATION 



181 



FLAXMAN'S DRAWIN( ,S 

{Continued from page 133) 

Figure 2 illustrates Book 111 of the Iliad and 
shows: "Helen introduced to Paris by Venus and 
reproaching him for his cowardice in combat with 
her husband, Menelaus." 

Figure 3 illustrates Book I of the Odyssey and 
shows: "Phemios chanting before the suitors of 
Penelope." These suitors had made themselves a 
nuisance to Penelope, who, never doubting the re- 
turn of her husband, Ulysses, did not want to marry 
any of them, nor could she drive these suitors away 
who ate and drank to their hearts' content the food 
provided by Ulysses. 

Figure 4 illustrates Chant XXIV of Dante's 
Divine Comedy and shows: "The torture of the 
thieves in Hell by being bitten by venemous ser- 
pents." How different the turbulent spirit of this 
illustration from those of the placid ones illustrating 
the Greek poets ! Showing a versatility on Flax- 
man's part, an insight and power of putting him- 
self in sympathy with the Greek and 13th century 
poets, rare indeed. 

Our reproductions are from engravings on steel 
by the French engraver, Reveil. of the original 
drawings, for distribution in France and Germany, 
and made in 1833. " They are very good, but not 
quite equal in finesse to the engravings of the same 
subjects made by Moses, the English engraver, and 
not as good as the original drawings, as they miss 
certain touches in details which are personal to Flax- 
man and ever charming to the connoisseur. 



PRINTING IN COLOR 
(Continued from page 155) 
and pasty must be rubbed into the plate in their 
proper places without running over into the next 
neighboring color, the surface of the plate being 
kept clean ; neither must it be left to dry, but kept 
in a pliable state until all the colors are placed in 
their proper places ; the plate is kept warm for this 
purpose. As soon as the plate has received all the 
colors required, print paper is placed over it and 
passed into the press, where it is subjected to great 
pressure, with the result that all the colors have 
been transferred to the paper from the copperplate ; 
the paper is then "pulled" off and left exposed until 
dry. It is needless to say that to produce good and 
satisfactory results requires an artist's touch and an 
artist's knowledge of tones and values. The English 
18th-century prints in color from both Mezzo- 
tints and Stipple Engraving plates have a delicacy 
of tone and color which are exceptional for the 
reason that they are not only printed from the soft 
copper, but are done by the best artists of that re- 
markable century. 

France did not practice to any great extent the 
art of Mezzotinto. 



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The ART WORLD and ARTS & DECORATION 



January, 19ift 



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NOTES OF THE BOOK WORLD 

(Continued from page 142) 
copy of an antique book is in a fine state of preser- 
vation, its value is greatly enhanced commercially. 

Therefore the best preserved books and manu- 
scripts command the highest prices when brought 
to the auction mart, although some experts claim 
that the value of a rare literary work should be 
determined solely by its scarcity, regardless of 
condition. 

One is naturally impressed with the good condi- 
tion of valuable works of literature which have 
been handed down for centuries. It shows that the 
former owners had high regard for their literary 
treasures, and that they took care of the master- 
pieces in their possession. 



LONDON LITERARY SALES 
The third portion of a famous collection of auto- 
graph letters and historical manuscripts was dis- 
persed at Sotheby's in London last month. It was 
the collection formed by the late Alfred Morrison 
and included a fine series of letters from Dean 
Sw r ift to the Lord Mayor of London, and notable 
letters from Shelley. One of the Shelley letters 
was the last one written by the author from Lerici, 
Italy. 

A letter of special interest was in the handwriting 
of Thackeray, and dated Paris, December 27, 1858. 
It was written by the novelist to Captain Atkinson 
thanking him for his book (perhaps George 
Francklyn Atkinson's "Curry and Rice," on forty 
plates, issued about this time). In it Thackeray 
referred to the critics of Printing House Square 
as follows : "They are artful and inscrutable and 
a request for a notice might bring a slasher down 
upon you such as I once had in the Times." Even 
Thackeray had experiences with the critics, and his 
little note of warning gave a certain zest to the 
London literary sale. 



The London literary sales season has brought a 
number of collections into the market, and Bernard 
Quaritch is again to the fore as a successful bidder 
for rare volumes. 

At the sale of the first portion of the W. J. 
Leighton library at Sotheby's, the Shakespeare 
folios proved a feature. A slightly defective copy 
of the second folio with Smethwick's title brought 
$1,025, and another with the Hawkins title page 
was sold for $650. Both copies were obtained by 
Bernard Quaritch. 

A number of interesting items are included in a 
recent catalogue issued by James F. Drake, and 
devoted to early and modern rare volumes. How 
the pirates sailed the high seas and performed un-^, 
paralleled exploits is revealed in "The Buccaniers 
of America ; or, a true account of the most remark- 







iiillllllllllllll 



i 




R^T 5 




i- 'I'::' 




BURLINGAMt 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

480 Primrow Road 



January, 1919 



The ART WORLD and ARTS & DECORATION 



183 



able assaults committed of late years upon the 
coasts of the West Indies by the Buccaniers of 
Jamaica and Tortuga, both English and French," 
by John Esquemeling. It is a scarce first edition 
with London imprint, 1684-85, and is illustrated 
with large portraits of Captain Morgan, whose 
exploits are featured in the story of the "Buc- 
caniers," some rare maps of South America and 



The library of the late A. F. Bandelier, archaeolo- 
gist and explorer, which included many volumes 
pertaining to travels, research and history of both 
North America and Spanish America, was dispersed 
last month at the Walpole Galleries. 

Mr. Bandelier formed the valuable collection of 
Peruvian and Bolivian antiquities in the American 
Museum of Natural History. 

His library brought $2,200 from a sale of two 
sessions. 

At the annual meeting of the Society of Wash- 
ington Artists, the resignation of Richard N. 
Brooke, President for a number of years, was 
accepted. 

George Julian Zolmay was elected to fill the 
vacancy, and Miss S. S. Munroe was chosen vice- 
president. 

The members of the Society are preparing for 
their annual exhibition in February. 



PAINTING PAST AND PRESENT 
(Continued from page 162) 
this they have sacrificed the richest and most 
potent colors of the palette ! 

The early painters created true luminosity and 
brilliancy by applying the transparent color over 
a light ground. This produced a scale of colors 
unknown in the use of admixtures of white. The 
present painter produces an illusion of the luminous 
through the use of graduated contrasts (chiaros- 
curo) and the stimulation of the eye through the 
use of complementary colors placed in juxtaposi- 
tion (impressionism). The use of transparent 
color necessitated a complete rendering of the form 
in more or less monotone before being applied. 
This was known as "dead coloring." Thus the 
method required precise definition of form. If the 
painter could not visualize his objects truly, he 
must, nevertheless, represent them precisely. He 
could not lay the veil of color without the under- 
lying form. Therefore, while ancient art is char- 
acterized by clearly - defined forms, modern art is 
characterized by uncertainty and vagueness. The 
modern creates an illusion of the fact or effect 
only at a given distance from the picture. This 
was foreign to the ancient mind as well as to the 
ancient method. The ancient insisted on making 



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tilings clear; the modern "lories in the vague and 
uncertain. This he calls suggestion. It is pro- 
duced largely by clever manipulation of texture 
and chiaroscuro. Texture is a purely modern 
trick to create an illusion of the object. It often 
masquerades under the name of "force." 

Inasmuch as the modern would be free to express 
himself his method must also be free. But freedom 
in method means simply lack of method. Thus 
while the ancient loved order and method, clarity 
and precision, the modern loves disorder and 
chance, suggestion and indecision. 

Mood has only a modern meaning. It is as 
vague and uncertain as the means of reproducing. 
It is subject to whim and fancy. It is often pro- 
duced by artificial stimulants, and, being unnatural, 
is a sign of decadence. Pictures painted for per- 
sonal pleasure depending upon the mood of the 
moment are uncertain and uneven. In conse- 
quence, much in modern painting revolves in a 
vicious circle — a series of actions and reactions. 
Art becomes faddish and sensational. 

But the picture painted for a given place to 
satisfy a given purpose is not to be judged as an 
abstract and isolated work of art and is not so 
subject to the uncertain muse and mood of the 
painter. On the contrary, as we have seen, limita- 
tions and specified conditions make for definition 
and precision. This stimulates the true imagina- 



tion and creative power of the artist. "The laws 
are its wings, they do not keep it weighed down, 
they carry it to freedom." 



To conclude, therefore, the art of the future will 
gain in invention and imagination when it works 
with more definite ideas, ideas least subject to the 
personal and the particular. 

The picture painted to decorate a given place 
must in consequence produce its effect principally 
in the realm of design — the harmonious arrange- 
ment of forms and colors in relation to the theme 
or idea. It is in the realm of design that modern 
art has been least interesting and inventive. The 
recent revival in the general decoration of the 
interior, the added interest in furnishing, must 
ultimately result in considering the picture in rela- 
tion to this new environment. This is already 
seen in an awakened attention given to the design- 
ing of picture frames, which have heretofore been 
accepted without special consideration. 

In conclusion, it is safe to say that the art of 
the future will be less realistic in its tendency ; 
that truth to nature will not be the sole criterion ; 
but that the interest and expression will be more 
concerned with the design, with rhythm and balance, 
and with color used as a means of expressing ideas 
in relation to, and in harmony with, a particular 
place for a particular purpose. 



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BURLINGAMt 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

480 Primro» Road 



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The ART WORLD and ARTS & DECORATION 



185 



This is a SAMPLE page 
from the January 1919 
issue of 



THE TOUCHSTONE 

and American Art Student 

MAGAZINE 

Mary Fanton Roberts, Editor 



ON 

LEAVE. 
BY 
STEINLEN. 



■ SI 



TEINLEN, THE ARTIST OF 
FRENCH DEMOCRACY: BY MARY 
FANTON ROBERTS 

WAR pictures can be done in two ways — one 
for the sake of dramatic effect, the other 
for the sake of humanity. The latter is 
Steinlen's way, a very simple way. He sees in 
war what every man sees. He knows it can be 
made a swashbuckling spectacle, that he could center his interest on 
horses and trappings, brilliant uniforms and great pageants. This is 
not Steinlen's way. All this is external. He reaches the world through 
his heart, his work expresses all humanity with a profound understand- 
ing and pity. 

The fundamental basis of Steinlen's inspiration is pity, an infi- 
nite understanding, an infinite commiseration for the world, expressed 
with gravity and strength, absolutely without sentimentality, but with 
every shade of tenderness and delicacy. His is a pity for humanity 
that is almost naive. It encompassed his art in Paris before The War 
when he drew the women of the streets, drawing them never with 
cruelty or criticism or a sense of superiority, always with a love of 
humanity saturating his work, rendering it infinitely truthful, infinitely 
beautiful. 

There may be other artists as great technicians as Steinlen. Is 
there another who encompasses the suffering world with his under- 
standing, who has so completely opened his heart to the sorrows that 
have enveloped all humanity this last four years? 

If it is possible to divide artists interested in war into military 
painters and war painters, Steinlen must be classed as a painter of 
war in the biggest sense, with all its heights and depths, its beauty and 

misery. In all his work the Man who inspires 
him is "The Man of Sorrows," the Man who sym- 
bolizes the great Poletariat. The suffering, the 
wretched, the resigned all figure in a compassion 
that seems boundless. 

In a spirit like Steinlen, an intelligence di- 
rected by the heart, it is not necessary to pass in 
his work from the social life to the war life. To 
him there is no difference; the social attributes 
including love, sorrow, the death of mankind, the 
birth of children all figure in his art of the 
trenches, the purely military display has not in- 
terested him. What he knows, is the man leaving 



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The ART WORLD and ARTS & DECORATION' 



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HOAJL-: FURNISHINGS PRODUC- 
TION 

A Part of America's Reconstruction Job 

THE words industrial art imply the 
relation of art to industrial or 
mechanical production, which in 
daily parlance signifies the relation of 
appealing form and color to utility. They 
mean that usefulness, while remaining 
an essential objective, is shorn of its 
ability to contribute to cultural progress 
if it is not made sufficiently attractive to 
contribute pleasure to human environ- 
ment. This relation between industry 
and art is embraced in the word design, 
a type of thinking that Americans have 
been too ready to let others do for them 
these many years. 

While counting upon mass production 
as a quick road to large figures on our 
national ledger, we have not been far- 
sighted enough to discover that mass 
alone becomes an obstacle in all articles 
which constitute our domestic surround- 
ings, if a constant and consistenly grow- 
ing appeal does not form a part of its 
reason for being. The exact value to be 
placed upon the material and the design 
we have for many decades gauged in- 
correctly. The gloss of surface carving 
will not pass for design. The gimcrack 
assortment of motives which is the 
merest filmy cloak for the structural con- 
ception identical in all styles unless re- 
lated to every guiding line in the piece ; 
the gathering of suggestion repeatedly 
from books — and usually from poor 
books or designs themselves copied from 
others of their own ilk without recourse 
to originals — brings about a stalemate in 
design. Execution improves, design lags. 
Execution, methods of manufacture, 
cannot supplant design ; they can only 
facilitate design. Without design they 
, serve requirements of utility only and 
might as well be diverted to merely 
mechanical objectives in which appeal to 
the mind through the eye or sense of 
touch is the least consideration. Objects 
of industrial art without an adequate in- 
spiration in design serve their function 
as well as a piano played when out of 
tune. 

American business men are known to 
be shrewd, yet their shrewdness is too 
momentary in its application. In the 
great field of the industrial arts com- 
manding an outlay of $500,000,000 each 
year these very business men have not 
taken thought for the future. They wail 
for the designers that Europe has re- 
called, they lament the fate of American 
furniture, and turn around to make just 
what they have made before with a 
minimum improvement on the plea that 
design is too expensive, whereas correct 
reasoning would show that good design 
is an investment costing less than any 
other single factor in industrial arts pro- 
duction when considered in terms of ul- 
timate cash returns. 

There is but one help for manufac- 
turers in the industrial arts field — only 
one : education. They must educate de- 
(Continued on page 190) 



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R^T 5 



V A 





BURLINGAMt 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

480 Primros* Road 



anuary, 1919 



The -ART WORLD and ARTS & DECORATION 



187 



liiu i> miiiumi iiiiiiimiii miiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiii i mil i i in iiiiiiii iiii ii i in i i i i mi nin i mm iiimimm iiiiinii iiiiiiiiiiimimimimimiiiimiimmii 

iibuiiii linn i iiiiiiii urn imiiiii urn n iiiiiiii n mimiiiiii i mini mi i n ■■ m imiuiii i nun 




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presume to erect a house without employing the 
services of a professional architect; — no more should 
the advice of a specialist. 

Mr. Hutaff, whose fine interiors have attracted much 
attention in exclusive decorative circles, may be con- 
sulted at the Hutaff Galleries, where a permanent ex- 
hibition of rare furniture and decorative accessories is 
maintained. 



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BDSTERS 



A CRITICAL STUDY OF 
THE DEVELOPMENT OF 
POSTER DESIGN IN 
CONTINENTAL EUROPE, 
ENGLAND AND AMERICA 



By CHARLES MATLACK PRICE 

(Chairman, Board of Judges, Ship Poster Competition, One of the Judges of the W. S. S. Poster Competition; 

Newark Prise Poster Competition, etc., etc.) 

The first definite American treatise on poster design and the most valuable contribution of recent years to the 
literature of the Graphic Arts. Of particular importance at this time when artists everywhere are devoting their 
best thought to the creation of war-winning posters. The book should be in every library and school and in the 
hands of artists and students who aim to master the fundamentals of poster design. 

Illustrated with 42 full-page Poster Reproductions in Colors and 120 in Monotone 

"A veritable international exhibition of poster art in one 
volume." School Arts Magazine. 

"Occupies a place quite by itself among treatises on the 
minor fine arts. ... It developes the underlying principles in- 
volved in poster design with the greatest clearness." The 
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course." Art Director, Fairmount College. 



"A source of constant inspiration, brimful of suggestion. ... 
It is well that a serious discussion, and authoritative treatise, 
should at last be accessible to those who are called upon to 
work in or to judge of poster design. Aside from its practical 
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exposition of all that is best in poster design as applied to adver- 
tising art, it is mechanically one of the finest publications of the 
year." (The Poster, Chicago.) 



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the author. 



A few copies remain of the original edition, limited to 250 numbered copies, handsomely bound in 
Gold Stamped Art Buckram, printed on deckled edge paper with tinted end papers. Signed by 
Prized by collectors of fine books. Price $25.00 net. 



GEORGE W. BRICKA, Publisher, 114-120 East 28th St., New York 






188 



The ART WORLD and ARTS & DECORATION 



January, 1919 









c. 




Ik "A sheet of it will defy you to put it 
out of business." — Alonzo Kimball. 



w 



ATER COLOR paper always means 'What- 
man' to me and a hot pressed sheet of it 
will stand anything and defy you to put 
it out of business. I know, for I've enjoyed using it 
and it's a good, reliable friend. 

"To ask me what I think and know about 'What- 
man' is like asking me what I know about 
'Sterling' or whether 2x2=4. They are in the same 
category. I've been brought up to know that all 

three are proved facts in their dif- 
ferent lines and all three can be 
depended upon. To advertise 
'Whatman' it is only necessary to 
write a eulogy on water-color paper. 




DRAWING PAPERS 

— for a century and a half the preferred paper of master and 
student alike. Get- at your dealer's — the kind that will best 
bring out your technique. 
H. REEVE ANGEL & CO. Inc., 7-11 Spruce Street, New York 

Sole Importers for the United States 




"From Raw Material to Finished Product Made Under 
Allied Colours" 



Mat Water 
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A Colour Chart on 
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Ask Your Dealer for 
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YORK, N.Y. 



THE EDWIN BOOTH MEMORIAL 
(Continued from page 147) 
a modelling "stunt," thus hiding the man Booth and 
parading the "technician" Ouinn — a practise so 
dear and so fatal to the aberrated ego-diseased 
modernists of every degree of kow-towing to the 
fetish of "individualism gone mad." 

And yet the modelling shows a manner, one that 
is sufficiently Quinn's own to be recognized as not 
being that of any other sculptor. It is Quinn's 
manner, expressed with that Greek restraint which 
will more and more make it appeal to the wise, 
even if those outside the fold of sculptors fail to 
see it. It is this patent restraint which will help 
the work to grow in our affections. 

Then the statue is socially good. For it shows 
Booth as a most sympathetic, poetic and lovable 
man, and in the role of Hamlet, his greatest achieve- 
ment, in which he charmed thousands by his un- 
forgetable rendering of that great role. 

Finally the statue is composed with so much 
grace of line, charm of light and shade, unity of 
form and movement, which invests it with an exalt- 
ing style that it is beautiful. Hence, it measures up 
in a high degree to the demands of the fundamentals 
of all enduring art: it is True, Good and Beautiful. 

We congratulate Quinn on his masterly creation ; 
we rejoice with The Players in their good luck — 
for it is some luck for even a great sculptor to 
achieve a success, seeing that even the greatest of 
them have in the past made grievous failures, along 
with great success. 

The next thing to do now, and soon, is to open 
the gates of Gramercy Park to the public on every 
Sunday and holiday, from 1 to S p. m., so that every- 
one can at least pass through the Park and enjoy 
the statue in passing from 20th to 2tst Streets, 
during which time, if need be, two ropes could be 
stretched across the Park, or, two policemen could 
be there to see that the public will do no more than 
pass through this private park between those hours. 
For so good a statue of so lovable a man should 
not be "hidden under a bushel" nor screened behind 
a fence a hundred feet away, through which it can 
scarcely be seen to advantage. This will not be a 
hardship to those whose property rights in this 
"private park" can be exercised to the full during 
the rest of the week. 

Finally, let The Players appoint a standing com- 
mittee whose duty it shall be to always look after 
and care for this statue of the great-hearted artist 
who founded their Club and gave them their charm- 
ing club house, facing this statue, and which is their 
home, and to see to it that the statue is always kept 
clean and surrounded with flowers. 

Let such a committee be an example to the rest 
of the country in showing that it is not enough to 
erect a statue to one whom we love, but that we 
should keep it always fresh and bright with flowers. 






^ii i iiii : , 



'.■" i. 






A R^T 5 




I-, 1 .,:.;'.-. 



liiMiiiiiiiin.nii'r 




BURUNGAMt 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

480 Primrow Ro«d 



January, 1019 



The* ART WORLD and ARTS & DECORATION 



189 




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Manufacturers 

PHILADELPHIA 

St. Louis, Mo. Baltimore, Md. 

Through your regular dealer or direct. 







WORLD and ARTS & DECORATION' 



January, 1919 



YALE SCHOOL OF THE FINE ARTS 

YALE UNIVERSITY, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 
SERGEANT KENDALL. Director 

DEPARTMENTS OF DRAWING AND PAINTING 
SCULPTURE AND ARCHITECTURE 

CLASSES IN COMPOSITION. ANATOMY AND PERSPECTIVE 

FACULTY — Painting — Sergeant 
Kendall. Drawing — Edwin C. Tay- 
lor, G. H. Langzettel, T. Diedrick- 

sen, Jr. Sculpture — Robert G. 
Eberhard. Architecture — Everett 
V. Meeks, Franklin J. Walls, A. 
Kingsley Porter. Composition, 
Perspective — Edwin C. Taylor. 
Anatomy — Raynham Townshend, 
M.D. 

DEGREE — The degree of Bache- 
lor of Fine Arts (B.F.A.) is 
awarded for advanced work of 
distinction. 

The Winchester Fellowship for 
one year's study of art in Europe, 
the English Scholarship for study 
of art and travel in Europe during 
the summer vacation, and School 
Scholarships are awarded annually. 

Illustrated Catalogue: Address G. H. LANGZETTEL. Secretary 



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IF YOU WISH TO STUDY ART 
and have any doubt as to the best school for your 
requirements ; the location of schools nearest your 
home ; the tuition of any school, etc., or any other 
question, write to School Information Bureau 
ART WORLD and ARTS & DECORATION 
470 Fourth Avenue New York City 



HOME FURNISHINGS 
PRODU< TION 

{Continued from page 186) 
signers, they must establish schools for 
training designers, they must realize that 
design is a cash asset, an all-for-business 
investment in every piece they turn out, 
in every yard of goods they print or 
weave. They must appreciate that de- 
sign does not mean "fancy" pieces or 
over-elaboration. In short, they must 
come to the conviction that design means 
quality and that only good design com- 
mands a good price. Birch is not ma- 
hogany; garish convolutions are not or- 
nament. Refinement is the index of taste 
and taste is the keynote of American 
industrial advance. Education points out 
the difference between the artistic pro- 
gress of France and the industrial art 
stalemate of America. 

In many branches of life men have 
seen the salvation of their business en- 
terprises in the training of those to 
whom they pay salaries. In the indus- 
trial arts field the voice of not one manu- 
facturer has been heard in favor of 
schools to teach designers. Rather a 
million dollars for mass output to achieve 
large selling-figures now than five thou- 
sand dollars toward a school whose hu- 
man product will make the one million 
into ten within a few years. Rather hun- 
dreds of thousands of inferior designs 
to serve as drugs for American taste 
than a few hundreds of high-quality de- 
signs that will gain for us the inter- 
national respect without which our pro- 
duct will command no price abroad. 
Rather self-seeking individual factory 
output than unified patriotic endeavor 
for the good of America. 

Schools we must have — in every 
branch of industrial art production we 
must have school training as a feeder 
for the factory of the future. Designers 
will surely always come up from the 
ranks, but if there are potential designers 
in the ranks of factory hands, they de- 
serve the chance to make the journey 
toward a designer's salary by the line of 
least resistance. 

The school is a part of the factory, and 
the fact that it is not under the same 
roof with the machinery of production 
does not alter this truth. To hesitate to 
train designers to turn out the best for 
the American market is to waste mate- 
rial, to waste effort, to waste money, to 
waste the precious time which we have 
lost in depending upon Europe so long. 

To the manufacturer we say: The 
schools you help to found now will not 
thank you for your patronage, for you 
will be doing yourself a favor in con- 
tributing to their support. In founding 
schools you are simply putting money in 
bank. They will return many times your 
cash investment. They will bring you 
designers capable of raising American 
standards to an eminent position among 
nations. Is it worth while to help your- 
self? Is it worth while to help your field 
of production? Is it worth while to help 
America? 

By all means let education do the job — 
let "schools, schools, always schools" be 
your slogan, and let us have these 
schools now. Every day lost is a handi- 
cap. If you have faith in the future of 
American industrial art, build for that 
future. Do it now. 

And while the schools are being put 
under way, the educational values of 
museums must not be ignored. Prac- 
tically all of our museums maintaining 
collections in any of the industrial arts 




R^T 5 





BURLINGAMt 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

480 PrimroM Road 



January 1919 



The- AftT WORLD and ARTS & DECORATION 



191 



tiekls have made many efforts to reach 
designers, to appeal to manufacturers, to 
establish the business value of design. 
To develop design without the use of the 
museum is to study chemistry without 
laboratory. 

Thus the Metropolitan Museum of Art 
is a large central laboratory for the de- 
signers and manufacturers of the metro- 
politan district. In fact, its lines of ef- 
fort reach to remote corners of the 
country. It maintains lending collections 
of many kinds — photographs, lantern- 
slides, maps, charts, actual samples of 
textiles and laces, casts and even post- 
cards. It distributes annually many 
thousands of photographs which are 
used directly for working up designs in 
the designing rooms of industrial arts 
producing plants, the cost of such photo- 
graphs being so nominal a consideration 
that that department of the Museum is 
constantly overworked. In the Museum 
building it maintains enormous collec- 
tions of direct value to men in the prac- 
tical fields, a convenient textile study- 
room, ten thousand samples of textile 
art of all times, many costumes — this 
much in the textile field alone. The en- 
tire collection of industrial arts objects 
embraced under the general title of dec- 
orative arts number fitty thousand. 
There are published a large number of 
bulletins and leaflets describing the work 
of the Museum in the educational field. 
These are widely distributed in many 
thousands each year. 

There is maintained a docent service 
involving the entire time of three Mu- 
seum instructors engaged in bringing 
home to visitors of all' kinds and classes 
• the value of individual pieces or of en- 
tire collections. There are given an- 
nually several courses of public lectures. 
There is maintained for the benefit of 
manufacturers, designers, craftsmen and 
artisans a special department in charge 
of an experienced chief whose office it is 
to make the collections directly acces- 
sible to assist in finding suggestions, rec- 
ommending developments in design, and 
in general, in working out the direct in- 
fluence of the finest things of all times 
for the greater good of American design 
in the present. 

The Metropolitan Museum regards it 
as the sincerest form of war-time effort 
to contribute in this way toward the 
steady development of the arts of peace 
in anticipation of commercial rivalry 
during the reconstruction that will surely 
follow the world conflict. In Washing- 
ton legislators have given thought to 
methods of steadying our lives when the 
job over there is finished. They have 
foreseen that we must now prepare those 
counter-weights which will help to bring 
us back to an even keel. Among these 
counter-weights, the arts will play a lead- 
ing part. In order that they may assist 
in making comfortable, convenient, and 
attractive the environment of our re- 
turning fighters, in order that they may 
assure the predominance of America in 
the industrial arts producing field, manu- 
facturers must give thought to the edu- 
cation of designers. 




Alter the War, What — In Art 

Preparation for the Art Trades is Essential 
to Economic and Ethical National Efficiency 

NEW YORK SCHOOL OF FINE AND APPLIEdIrT 

FRANK ALVAH PARSONS, Pres. SUMMER SESSION, JULY 6 

Specially arranged industrial art courses. Interior Decoration, Poster 
Advertising, Costume Design, Illustration, Textile Design and other 
industrial art subjects. Life Drawing and Painting. 



Circulars, March 1st. 



S. F. BISSELL, Sec, 2239 Broadway, N. Y. 



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apply to 
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Skinkcr Road and Lindell Boulevard, St. Louis. Mo. 




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Send $1 NOW, stamps or bill. < 
STUDENTS ART MAGAZlNE.Depl. 419, Kalamazoo. Mich. 



NEW HOTEL BINGHAM 

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192 



The ART WORLD and ARTS & DECORATION 



January, 1919 











Well chosen decora- 
tive accessories are 
of paramount im- 
portance. 



Distinctive Homes 

are not necessarily the most expensive — to 
create them, thought, individuality and 
most of all suggestions are needed. 

In order that this publication may be of 
the greatest possible benefit to its readers 
the publishers invite inquiries regarding any 
of the varied problems of interior decorating 
and furnishing or any other phase of the fine 
arts. The Service Department is constantly 
in touch with the sources of information 
upon any of these subjects and will gladly aid *>■*'& Deration cangiv* 

" * CT J you hundreds of such 

any reader. suggestions 




Properly selected deco- 
rative accessories often 
give your homes that 
touch of individuality 
which raises it from 
the commonplace to 
the distinctive. The 
service department can 
be of inestimable help 
to you in this respect. 




The service department can be of great help 
in selecting antiques and reproductions. 



In the Arts and Dec- 
oration Library can 
be found any informa- 
tion you may need 
about art. If any 
question arises which 
you cannot answer 
write to the service de- 
partment and let us 
help you. 




L.et us off er you some valuable 

suggestions in the selection 

of prims 



The service department will act not only in an ad- 
visory capacity to the readers of Arts and Decoration, 
but also as their purchasing agent in New York. The 
magazine has no affiliations with any decorator or 
dealer in furniture, rugs, antiques or other house fit- 
ments and may therefore be followed with absolute 
surety. 

There is no charge for this service and those desiring 
decorative schemes or suggestions for furnishing and 
decorating either an entire house or a single room are 
invited to write to Department of Decorative Service, 
The Art World and Arts and Decoration, 470 
Fourth Avenue, New York City. 







A R^T 5 
DECORA 





BURLINGAMt 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

180 Primros* Road 



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ART WORLD and ARTS &■ DECORATION 




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MAR 21 



i* 



ruarv, 1919 



ARTS and DECO R A T I O X 



193 



u 



1 immiiiitumiH 



itmii iiiMiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiitii 



ANNOUNCEMENT 



ARTS & DECORATION, with this issue, comes 
to you in a new size. Not only is the magazine 
improved in appearance, hut the editorial contents 
also have a broader and more comprehensive scope. 
Previously devoted to art exclusively, you will now 
find it also contains special illustrated articles by 
acknowledged authorities dealing with 

ARCHITECTURE BUILDING 

INTERIOR DECORATION 

FURNITURE 

ARTS & DECORA TION will continue to be the 
foremost American authority on Art. 

In extending the interest of the magazine it was 
necessary for us to enlarge the page size to 10 by 14 
inches in order to do full justice to the many illus- 
trations which our new editorial policy demands. 

A single sentence expresses ARTS & DECORA- 
TION : Distinctive homes are not necessarily the 
most expensive — to create them, thought, individual- 
ity and, most of all, suggestions are needed. 

Suggestions for furnishing and decorating either an 
entire house or a single room will be gladly supplied 
by our Department of Decorative Service. 

THE PUBLISHERS. 



W 



I 



194 



A R T S and DECORA T I N 



February, 1919 



11 




ARTS & DECORATION 



VOLUME X 



FEBRUARY 1919 



NUMBER 4 



CONTENTS 

TURQUOISE BLUE JAR WITH HANDLES OF THE K'ANG DYNASTY 
(Courtesy Parish-Watson & Co.) Front Cover 

LIBRARY IN THE HOME OF HENRY P. DAVISON Frontispiece 196 

WYANT— THE NATURE-PAINTER By Eugene V. Brewster 197 

WILLIAM SAVERY, THE COLONIAL CABINETMAKER AND 

HIS FURNITURE By R. T. Halsey 201 

HALLS AND STAIRWAYS By Stanley Mortimer 204 

LOOKING-GLASSES OLD AND NEW By Walter A. Dyer 206 

ENGLISH FURNITURE IN THE PALMER COLLECTION By Jos. Breck 209 

A HOME AT THE WATER'S EDGE 212 

WANDERLUST— A Poem By William Griffith 214 

PROPER LIGHTING IN THE HOME 215 

MUSIC AND ITS SISTER ARTS By Chas. D. Isaacson 216 

NOTES OF THE BOOK WORLD By Charles Henry Dorr 220 

CONTEMPORARY ITALIAN PAINTINGS By Carlo Siviero 221 

A NOTABLE COLLECTION OF PERSIAN POTTERY By Gisselle D'Unger 225 

CHINESE PAINTINGS FROM T'ANG TO MING 227 

Published Monthly by HEWITT PUBLISHING CORPORATION 

470 FOURTH AVENUE, NEW YORK 

London: 407 Bank Chambers, Chancery Lane 

Subscription $4.00 a year in the United States, Colonies and Mexico. $4.50 in Canada. $5.00 in Foreign 

Countries. Single copies 35 cents. Entered as Second Class Matter May 27, 1918, at the Post Office at New 

York City, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Copyright 1919 by Hewitt Pub. Corp. Registered U. S. Patent Office. 



num. 1919 



A R T S and DECOR A TIO X 



195 




The above is an illustration of a Persian Rug of Sarouk weave, having a deep, rich 'blue ground, 
with soft tan, dull red and green shades in the design. 



FINE EASTERN RUGS 

For Immediate Delivery 



The character of the room naturally determines what is correct and 
most appropriate in the design of the floor covering. 

Our present stock of Antique and Modern Rugs comprises not alone 
designs with a wealth of exquisite detail, but also those of a broad and 
free treatment of ornament, adapted to rooms of the early English periods. 

A very large selection, at no prohibitive cost, is at your disposal. If you 
will acquaint us with your needs, we shall describe in detail those Rugs 
best fitted to your purpose. 

W. & J. SLOANE 

Direct Importers of Eastern Rugs 

Interior Decorators Floor Coverings and Fabrics Furniture Makers 




FIFTH AVENUE AND FORTY^SEVENTH STREET, NEW YORK 

WASHINGTON. D. C. "AN FRANCISCO. CAL. 



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A RTS and D EC ORATION 

illinium i iiiiiuiiiii mm i nun miiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiin wm 



Februarj 




AN INTERESTING CORNER IN THE LIBRARY 
OF HENRY P. DAVIDSON, NEW YORK CITY- 
SIMPLICITY AND COMFORT ARE THE OUT- 
STANDING FEATURES OF THIS ROOM. 






I 



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illllilllllllllUllllilllll 






R^T S 
CORA 





"N 



Volume X 



Formerly ART WORLD and ARTS &- DECORATION 



rii!iB:BiBiiiiii]i l !:i,i!iiiiiiiiii:iiTB.iiisiiiii:.iii;ji!iii:Fi];i::r!'s; 1 rrrai ., iKKiiiiiniiininnni iiiibiii»i== 



FEBKUAKY. 1919 



Number 4 



WYANT— THE NATURE^PAINTEK 



Bv EUGENE V. BREWSTER 



IF one were to ask the average person who were the 
three greatest American landscape painters, the answer 
would probably be: Inness, first; Wyant, second; and 
after that any one of a dozen others, no two persons agree- 
ing on the third. Note that we are speaking of "persons" 
as the jury — not artists, because all artists have special 
favorites, and these favorites may or may not include 
Wyant, or even Inness. 

If there is a Gallery of American art anywhere that does 
not contain a Wyant, it is doubtless because they could not 
get one — not because they did not want one. Inness has 
become a household word, owing in part to the published 
reports of fabulous prices paid for his work ; and the name 
of Wyant is rapidly becoming a rival in popularity. 

It is probably safe to say that the average person (exclu- 
sive of artists, art collectors, and so on) has never heard of 
West. Cropsey, Cole, Church, Martin, Ranger, Minor, 
Homer, and the like. But who has not heard of Inness 
and Wyant? The answer is: Only those who have not 
heard of Rosa Bonheur, Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, 
Whistler, and so on — not to mention Blakelock, who has 
had unusual and especial publicity. By the same token 
millions had never heard of J. Francis Murphy recently, 
when one of his paintings brought $16,500 at public auc- 
tion. As many a rose is born to blush unseen and waste 
its fragrance on the desert air, so many a genius, such as 
those mentioned, must often wait till death, or insanity, or 
a miracle overtake them before Mr. General Public ac- 
claims them. 

Since nothing unusual happened to Alexander H. Wyant 
to bring him to public attention, and since he never even 
painted anything patriotic like "Washington Crossing the 
Delaware," nor sensational like "The Temptation of Saint 
Anthony," nor religious like "The Last Supper" and Ma- 
donnas, nor popular like "The Horse Fair," there must be 
something specially appealing in his art. For that matter, 
how many men you meet on the street could name the 
artists who painted these celebrated pictures? 

Not many can name or describe a single painting by 



Wyant ; yet nearly everybody knows his name and the 
general character of his work. So let us see how this comes 
about. 

First, a little history and biography. Art did not grow 
naturally and spontaneously in America — it had to be trans- 
planted. It did not take quick root, for the soil was not 
fertile. Benjamin West was the first artist of note to paint 
landscapes, but he was primarily a portraitist. Durand 
(1796) was really the founder of the landscape- school, 
unless it was Doughty or Cole. 

After them came Durand 2nd, Casilear and Kensett; 
then Addison Richards and Whittredge, and next Cropsey, 
Bristol, Sanford R. Clifford, Inness, F. E. Church, Bier- 
stadt and McEntee, in the order named. Then came the 
younger group of the thirties : Bradford, Mignot, Colman, 
William T. Richards, Homer D. Martin, Wyant, Thomas 
Mo ran and last, in 1840, R. Swain Gifford. One section 
of this group became known as the Hudson River School. 
Some of them had been instructed by Cole and Durand, 
and every one of them went abroad except Bristol. From 
this beginning in American landscape painting, it remained 
for three men to begin the erection of a higher and loftier 
structure, and these men were Inness, Wyant and Martin. 

It is not clear whether Wyant was born in Port Wash- 
ington, Ohio, or Defiance, Ohio; and whether the year of 
his birth was in 1838 or 1839. Samuel Isham says he was 
born the same year as Homer D. Martin, which was 1838, 
but "American Art," written in his lifetime, says 1839. 
Any way, we know that he was an apprentice of a harness 
maker in a small Ohio town, and that during his leisure he 
did some sign painting. From early boyhood he showed a 
strong liking for drawing, and we are told that without 
instruction he learned to reproduce leaves, twigs, stones, 
banks and tree trunks with exact nicety. 

At the age of twenty he moved to Cincinnati, where he 
saw for the first time some paintings of merit. This was 
about 1859, when Inness was less than thirty years old, 
and long before Inness had "arrived." At this time there 
were many artists with a much greater reputation than 



/' 



198 



A RTS and D ECO RAT ION 



February, 1919" 



■iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiijiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiimi i nil iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii mum i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii inn iiiiniiiiiiiiii miiKiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiintiiiitiiiitiiiiiiiiitiuiitiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiuB 




Courtesy of Henry Reinhardt & Son 



A SUMMER LANDSCAPE 
A. H. Wyant 




Courtesy of Henry Reinhardt & Son 






THE APPROACHING STORM 

A. H. Wyant 



llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllilillllllli 



February, 1919 



A R T S and n E COR A T I O N 



199 



Inness, for example Bierstadt ami Church, who were then 
much talked about. But what did voting' Wyant do, but 
pick out Inness as his model, ami over the mountains he 
went to look him up. He found George [nness at South 
Amboy, N. J., and asked his advice, which, of course, was 
freely given. Among other things, he must go to Europe — 
every artist had to go to Europe, or he was no artist. But 
how was he to get there? Tde determined to paint his way. 

Returning to Cincinnati, inspired by the work and per- 
sonality of the master, he began painting landscapes. And 
he found a market for them, and at a fair price. In five 
years he had advanced and prospered so well that lie came 
to Xew York, preparatory to a trip abroad. This was in 
1864, and in the catalogue of the National Academy for 
1865 we find his first picture. "A View of the Ohio River." 

That year his fondest dream was realized — he found 
himself in Europe at last. He decided to try the famous 
Diisseldorf instruction, but did not find it much to his 
liking. One need not be told that, for a glance at his work 
will show that wdiat he learned there did not sink in, as it 
did with Bierstadt and others, and it is not difficult to find 
in his canvases the impress of Constable and Turner, whose 
works he studied arduously when in London, rather than 
any influence of the Diisseldorf school. 

His particular instructor was Hans Gude, who was at 
Karlsruhe. Gude had been a pupil of Aschenbach, who 
had "taught him to approach the phenomenon of Nature 
boldly and realistically and not to be afraid of a rich and 
soft scale of color." He had been strongly influenced by 
Schirmer also, who prided himself on the "acquisition of a 
certain large harmony and sense for style in the structure 
of his pictures, ""which he had observed in the Italian land- 
scapes. 

Like many instructors, unfortunately, Gude urged young 
Wyant to adopt Glide's particular style of handling, but 
at this Wyant's independent spirit rebelled, and, conclud- 
ing that he had learned all that could properly be taught 
by a professor, he returned to America, convinced that 
from then on he must be his own teacher. 

In passing, it is interesting to note that, while in Europe, 
Wyant had an acquaintance with Lessing, of whom he 
says: "A strange, silent man, who, when I called on him, 
sent his portfolio to me, and went off into the woods shoot- 
ing." 

Returning to America after a comparatively short stay 
in Europe, Wyant settled in New York. In 1868 he was 
elected an Associate of the National Academy of Design, 
and in 1869 he was given the honor of the right to affix 
the letters N.A. after his name, after having exhibited his 
"View of the Upper Susquehanna." 

In 1873, a calamity befell him. He had long been suffer- 
ing from ill health, and, finding himself growing gradually 
worse, he was advised to go West. He joined a govern- 
ment exploring expedition to Arizona and New Mexico, 
which seems to have been about the worst thing he could 
have done. He suffered untold hardships, due largely to 
the brutality of the leader of the expedition, and this fi- 



nally resulted in paralysis. From that time to the day of 

his death, he was never free from some bodily discomfort. 
lie was obliged to abandon the expedition party and come 
Fast. The train he was on passed through the very town 
in which his mother lived, but he did not stop off — he 
must go on, on, on with his art, and not worry his mother 
w;ith his physical condition. If ever a man needed a 
mother's care and sympathy, he needed it then; but he 
was not the kind to inflict his own sufferings on others nor 
to let others share them. 

When he arrived in New York, he was a broken man. 
But he was still ambitious. He must work. The moun- 
tains and streams were beckoning him to come to them. I fe 
partly recovered from the paralysis, but never entirely. 
One of the most cruel blows it dealt him was complete 
and permanent paralysis of the right hand — the 'one he 
painted with. Nature is inexplicable and inexorable. Did 
she not strike Milton blind, who deserved to see much more 
than others, and did she not render Beethoven deaf, who 
deserved to hear much more than others? And did she 
not call the great Raphael to an early grave? — he was only 
thirty-seven. But perhaps his work was finished. Alex- 
ander the Great died at thirty-two. but that was long 
enough. 

But there is a law of compensation and when we lose 
one eye, or ear, or arm. Nature seems to bestow double 
strength on the other. Beethoven did not stop composing 
music because he was deaf, and Milton did not stop writing 
poetry because he was blind ; and neither did Wyant stop 
painting because his right hand was dead. He soon learned 
to paint with his left hand and he soon painted even better 
than before. And who knows but what his bodily ail- 
ments and discomforts made him a greater and better man? 
Some of the world's greatest literary masterpieces were 
composed in jail, or in attics with the wolf at the door. 

That Wyant's ill health influenced his art is apparent. 
There is a note of melancholy and sadness in nearly all his 
works, and it is known that he preferred to depict Nature 
at the hush and restfulness of twilight. As Charles H. 
Caffin says : "To one whose days were more or less, days 
of weariness, constantly sensible of the afflictions of the 
body, with what a benediction the evening would come, 
full of spiritual refreshment! Out of the cool cisterns of 
the night his spirit would drink repose." 

For many years Wyant spent most of his time in the 
Adirondack Mountains. He then tried the Catskills for a 
change; but he spoke more enthusiastically of the rich hues 
of the Adirondacks. While he did not live the life of a 
recluse, he had but few friends, and abhorred everything 
in the nature of functions, whether social or official. While 
he was known to be kind, generous and sympathetic, he did 
not go out of his way to find cases on which to bestow 
these sentiments. You could not say that he was a hermit, 
but rather an isolated man. 

Sheep herd together, but the eagle, who soars to the 
loftiest heights, lives alone. Wyant was unusually fond of 
music, in fact, playing the violin was almost a passion with 



200 



ARTS and DECORATION 



February, 191 l > 



. 


ml 

■HHHkSSHHHH 



Courtesy of Henry Reinhardt & Son 

Landscape — By A. H. Wyant 

him, and some critics have even likened his paintings to 
the tenderly vibrating", caressing tones of the violin. Mr. 
Caffin observes that his temperament was "like an Aeolian 
harp, delicately attuned to Nature's breath, responsive to 
its faintest sigh." 

One admirable trait was his, which his friend Inness did 
not possess, alas : no painting that did not suit him ever left 
his studio, which accounts for the fact that you never see 
a poor Wyant. He either destroyed the poor ones, else, 
set them aside for new treatment when he felt in the mood 
to correct the shortcomings of his first attempt. And Mrs. 
Wyant was just as loyal to his art and reputation as he was 
himself; for, after his death, she burned every one of his 
canvases that had not received his final stamp of approval. 

This is not to say, however, that Wyant was ever entirely 
satisfied with his work. No great artist ever is. Not long 
before he died, knowing that the end could not be far off, 
he said: "Had I but five years more in which to paint, 
even one year, I think I could do the thing I long to." 
After working four years on "Mona Lisa," Leonardo da 
Vinci pronounced it unfinished ; and Wyant felt very much 
that way about his own works, but he had carried them as 
far as he knew how, and not until then, would he say, "It 
is finished," 

He had an aversion for the modern pre-Raphaelites, and 
abhorred the decorative school, yet he was himself an im- 
pressionist, and his sympathetics were all with the impres- 
sionists. 

And now, with this brief word-picture of the man Wyant 
ended, let us glance at some of the authorities on his work : 

From "American Pictures and Their Painters." "Some- 
times he gathers the sun's rays in October into one great 
mass of golden light, and floods a low-lying marsh until 
the feathery grasses and dignified cat-tails glimmer and 
glisten like burnished gold ; and again the subdued light 
stealing from a shaded nook is his, and only the hilltop 
feels the sun. His shades are never gloom and his sunshine 
is like a benediction. It is not surprising that every year 
his pictures increase in value, for they are the works of one 
inspired by God." 

From "American Art." "Wyant is emphatically a painter 
of wholes and effects. He looks for, finds, and grasps the 



specific, essential and permanent truths of a scene, and when 
he portrays them he knows how to illumine and amplify 
them. His soft, far distances and immediate foreground 
are alike impressive, in contradistinction to being didactic. 
His art is simple, direct, delicate, and his artistic purposes 
are unalloyed with conventionalities, vulgarity, opiniona- 
tiveness and clap-trap." 

From "History of American Art." "As an artist, Wyant 
makes no such vivid and ample appeal as Inness. Much of 
his work consists of variations on a single note. His typ- 
ical picture is a glimpse of sunny, rolling country seen be- 
tween trunks of trees that have grown tall and slender in 
a wood; usually birches or maples. This he painted with 
fine, firm brush work, which enabled him, when he would, 
to model the summer clouds and give foreground detail 
with exactness, yet without losing the misty, the sentiment 
and silvery shimmer peculiar to his work. In a certain 
delicate refinement none of our other artists have equalled 
him." 

From "American Masters of Painting." "He heard in 
the silence of his own heart the still small voice of Nature, 
listened for it always, and strove to woo it. The echo of 
it is still felt in all his landscapes. He may recall some of 
his large woodland pictures in which sturdy trees are grip- 
ping the rocks with their roots. Strength and stability and 
the evidence of time confront us, just as they would in the 
forest itself; but like cathedral architecture when music is 
pulsing through it, they are for the moment secondary to 
the spiritual impression of the voice. Wyant heard it in 
the movement of the treetops, and in the stir of weeds and 
ferns that nestled in the hollows, and it whispered to him 
of peace, a quiescence that stirs the soul to gentle activity, 
gladsome by turns or subdued in the alternate sun or 
shadow, that inexhaustible mystery of Nature's 'peace that 
passeth understanding.' . . . An elevated melancholy sus- 
tained by faith. . . . While so many of his twilights breathe 
simply the ineffable loneliness of quiet, others are astir with 
persuasion to spiritual reflection, with the gentle admoni- 
tion to sadness that itself is purifying, so with deeper, 
fuller suggestion of the infinite mystery of Nature's recur- 
(Continued on Page 234) 




Courtesy of Henry Reinhardt & Son 

Landscape — By A. H. Wyant 



ebruary, 1919 



ARTS and DECORA T I O N 



201 






WILLIAM SAVERY, THE COLONIAL CABINET 
MAKER AND HIS FURNITURE 

By R. T. 11. 11A1.SKY 



THE uprooting from ancestral homes in the vicinity 
of Philadelphia o\ certain pieces of extraordinarily 
beautiful furniture of the middle of the eighteenth 
century has long led to the belief among our collectors that 
a cabinet-maker of preeminent ability had successfully cpn- 
Iductecl his trade in the City of Brotherly Love. The iden- 
tity of this hitherto unknown cabinet-maker, William 
Savery, has been disclosed through the finding of a tiny 
label attached to a superb lowboy now in the Manor House 
at Van Cortlandt Park, a charming little colonial museum 
furnished, cherished, and guarded by the Colonial Dames 
the State of Xew York. This scrap of paper identifies 
the maker of the piece and allows us, by a process of com- 
parison, to identify fairly successfully certain other pieces 
as coming from the same workshop. In the work of 
William Savery the Palmer collection is exceedingly rich. 

Personality in old American furniture has hitherto been 
almost a closed book. The difficulty of identification has 
been too great. The makers' labels as a rule have dis- 
appeared, hence the furniture collector is without that de- 
lightful historical association and mental companionship 
rv^jh the maker of his choicest pieces; an association which 
adds so largely to the ownership of plate made by Paul 
Revere and the other colonial silversmiths, whose marks 
have been made known to us by the research work of certain 
of our American collectors. 

, As yet little of the personal has been unearthed in regard 
to William Savery. The Savery genealogy gives the fol- 
lowing glimpse into his life and character: 

"Suffice it to say, however, that the name was a common 
one both in England and Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts, 
in the latter place early in the seventeenth century, and in 
the Barbadoes during the latter half of the seventeenth 
century. 

"Whether, therefore. William Savery, the founder of the 
Philadelphia family, was descended from the English di- 
rect or the English through Barbadoes, we cannot tell, 
but of whatever origin, he came from the stock of the per- 
secuted, in whom religious fervor was stronger than the 
ties of parentland and kindred, impelling them to adopt a 
strange nationality as their own. and then again to cross 
the seas in renewed search for religious freedom. 

'"And. so it is that William Savery, a Quaker, and we 
presume of the stock of the Quakers, first appears in Penn's 
'green countrie town.' when on the 19th of April, 1746, 
he married Mary, the daughter of Reese Peters, an event 
duly recorded in the Meeting Records. His death, too, is 
recorded in 1787, aged 65, so his birth, wherever it oc- 
curred, must have taken place in 1721 or 1722. 
dr'That his life was a busy one, his public activities, and 



the durability of the furniture which he made, amply at- 
test. Numerous pieces in possession of various branches 
of the family bespeak his excellent workmanship in the 
shop 'At the Sign of the Chair, in Second Street, near the 
Market.' This legend is borne by one of his business cards, 
recently discovered, yellow with age and slightly torn, on 
the under woodwork of one of his Chippendale chairs. 

"In 1754 he was appointed assessor in some of the cen- 
tral wards of Philadelphia, Old City, and the certificate of 
appointment now in possession of the Pennsylvania Histor- 
ical Society was signed, inter alia, by Benjamin Franklin. 
He also served the city as agent and collector of taxes for 
the guardians of the poor in 1767. In the days when alms- 
bouses were conducted largely as public charities by 
Friends, be disbursed some of the money appropriated for 
this purpose, as appears from his manuscript, still in pos- 
session of the family. 

"Fragmentary and unsatisfactory as these few records 
seem, they are at the same time suggestive. They indicate 
an industrious public-spirited citizen of pre-Revolutionary 
Philadelphia, of the ancient Quaker type, before the days 
when Elders frowned on activity in politics or the holding 
of public office. 

"Of William and Mary Savery r s children the most note- 
worth}' was William, the eminent minister in the Society of 
Friends, of whom elaborate biographies have been written. 
He died without issue. Upon another son, Thomas, the 
perpetuation of the family name involved." 

An exhaustive delving into the Philadelphia archives, 
conducted by my friend, Alfred C. Prime, reveals the fact 
that William Savery's name appears (1780) in a return 
of the fourth, sixth, and eighth classes of militia of the 
Chestnut ward under command of Thomas Bradford. Op- 
posite the name appears the word "old" as his reason for 
not complying with the muster. The records also evidence 
the progressive prosperity of his trade. In 1766 we find 
him receiving £52 per annum as rental for a bouse on 
Third Street; his tax bill in 1774 was £37, and in 1780 
£149 16s. 6<7. upon a property valuation of $46,000; indis- 
putable arguments in favor of the large and profitable trade 
Savery must have built up during the probable period of 
the furniture I believe to have been made by him. 

The pieces in the Palmer Collection which can be defin- 
itely ascribed to Savery are three high chests, two dressing 
tables, and a secretary-desk. These high chests and dress- 
ing-tables, so long erroneously termed highboys and low- 
boys that for purposes of popular description we are 
compelled to adopt this nomenclature, are essentially an 
American type, as this form of high chest, which appeared 
in England late in the seventeenth century, went out of 



202 



A k TS and 1) ECO k A T r ON 



February, 1919 




Secretary of mahogany, about 1760-1775 

vogue early in the eighteenth century before the bandy- 
leg style of furniture became prevalent. It is but reason- 
able to believe that such superbly ornamented pieces as we 
are about to describe had been intended for dining-room 
and parlor, while their simpler and earliest prototypes 
found usefulness largely in the bedrooms of their owners. 

All of the Savery furniture we are discussing is made 
of mahogany or of Virginia walnut of a quality most diffi- 
cult to distinguish from mahogany, and is of the cabriole 
or bandyleg style, which in this country superseded the 
straight turned leg so familiar to us in the gate-legged 
tables and early highboys. English furniture of this style 
was recently discussed in the June number of the Burling- 
ton Magazine, by H. Avray Tipping, Esq., who there de- 
scribes this form of leg as of very early origin, dating it 
back to Roman days, and as coming into vogue in the time 
of Louis XIV. and being much used by the leading cabinet- 
makers of Europe until the end of the eighteenth century. 

Nature supplied the motive; just as the scroll was evolved 
from the form of the wave, the immediate derivation of 
the cabriole was a living animal form. The origin of the 
term as given in this article is most interesting: "Cabriole 



was a French dancing-term meaning a goat-lea]), h is 
noticeable thai a goal's fool was at first generally use 
terminate the furniture-leg that took the name and as- 
sumed the form that is a decorative adaptation of a quad- 
ruped's front leg from the knees downwards." 

Where Savery learned his craftsmanship is as yet un- 
known. A simples well-made chair of the Dutch style 
of the middle of the eighteenth century, bearing the Savery 
label, and owned by A. H. Savery, Esq., a lineal descendant, 
certainly might well have been made by any of a hundred 
cabinet-makers. It may have been on the other side of the 
water; more probably it was in the shop of some of the 
numerous English cabinet-makers, whose advertisements 
in our New York and New England colonial newspapers 
informed their American patrons that they had arrived 
from London and that "Every Article in the Cabinet, 
Chair-Making, Carving, and Guilding Business, is enacted 
on the most reasonable Terms with the utmost neatness 
and punctuality." Advertising is not a modern art, as 
many of the cabinet-makers' advertisements describe in the 
most alluring terms the various articles of household fur- 
nishings they were prepared to supply to prospective buyers. 

There is more than a possibility that the name of Savery 
belongs on the roll of many of our great American artists 
and craftsmen who, without the advantages of early study 
and training, by self-education carved their way into un- 
dying fame. The influence of the designs published by 
Robert Manwaring are most apparent here and there. Un- 
questionably Savery made close study of the books p 
lished by Thomas Chippendale. He also unquestionably re- 
ceived inspiration for many of the decorative motives he 
used from the following Batty-Langley books, published in 
London, copies of which are in the Metropolitan Library: 
Guide to Builders (1729), Langley's Treasury of Designs 
(1740), Gothic Architecture (1747), the Builders" Direc- 
tor (1767). These little volumes were published at a 
moderate price, thereby enabling their use by all working 
in the industrial arts. Their hundreds of well-engraved 
plates were intended not to be slavishly copied but for basic 
suggestion upon which the individuality of the artisan was 
allowed full expression as to variation of detail. 

The positive identification of the three superb highboys, 
two lowboys, and secretary-desk as coming from the join- 
er's shop of Savery is not difficult. All were household 
furnishings of homes in Philadelphia or its vicinity. Most 
fortunately several years ago the Museum acquired from 
the estate of Richard Canfield a fine highboy and lowdxw, 
whose principal decorative motives and makership are un- 
mistakably the same as those found on the Van Cortlandt 
Manor 1< >w boy. The peculiar curves on the top of the low- 
boy, the recessed ends with quarter-fluted columns in- 
serted, the shells on the skirt and knees, the character of 
the carving of the intaglio shell and the feathery foliations 
accompany it, admit of only one decision, namely that it 
and the labeled lowboy had the same maker. Its com- 
panion highboy (the two pieces apparently having been 
made as a pair) gives great assistance in the. attribuy m 




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Played by FRIEDMAN 

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Allegretto, Presto Agitato) 




Beethoven 




Played bv HOFMANN 






II. 


VIOLIN SOLO 








Thais (Meditation) 






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Liebesfreud 




Kreisler 
Drdla 
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Souvenir 




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Chopin 




Played bv NIKISCH 








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Spross 




'.ike a Rosebud 




La Forge 




lo a Messenger 




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v. 


RHAPSODIE HONGROISE, No 


12 




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MARCH E MILITAIRE, Op. 51, 


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Schubert 




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•BRUARY, 1924 



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' 




In the Great Hall of the Hampton Shops are grouped this soft-toned tapestry, Venetian day-bed, Adam table, and Gothic cabinet 





n w i m 



When uou pass our portal; 



The stately entrance, the spacious foyer 
with its arch-framed vistas of the Great 
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tion to the Hampton Shops and Hampton 
Shops beauty. Here is beauty crystalized. 
Here is the expression of Hampton Shops' 
ability in design, in execution. *J "These 
are but the introduction." On floor after 
floor, in room after room through this 
whole stately building that is the Hamp- 
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and of comfort. Interiors like these can 
well be yours if you will but call upon 
the Hampton Shops to undertake the 



planning of your rooms or, better 
of your entire home. As you go thr 
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many hangings unusual and rich, 
will note furniture of rare distint 
You will find objets d'art that will £ 
touch of grace and fastidiousne; 
your rooms. You will see rugs, sci 
lamps, upholsteries — all distinctiv 
of particular loveliness. It is with 
rare materials that our designers \ 
Is it a matter of wonder that Hain 
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may be found? 



1. 
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AT THE HAMPTON SHOPS YOU CAN PURCHASE REPLICAS Or LOVELY OLD PIECES, OR OLD PIEGE 
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iS lEast 5o5- Street. 0euT!;: 



February, 1919 



A R T S and D E COR A TIO N 



203 



of the other pieces. It has the same peculiar urn and flame 
JBnials with their tinted bases found on the top ^\ a high- 
in the Palmer collection. The similarity of the re- 
cessed quartered columns on the sides and the carvings o\ 
shell and foliations on the lower drawer strengthen our 
argument. The applied foliated scrolls on the top are 
peculiar to Savery. and are possibly an attempt to obtain 
in mahogany the effect o\ the golden bronze applied orna 
mentation found on so much of the French furniture of 
the period. The surmounting foliated and rococo car- 
touche which tops the piece. Mr. Lockwood suggests, was 
probably inspired by the cartouche over the pulpit o\ 
St. Peter's Church, Philadelphia. The piece was purchased 
by Mr. Palmer from the great grandson of the original 
owner, James Moulder, a captain of artillery in the Revo- 
lution, and one ^\ those who crossed the Delaware with 
Washington to take part in the battle ^<\ Trenton. 

The finest of the highboys, and the finest of the Savery 

pieces known, was secured by Mr. Palmer only after a 
chase of over twenty years. The shells with their folia- 
tions, the quatrefoil rosettes as bases for handles, the scrolls 
and the acanthus leaves on the legs may well have been 
inspired by the plates in the books of Robert Manwaring, 
London (1765-75). Its cartouche and linials have un- 
fortunately disappeared. Mr. Palmer notes that on one 
of his periodic and fruitless visits to induce the owner to 
part with her coveted possession, he was offered the car- 
touche and finials as a gift, in order to lessen his disappoint- 
"^ent. To his now great regret, his unwillingness to com- 
mit vandalism compelled him to refuse the offer. lie 
remembers them as being similar to the ones on the piece 
we have just been describing. 

Certainly no pieces of earlv American furniture show 
the richness of carving and design found on these high- 
boys and lowboys. French and Chippendale influences 
predominate : the carvings of vines on the quartered col- 




A 

/^B^.- 




\ 


l ■ 1 1 * ** «/< 1 








1 ^ * ! Q 

• 












■ .*. /"'>/••' lit 




Bkk: .^^1 at//^¥ 


ft 


Bk. 



Lowboy of walnut, about 1760-1775 



Highboy of walnut, about 1760-1775 



umns are suggestive of Spanish and French influences and 
may have been inspired by the plates in Langley's Guide 
to Builders (1727) ; the work on the skirts and legs in- 
voluntarily calls to mind the best English work of the 

( 'hippendale period. 

The decoration on, another lowboy does not maintain the 
same standard of excellence; the design on the lower 
drawer is more involved and uncertain and the carving less 
firmly executed than in the piece just described. The piece 
appears to have been made previous to the period of I 
Savery 's finest work. The ornament on the quartered col- 
umns is very suggestive of that which appears on the 
writing-desk of rather similar shape designed by William 
Kent for Lord Leicester about 1740, which is illustrated 
on page 170 in Furniture in Fngland from 1660 to 1760. 
by Francis Lenygon. 

The base of the third highboy unquestionably identities 
this piece as made by Savery; the influeagf of Chippendale 
dominates it. The urns and their drapings may have been 

(Continued on page 237) 



204 



ARTS and DECORATION 



February, l'<l'> 




Hall and stairway in the Georgian home of Henry P. Davidson, Esq. 
New York — The balustrade is of delicate hand-wrought iron 




Notable Examples of 

Architectural and Decorative 

Beauty in Halls and 

Stairways 

By STANLEY MORTIMER 



THE secret of the beauty of a home lies in the perfec- 
tion of its details. Let the detail he carried out 
artistically and the ensemble will take care of itself, 
while if there is a disregard of detail the result will be 
inharmonious and the effect far from the desired one. No 
feature of a home can help make or mar its beauty more 
than its stairs and stairhalls, as they form the truly distinc- 
tive note to the character of the house. Upon entering a 
home there is nothing more delightful than an atmosphere 
of hospitality and welcome which is often conveyed by the 
most unobtrusive detail. The stairway that greets you is 
often the feature that distinguishes the real home from the 
mere residence. Comfort and hospitality radiate from one 
stairway, true majesty is expressed by another, and in an- 
other may be traced the exotic luxury of the Orient, all 
depending upon structure and treatment. Simplicity of 
style is one of the most desired effects as it usually sym- i 
bolizes refinement and conveys an atmosphere of taste 
which one may assume is carried throughout the home. 

Dignity and charm are added to the stairway and hall 
by the proper treatment. The personal equation must en- 
ter in, as there should exist the complete consensus of 
opinion of three people — the architect, the designer, and 
the owner. The wise man will allow a free hand to his 
architect and decorator, who in their turn should act in 



I 
I 



A view of the first few steps leading from lower hall to upper floors 

in the H. P. Davidson Mansion — The beautiful Houdon figure and 

single urn are the only decorations 




Lower hall and stairway showing excellent Italian Renaissance P»»iod 

treatment in the New York residence of Mr. W. McXair, designed 

by H. Van. Buren Magonigle 



February, 1919 



A R T S and D E C O R A T I O N 



20S 



[perfect cooperation. Recently a spirit of real Americanism 

rather than imitation has crept into interior decoration 
which gives promise of many interesting results. A pic- 
turesque scheme should be adopted and carried out regard- 
less of the opinion of disinterested critics. 

The hallway presents unlimited possibilities For original- 
ity to the ingenious decorator. It may be kept simple and 
free from a clutter of furniture, yet be full "i suggestion 
both rich and ornate, luxury expressed in a single rug, 
opulence in a single tapestry. It' on the other hand there 
is an abundance of furniture and decorations, the strictest 
regard to harmonious colors and proper arrangement 
should he observed, as many hue architectural halls and 
stairs have been made an abomination by the lack of cor- 
rect decorative treatment. A clever harmonizing of the 
draperies and hangings may give an elegant yet simple 
effect to any hallway. The stairway can he made a place 
of surprises at every turn; a nook here, a window-seat 
there, lamps ^i quaint design, all give an intimate touch 
desired by true lovers of clever decoration. There is some- 
thing subtly elusive about a winding stairway, a mystery 
to "whither it winds," which can be effectively carried out 
in the treatment of its decorations which, when properly 
executed, enhance its attractiveness. 

Consistencv should be the characteristic paramount in 
the decorator's mind.. There is nothing more disconcerting 
to owner or guest than architecture of one period, decora- 
tions and draperies of another, and finally the furniture of 
another. In order to obtain the desired result the owner 
* r a house should constantly consult with the men who are 
doing his work. All high-class architects are deeply in- 
terested in the final consummation of their ideals, and to 
permit them to complete only a portion of their work is 
disappointing and disheartening. A perfect home has been 
the hope of many men, but only through their own and 
others' experiences and mistakes have they realized this 
dream. 





Pleasing Oh 



Colonial treatment in the home of Mr. 
Westbury, L. I. 



|. Peahody, 



tv. r k residence of Adolph Lewisohn designed by C. P. H. Gilbert 
in the Italian Renaissance style— Stairs are of cement and rail of 
hammered wrought iron 




The Boardman house at South Hampton, L. I., designed hy Hill & 
Stout, a good exampli of old Italian architecture 



206 



A R TS and I) E COR A TIO N 



February, 1919 




American flat-frame looking-glasses 
of about the years 1770 to 1800— 
Mahogany and gilt — From Metro- 
politan Museum of Art 



American looking-glasses of the' years 

1790 to 1800— Compo and gilt— From 

Metropolitan Museum of Art 



American looking-glasses of the 
Georgian period 1750 to 1800— Wal- 
nut and Mahogany veneer — Metro- 
politan Museum of Art 



I 

felt 



LOOKING-GLASSES OLD AND NEW 

By WALTER A. DYER 

Author of "The Lure of the Antique," "Early American Craftsmen," "Creators of Decorative Styles,'' etc. 



THE present widespread demand for the period styles 
in home furnishings has resulted in the manufacture 
not only of period furniture in reproductions both 
good and bad, but also of accessories — clocks, candlesticks, 
and a host of other things. Of these the period looking- 
glasses are perhaps the most noteworthy. They are always 
decorative and add a needed touch to a period room, and, 
since they are not being turned out to any great extent by 
the cheaper bouses as yet, they are for the must part of 
first-rate style and workmanship. In almost every show- 
room where period furniture is on display there are to be 
seen examples of these modern reproductions of old 
looking-glasses which offer a strong temptation to the pur- 
chaser. For the instruction of the prospective purchaser 
perhaps a brief resume of the historic styles in looking- 
glasses may not prove amiss. 

I use the term looking-glass in preference to mirror 
because I find that some writers insist that the latter word 
is applied properly only to circular glasses, sometimes 
called bull's-eye mirrors, though the reproduction of all 
the old looking-glasses are commonly called mirrors. 

The first looking-glasses used in England and in this 




An interesting modern reproduction of mantel glass of the Ameri- 
can Empire period 



country were imported from Venice, Murano, and other 
Italian cities in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In 
England the first ones were made about 1670, when the 
Duke of Buckingham introduced Venetian glass-makers 
and started a factory at Lambeth. From that time until 
the period of the Revolution most of our looking-glasse 
were imported from England, though a few came from 
France. Our present consideration will therefore deal 
chiefly with the English styles of the eighteenth century. 

The nearly lost Roman art of making plate glass was 
revived about 1688, and from that time on looking-glasses 
became more common and less expensive. They were 
considered luxuries for a long time, however — a badge of 
wealth. 

The earlier ones were rather small except where imported 
Venetian plates were used. A feature of the older English 
glasses is the very shallow, hand-ground beveling, about 
an inch wide, around the edge of the glass. 

From the first, much attention w r as paid to the styles of 
the frames. Brass, ebony, carved oak, and olive-wood 
frames were made as early as 1700. During the time of 
James II. silver frames were in fashion, and during the 
reign of William and Mary frames were made of walnut 
with Dutch marquetry. The commonest materials, how- 
ever, were walnut or soft wood, gilded or silvered, gilded 
compo, and, after 1690, lacquered or japanned wood. 
Grinling Gibbons carved a few elaborate frames in soft 
wood. During the William and Mary and Queen Anne 
periods the frames were chiefly of walnut, solid or veneered. 

The William and Mary looking-glasses were frequently 
very narrow and often shaped at the top in curves. French 
and Dutch designs prevailed until the more marked devel- 
opments of the early eighteenth century. These and the 
earlier Queen Anne glasses often had rather nan 



February, 1919 



A RTS and DECORA T 1 ON 



207 



lightly rounded walnut frames, following the contour of 
the glass. 

The frames of the Queen Anne period were more elab- 
orate and more beautiful. They were for the most part 
lat. fairly broad, and of solid or veneered walnut. One 
should note carefully their salient characteristics in order 
to distinguish them from a somewhat similar style that was 
developed during the Georgian period. 

The edges of these flat frames were cut into graceful 
curves, the broken arch frequently appearing at the top. 
Some of them bore urns which differed in shape from 
those of the later periods. The later Queen \nne frames 
were usually embellished with gilt ornaments at the sides, 
similar to those of the Georgian frames, except that these 
were carved in wood, while the later ones were usually 
molded together in plaster and hung on wires. 

Up to nearly 1780 only small plates of glass were made. 
The larger looking-glasses were usually made in two 
pieces, either to reduce the cost or because it was difficult, 
if not impossible, to make one piece large enough. Before 
1750 the lower piece was beveled to Overlap the upper one; 
after that a molding was ttsed to cover the intersection, or 
the frame was actually made in two sections. 

To sum up the distinctive characteristics of looking- 
glasses made from 1700 to 1750, look for the walnut frame 
i though mahogany was occasionally used after 1730), the 
two sections of glass without molding in the longer pieces. 
the Queen Anne forms, of the urn, and the gilded wooden 
ornaments. It should also be added that the glass of the 
*e *lier period was usually shaped in curves at the top. 
while that of the later period was square, though the top 
of the frame was often shaped in the form of the 
broken arch. 

• During the period 1750 to 1780 the so-called Chippendale 
styles prevailed, sometimes rich and graceful, sometimes 
flamboyant or too fragile, Gilt frames were popular, 
sometimes with three or more small panes of glass framed 
in an abundance of gilt molding. Elaborate combinations 
of French rococo and Chinese details were employed, with 





Here again are splendid modern reproductions of eighteenth-cen- 
tury looking-glasses. The one on the right shows typical Dutch 
. characteristics 



Modern reproduction of lacquered looking-glasses of the Queen 
Anne period expressive of simple dignity and originality in designs 



such features as pagodas and waterfall effects. At first 
these gilt frames were flat, but ornate carving and pierced 
work soon came into vogue. There were wide and narrow 
ovals, square and oblong frames, and frames of irregular 
and fantastic shapes, based on the French styles of 
Louis XV. 

Chippendale himself designed some of these frames, but 
an even more prolific designer was Matthias Lock, who was 
at the height of his popularity about 1765. Thomas 
Johnson, Edwards & Darley, luce & Mayhew, and Man- 
waring all made or designed looking-glass frames in 
similar styles. Lock and Johnson made elaborate "frames 
for girandoles and bull's-eye mirrors, pier glasses, ovals, 
and chimneypieces, ornately carved and generally gilded. 
They were designed largely in the Chinese rococo style, 
with scrolls, shells, falling water, human figures, and 
animals. 

A little later Hepplewhite designed looking-glasses in 
his characteristic shield and oval shapes, usually rather 
delicate and fragile, and often made in pairs. Adam also 
designed looking-glass frames, chiefly classic in type. The 
frames of this period often bore medallions above and 
below the glass, oval rosettes, beadwork, fan ornaments, 
urns, eagles, the husk pattern, ram's heads and feet, and 
other Adam and Heppelwhite details. Hepplewhite's in- 
fluence is also displayed in such delicate ornaments as a 
gilt vase of flowers or stalks of wheat standing in the 
broken arch at the top of the frame. 

Coincident with these styles we have the revival of the 
Queen Anne type of flat-frame glass already referred to. 
This revival had already begun before 1750. Flat frames 
were made of solid mahogany or walnut, with gilt orna- 
ments, especially at the sides, the bottom of the frame 
shaped in curves, and with the broken arch or some similar 
form at tbe top. A little later they were nearly all of 
mahogany. 

Many of the flat-framed glasses of tbe last half of tbe 
eighteenth century have been confused with those of the 
earlier period, but there are marked differences. There was 
a change of type in the details, the glass showed a narrower, 



208 



ARTS and 1) ECORATION 



February, 1919 



deeper bevel, mahogany took the place of walnut, and the 
glass was usually square at the top. Very roughly, the 
development of the shape of the glass at the top was as 
follows: from 1700 to 1725, rather narrow and shaped 
in steep curves; from 1725 to 1750, curves much mod- 
erated; 1750 to 1775, usually square at the top with 
curved or slanted corners; 1775 to 1800, square corners. 

About 1770 to 1790 a cheap form was common in both 
England and America. The flat frame was of veneered 
mahogany with the outlines cut by a jig-saw. Less gilt 
was used, as a rule, though there was often a gilt molding 
around the inside of the frame. A somewhat better type 
had the broken arch or rather more elaborate jig-saw 
work at the top, gilt molding next the glass, and usually 
gilded compo ornaments, chiefly the wheat-husk pattern, 
strung on wires at the sides. The upper part of the frame 
was also embellished with gilt ornaments, a bird, feathers, 
flowers, etc., sometimes being placed in a hole cut in the 
wood of the frame. 

From 1780 to 1790 the American eagle was much used 
on looking-glasses made in this country. The so-called 
Constitution mirror had a flat frame of solid or veneered 
mahogany, cut out in curves at the bottom, with gilt 
plaster ornaments on wires at the sides, and with a gilded 
eagle of wood or plaster in the broken arch at the top. 
Later — perhaps 1810 to 1815 — this style was revived, with 
less gilt, more cutting out of points and curves at top and 
bottom, and with a gilt eagle in bas-relief on the flat surface 
of the wood above the glass. 

Among the interesting forms that were popular about 
1780 to 1800 were the circular bull's-eye mirrors and giran- 
doles with their elaborate and often beautiful gilt frames. 
The glasses were usually convex. The frames were heavy 
and were made of carved wood or molded plaster, or both. 
Frequently a rim of ebony or ebonized wood appeared on 
top, usually a spread eagle, sometimes holding a string of 
gilt balls in his mouth, and on the later examples a heavy 
beading or row of balls ornamented the frame. These 
mirrors were twelve to thirty-six inches in diameter, the 
smaller ones often coming in pairs. Many of them had 
two or more candle-holders at the bottom and sides, and 
these were called girandoles. 

Over-mantel glasses or chimneypieces had been popular 
since the late seventeenth century, and were particularlv in 



demand after 1760, when both oval and oblong shape 
began to be popular. The latter were made with one large 
plate of glass in three sections, divided by moldings, the 
two end-sections being smaller than the middle one. 

During the late eighteenth century there was also what 
was known as the Pdlboa glass, with a frame consisting of 
small, thin strips of salmon-colored marble. 

Most of the early nineteenth-century glasses one meets 
are of American make. After about 1805 Empire styles 
began to appear in looking-glasses. Some had hat mahog- 
any frames, with brass or gilt Empire ornamental mounts, 
and some with marble columns at the sides. More of the 
glasses of this period, however, had gilt frames in the style 
that is often wrongly termed Colonial. There were rectan- 
gular frames, rather heavy but generally possessing a 
certain classic dignity. Most of them had overhanging 
cornices at the top and were ornamented with straight, 
formal molding patterns and also carved details, including 
the acanthus leaf, lyre, eagle, bell-flower, swags, festoons, 
and other survivals, often well executed. Pendant ball or 
acorn ornaments were often placed on the under side of 
the cornice. The sides of the frames, when not in the 
form of square moldings, were sometimes spiral, reeded, 
or baluster-shaped. 

These frames were either all gilt or gilt with mahogany 
or white enamel. The material was wood or plaster or a 
combination of the two. Sometimes the glass was a single 
oblong pane ; sometimes it was in two parts, separated by 
a gilt molding about a third of the way down from the top. 
Sometimes a picture was painted in the upper portion ( a 
landscape, marine, or pastoral in colors and gilt, a historical 
or allegorical subject, or perhaps merely a floral decoration. 

After 1820 heavier frames became common. They were 
of gilded plaster or soft wood, less pretentious in design, 
baluster or rope-shaped on all four sides, and with no 
cornice. These, even more frequently than the type just 
mentioned, were furnished with a painted scene in the 
upper portion. Practically none of the American glasses 
of this period were beveled. 

The over-mantel glasses of the period followed the 
same styles. Those made in three sections became common, 
first with a cornice and later with the baluster form on 
four sides. After 1810 the separating pilasters became 
heavier. 




I 



February, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



209 



EARLY ENGLISH FURNITURE IN THE 
PALMEK COLLECTION 



By JOSEPH BRECK 



MADE between 1680 and 1(>N 1 >, and evidently for 
royal use. two richly-carved walnut armchairs are 

the oldest of the twenty-three pieces of English 
furniture in the George S. Palmer collection. The earlier 
of the two chairs may he dated in the later years of the 
reign of Charles II. This date, about 1680-1685, is indi- 
cated by the scrolled legs with cherub heads, as well as by 
the design of the stretcher with its Tudor rose between 
Flemish curves. The spiral twist, which is a notable 
feature of this chair, came into popularity shortly after 
1663, when Charles married the Portuguese princess, 
Catherine of Braganza. The fashion for twisted rails and 
balusters in English furniture is probably due to Indo- 
Portuguese influence. The fashion is said to have arisen 
in Portugal from the imitation of Indian furniture, in 
which the spiral twist appears. It will be recalled that at 
this time Portugal had several trading stations on the 
northwest coast of India. The creating of this important 
Charles II. chair is particularly interesting. A royal 
crown surmounts an escutcheon, originally painted, which 
is flanked by the lion and unicorn, the royal supporters of 

* England. The crown is frequently used as a decorative 
device, expressive of loyalty to the throne, in the furniture 
of the Restoration period, but the use of the royal support- 
ers would indicate that the Palmer chair was made for 
royalty itself. Portugal has already been mentioned in 
connection with the twisted rails : the cherub heads derive 
more or less directly from Italy, and the carving of the 
acanthus is distinctly Flemish. This susceptibility to 
foreign influences is thoroughly characteristic of English 
furniture design, as we shall have occasion several times 
to note. 

French influence was paramount during the brief reign 
of James II. The revocation of the Edict of Xantes in 
1685, as well as earlier oppressive measures, led to a great 
exodus from France of trained craftsmen, particularly 
weavers, who found in England ready employment and 
protection. Something of this French influence is seen in 
the low relief decoration of the second armchair in the 
Palmer collection, although the principal carving would 
seem to be Italian in character. On stylistic evidence, the 
chair may be assigned approximately to the years 1685-88. 
This date is confirmed by the cipher, which, with the 
royal supporters of England, forms the cresting, and is 
that of James II. (T 685-88) and of his consort Mary 
Beatrice, a princess of the House of Este. The eagle, it 
will be recalled, is the principal heraldic charge in the Este 
arms, and probably for this reason has been introduced as 
a decorative motive in the carving of this chair, which 

^appears to have been made for Queen Mary Beatrice, who 



was horn in 1658, married James, then Duke of York, in 
1673, and died in 1718. The hack was originally up- 
holstered and the seat caned. The present upholstery is 
not original, although of contemporary date. The chair is 
in wonderful preservation, although the painting and gild- 
ing, with which it was originally enriched, naturally show 
the effect of time. Both armchairs are of walnut, a wood 
which came into use in England during the Restoration 
period, at first only for light pieces of furniture, and con- 
tinued in increasing favor until mahogany became the 
fashionable wood in the second quarter of the eighteenth 
century. 

When Queen Anne died in 1714, the crown passed to 
the House of Hanover. George I. (1714-1727) was a 
Hanoverian exile in England, pining for his dear Herren- 
hausen, and his sympathies were remote from the people 
over whom he ruled in his transplanted German court. 
Unlike Queen Anne, William and Mary and their predeces- 
sors, the German prince and his entourage did not patron- 
ize the arts, and his accession to the throne of England had 
little effect other than a negative one upon English fur- 
niture design. 

A period of digestion ensued from 1714 to about 1745, 
that is, from the death of Queen Anne to the appearance 
in the world of fashion of the artist-craftsman, Thomas 
Chippendale, who some ten years earlier, about 1735, bad 
commenced his career in Eondon. During this inchoate 
period, foreign fashions in vogue during the previous 
reigns were assimilated, and from this heterogeneous in- 
heritance a style was evolved which, although still marked 
by foreign influences, was nevertheless distinctively British. 
The dating of furniture in this early Georgian period 
prior to Chippendale's rise to popularity presents many ob- 
vious difficulties, and various attempts at classification have 
been made. The scheme of classification proposed by Her- 
bert Cescinsky in his monumental work on English fur- 
niture of the eighteenth century has many points to 
commend it, and his divisions have been followed in the 
dating of the important group of early Geoi in furniture 
in the Palmer collection. It is natural that the dates de- 
fining the limits of Mr. Cescinsky's divisions should over- 
lap, as the new styles did not immediately supersede the old. 
The divisions are as follows: the Decorated 1 Queen Anne 
(1714-1725); the Lion Period (1720-1735); the Satyr- 
Mask Period (1730-1740) ; the Cabochon and Leaf Period 
(1753 onward); and the Architects' furniture (about 
1720-1750). 

The Decorated Queen Anne Period continues the models 
of 1702-1714, hut elaborates the carving of the arms, legs, 
and backs of chairs and tables. Walnut is still the wood 



210 



ARTS and DECORATION 



February, 1919 1 




Rough Armchair, walnut, about 1685-1688 

commonly in use, but a new note is added by the gilding of 
the carving. Characteristic of this richly decorated fur- 
niture is a small tripod of tea-kettle stand dating about 
1720-1725, of mahogany, an early instance of the use of 
this wood. It is also interesting as an early example of 
tripod furniture, which from about 1750 to 1770 held an 
important place in English fashions. 

The Lion Period overlaps the preceding by a few years. 
It is characterized by the fashion of carving heads of lions 
on the knees of chairs and table legs and on the arms of 
chairs and settees. To correspond, the feet are usually 
carved with lions' paws. The genesis of this decorative 
motive cannot be determined with certainty, but as the 
lion head, together with the satyr mask, is of frequent oc- 
currence in German cabinet work of the late Renaissance, 
it is not at all improbable, as it has been suggested, that the 
introduction of this feature in English furniture was out 
of compliment to the House of Hanover. 

Two side-chairs of walnut veneer with boldly carved 
lions' heads on the knees are hue early examples of this 
mode. They may be dated about 1720-1730. The backs 
of the chairs, with leaf and husk carving on the splat, il- 
lustrate the ornate character of the decorated Queen Anne 
style. Another fine example of lion furniture, this time 
of mahogany, the wood most frequently used for this kind 
of furniture, is an armchair decorated with lions' heads 
and the escallop shell of earlier fashion. This piece dates 
from about 1725-1730. 

In the Decorated Queen Anne period the eagle's head 
was a favorite finish for the arms and legs of chairs and 
settees, and was introduced as a decorative motive in the 



designs of the backs. That this device continued in favor 
into the second quarter of the eighteenth century is shown 
by a mahogany canl-table of ingenious construction,, 
which must be assigned approximately to the years 1735- 
1740 on other evidence. The top is covered with green 
baize, and has pockets sunk for counters. Card-playing" 
was the fashionable vice of the eighteenth century, par- 
ticularly during the late Georgian era, and card-tables were 
indispensable pieces of furniture. 

In the Soane Museum, London, there is an armchair of 
most elaborate design which by some has been claimed as 
the work of Chippendale. There is .said to have been in 
the possession of the museum a receipt for the payment of 
this chair signed by Chippendale. This document, how- 
ever, cannot be produced, and is consequently a very doubt- 
ful piece of evidence. Judging from the style of the chair, 
it would date about 1730-1740, so that if it were by Chip- 
pendale it would be the work of the elder, the father of 
the great cabinet-maker. Six sidechairs and a settee of 
the same design are in the Pendleton collection, Providence, 
R. I. In the Palmer collection are an armchair and a side- 
chair of this pattern. We know, two armchairs, seven 
sidechairs, and a double chair or settee, which probably 
represent the entire set, although the odd number of side- 
chairs is unusual. These chairs are of exceptional impor- 
tance not only for their unusual design but also for the 
beauty of the carving. In the design such familiar mo- 
tives as the eagle's head, the shell, the satyr-mask, and the 
cupid's head may be noted. The basic form or outline is'. 
Dutch in style, but very much modified by other influences. 
In this connection we may note that the French fashion, 
which played so important a part in the development of 
Chippendale, is not indicated in these chairs. 

A superb example of furniture design of about the years 
1735-1740 is a mahogany armchair with an inverted fan- 
back, a modification of the hoop-back type of the Queen 
Anne period. The low relief carving is in harmony with 
the graceful character of this chair, distinguished for its 
beauty of line and proportions. It is said that a large set 
of this pattern was made in the workshops of Chippendale 
for Marie Antoinette, and according to Cescinsky there 
was such a set made by Chippendale and since dispersed, 
although there is no foundation for the Marie Antoinette 
tradition. A considerable number of chairs of this pattern 
are known ; for example, those in the Pendleton collection 
and others in the possession of Sir Henry Hoare and else- 
where. Undoubtedly these chairs were not all of one set. 
As Mr. Cescinsky writes : "The probability is that the house 
of Chippendale was merely commissioned by the French 
monarch' to duplicate a well-known and fashionable pat- 
tern." The ascription of our chair to the years 1735-1740 
is based on design characteristics, although it is quite pos- 
sible, as we know from other instances, that a fashionable 
pattern might be repeated many years afterwards. A pair 
of mahogany stools may be assigned to the same years, 
1735-1740. The cabriole legs carved with leaf motives^ 
are particularly fine. 



February, 1919 



A R T S and DECOR A T I O X 



211 



Dating" a little later than the chairs which we have just 
described and approximately contemporary with the early 
work of Chippendale after his establishment in London, is 
a richly carved armchair, hoop-backed, with elaborately 
pierced splat, the cabriole leys terminating in dolphin heads 
and the knees decorated with flowers in low relief. This 
chair may be dated betwen 1740 and 1750. Even at this 
late date the influence of Queen Anne models is felt in the 
general shape of the chair, but the ornamental motives, 
particularly in the splat, betray the growing influence of 
the contemporary fashions at the court of bonis XV. 
Chippendale may have made such a chair — centainly the 
beauty of the design and the vigor of the execution arc nol 
unworthy of bis hand ; but it is impossible to speak with any 
certainty since it was not until 1754 that Chippendale 
brought out his Gentleman's & Cabinet Maker's Director, 
which conveys to us all that we really know of the Chip- 
pendale style. It is interesting to add that the Museum 
already possesses of the same pattern as this chair a settee 
which formed part of the Cadwalader Bequest. 

An unusual piece of furniture is a mahogany knife and 
fork wagon, a low table with four legs, mounted upon 
casters, and supporting a tray with a central partition. 
The style of the carving, as well as the rather heavy charac- 
ter of the piece, permits it to be classed among the so- 
called Irish Chippendale furniture. This designation is a 
misnomer, since the evidence for the English origin of 
these tables appears most convincing, although a provincial 
^origin, nevertheless, is indicated by the general style of 
workmanship and design. The date of our piece is ap- 
proximately 1740-1750. 

The style which bears the name of Chippendale, we are 
apt to forget sometimes, did not originate with him. No 
historic style is ever the work of any one man. Thomas 
Chippendale was not the only man in the metropolis to 
work in the style to which we give bis name to-day, and 
this very style was but the outgrowth of the years of as- 
similation which had preceded it. Chippendale was, how- 
ever, in all probability the most gifted of the cabinet- 
makers of his time, not only in designing, but in the prac- 
tical execution of his patterns. The name of Chippendale 
does not occur in the inventories of furniture of bis time, 
and it is only in recent years that we have used the name 
of this cabinet-maker, made familiar to us by bis publica- 
tion of designs for furniture, as a general designation for 
work produced at this period by the English cabinet- 
makers. When we describe furniture as '"Chippendale," it 
does not necessarily mean that the furniture was actually 
made in Chippendale's St. Martin's Lane workshop, but 
may. include other pieces made by bis competitors under 
this general beading. 

Chippendale's father appears to have been a joiner and 
picture-frame maker from Worcester who migrated to 
London some time between 1720 and 1727. The son com- 
menced business in Conduit Street, close to Longacre, 
'j£>out the year 1735. It was not until some ten or fifteen 
years later, 1745-1750, that be appears to have acquired 




Royal Armchair, walnut, about 1680-1685 

renown and commenced to exert any marked influence on 
furniture production. In 1753 he removed to the more 
fashionable region of 60 St. Martin's Lane, and in the fol- 
lowing year published the first edition of his famous Direc- 
tor, which had required several years in preparation. In bis 
earliest work, which is undoubtedly his finest, Chippendale 
shows his gradual development from the furniture fashions 
of the early Georgian period. Upon this foundation of 
good workmanship and design he imposed such novelties 
as the fashions of his time demanded, catering to tastes so 
divergent as Gothic, Chinese, and French. 

About the middle of the century, strange as it may seem, 
there was a distinct tendency toward a Gothic revival, but 
such men as Batty Langley, for example, who were its 
proponents, were sadly ignorant of the true nature of 
Gothic. Such borrowed details as the trefoil, the pointed 
arch, the champfered molding, and the triple column were 
combined with other details so foreign in style as to show 
a complete failure to understand the underlying principles 
of Gothic art. The Chinese designs of Edwards and Darly 
appeared in the same year as the Director and offered the 
wealthy public a new opportunity for adventures in taste. 
As one may imagine, Chippendale catered to his fashion- 
able clientele by including in bis Director designs in both 
the Gothic and the Chinese taste, and although many of 
his designs in this direction are too extravagant to have 
been carried out, there is no doubt that be produced a 
quantity of furniture, often of great charm, in the Gothic 
and Chinese manner. 

A mahogany armchair in the "Chinese taste," with its 
(Continued on page 236) 



ARTS and DECORATION 



February, 1919 




c 



February, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATIO 



N 



213 



A HOME AT THE WATER'S EDGE 

A Story Concerning the Ideal from the Home- Lover's Point of View 



OCCASIONALLY an architect, when called upon to 
plan a home, is given a site so beautiful as to lead 
to the putting forth of his best efforts to create a 
building which shall be worthy of the spot upon which it 
is to stand. The incentive then exists to use to the fullest ad- 
vantage every natural resource and to clothe utility of plan 
with beauty of exterior and to surround both with the most 
picturesque of settings. 

Scarcely anything in the way of a plot upon which to 
build could be more beautiful than one which, in addition to 
being situated in the midst of a rarely beautiful stretch of 
country, possesses grounds which extend to the water's 
edge and which are so covered with a heavy growth of 
virgin forest. All of these advantages were evidently fully 
appreciated by Frank J. Forster. architect, formerly of 
Caretto and Forster of Xew York, when he planned the 
very beautiful home of Mrs. C. H. Smithers at Great Neck, 
Xew York, and he may have supplied something of the in- 
spiration of which the estate is the finished and visible 
result. 

As one enters the grounds of this Long Island home the 
house appears amid a grove on a slight eminence overlook- 
ing the Sound with the New York and Connecticut shores 
» plainly visible. The building is of dark colored brick, long 
and low, and with sweeping roof lines and chimneys planned 
with great taste and skill. Since the house is but two stories 
in height many dormer windows are necessary but they 
are so placed that instead of breaking the lines of the roof 
and producing an effect of weakness, they are massed about 
chimneys or so arranged in groups that the picturesque ap- 
pearance has been heightened rather than marred. The low 
building has been so planned that one of the long sides 
faces the south which renders possible a southern exposure 
for literally every room in the house. Above the brick 
walls the slate roof overhangs in broad eaves which shade 
the windows, and their long unbroken horizontal lines add 
a certain picturesque quaintness to the structure. Much 
shrubbery is planted about the building, and in its angles 
an outside trim painted white, and shutters white below 
and green at the upper windows, relieve the severity of brick 
walls and slate roofs. 

The floor diagrams of this very interesting house show 
a residence planned for the free and informal and some- 
what varied life which obtains in the countrv. The en- 



trance is directly into a very large living room from which 
the main stairway leads to the floor above. Casement win- 
dows upon three sides of the living room face in as many 
directions and at one end French windows, opening to the 
floor, give access to a broad screened and brick-paved ve- 
randa with the ever-changing beauty of Long Island Sound 
beyond a stretch of green, shaded lawn. At the south side 
of this long, low living room a great fireplace is built and 
at the end opposite the veranda a wide doorway opens into 
the dining room to which belongs another veranda, used 
on many occasions as an out-of-door breakfast or dining 
room. 

The upper floor of the house is arranged with three very 
spacious bed-rooms each provided with a bath of its own 
and with many closets. All of the bed-rooms, as has al- 
ready been said, have windows toward the south, and the 
largest bed-room, that just above the living room, extends 
over the veranda and possesses windows which face the 
north and the west as well as the south. 

Very rarely does one find a house possessed of service 
quarters so satisfactory and so complete. An entire end 
of the building is given up to pantry and kitchen with their 
own entrance, hall and' veranda, and above are two bed- 
rooms for servants with their own closets and bath room, 
the entire service portion of the house being wholly sepa- 
rate from that part occupied by the family. 

Not far from the residence there stands a smaller build- 
ing which contains a garage with living quarters above. 
Planned with lines very similar to those of the house and 
built of similar material this service building adds greatly 
to the attractiveness of the little estate which represents, 
upon the whole, an unusually successful adaptation of ap- 
propriate buildings for a rarely beautiful site and a skillful 
combination of highly practical plan and appearance of 
great beauty. 

A really successful home represents a satisfactory solu- 
tion of a problem which is often somewhat intricate and 
involved for the house must be appropriate to its site and 
both the house and its surroundings must express the taste 
and individuality of its occupants besides being suitable for 
their manner of living, and happy indeed are the results 
when a solution satisfactory from every point of view has 
been attained. 



214 



A K T S and I ) E CORATJON 



February, 1919 




ANOTHER GLIMPSE INTO THE GEORGIAN HOME OF H. P. DAVIDSON. 
THIS ILLUSTRATION SHOWS A CORNER OF THE LIBRARY— USEFUL AND 
ROOMY AND REALLY PERFECT IN GROUPING OF FURNITURE. 



WANDERLUST 



GOD, with a dawning gaze, 
Kindles the sun, 
Forging the iron days 
One after one : 



Shapes and designs the trees, 

And now and then 
Fanning the furnaces, 

Labors on men: 



By WILLIAM GRIFFITH 

Smiting and hammering 

This from an ape, 
That from a stammering 

Primeval shape : 

Giving them each the vast 

Reach of the sky, 
Since the dark ages passed 

Tardily by. 

Showing the way to choose 

Rest and reward 
From the green revenues 

Next to the sward: 



Urging and beckoning 

City and town 
Forth for a reckoning, 

Now and anon 



Over the open trail, 

Clean from the din; 
Sun — stars — a friendly hail, 

Lights and the Inn. 



February, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



215 




Proper Lighting in the Home 
and Its Relations to the Beauty 
and Comfort of Different Blooms 



T 



HERE is a psychology in the proper lighting of a 
home that is realized by all architects and decorators 
and which of recent years has given them much food 
for thought in designing and building. There is always an 
effect to be produced and a reason for this effect. Nothing 
is more important to the beauty and comfort of a room 
than the harmonizing of colors, and this harmony may be 
enhanced or lessened by the correct or incorrect light that 
is used. The shedding of subdued, colorful light by proper- 
ly placed lamps can lend endless charm to a beautifully fur- 
nished room. 

To attain the best results there must exist a definite 
scheme in the minds of the architect and decorator, a scheme 
whereby furniture may be effectively and artistically ar- 
ranged and a lighting system installed that will give a note 
of cheerfulness and warmth.. In the living room for ex- 
ample, if there is a fire place, and there usually is, the 
obvious first group arrangement is around the hospitable 
hearth. A large divan before it, with a sofa end table 
bearing a reading lamp is at once suggested. The old 
fashioned conventional green-glass reading lamp has been 
superseded by lamps of every design and material that go 
to make for beauty and style. There is something stately 
about a floor lamp, with its high standard, topped by some 
lovely fabric shade that lends an air of elegance to the room 
in which it is placed. Often it is found close to a grand 
piano olgjiear the tea table forrning a most picturesque group. 
Side" lights are a real necessity, the spacing being selected 
accordfng to the plan of the room. They are not only orna- 




mental but the\' are a real convenience as one or all may be 

lighted according to the temporary need of the occupant 
of the room. 

The delight fully wrought iron or metal fixtures for hall 
or living room are always in good taste, and shaded silk or 
painted shields a happy selection. The shaded silk shields 
are of endless interest and can be tinted to embody the 
color scheme of the room in which they are to be used. A 
beautiful combination recently seen was a fixture in dull 
finish bronze, the simple circular shield of silk, toning from 
the rich Pompeian green through the brown tones to a soft 
colden sflow in the centre. 

For the dining room the reproduction in antique Shef- 
field plate with painted parchment shields carrying a design 
of fruit in Georgian style, is quite exquisite or a combi- 
nation of bronze and pewter lend interest to a variety of 

color tones. 

For the bedroom the number and styles are infinite. The 
simple fixtures painted in soft ivory or gray harmonize 
with the wood work and color scheme of the room very 
satisfactorily. The shields can be made of great decorative 
value by repeating the design of the chintz used. Other de- 
sio-ns more elaborate have shields of plain silk tinted in 

o 

sympathetic coloring. 

Torcheres of bronze or silver, lanterns of wrought iron 
or old brass, simple brackets of pewter, all have their ac- 
ceptable positions in the different parts of the house. A 
little time and study given to the selection of the important 
detail will abundantly repay in beauty and service rendered. 







216 



ARTS and DECORATION 



February, 1919 



MUSIC AND ITS SISTER ARTS 



By CHARLES D. ISAACSON 



ALL arts are as one, sings the poet, and venders of 
thought-chestnuts express the idea freely. Definitely 
to point out the close relationship of music, paint- 
ing, sculpture, literature, drama, and the dance, is the am- 
bitious design of this article, which is written from the 
viewpoint of a layman in all six arts, with the exception 
of music and the spoken word as some grudgingly might 
accept for argument's sake. 

Let me therefore address these opinions to the painters 
and sculptors as one who worships at their feet, glorying in 
their magnificent work and finding in their canvases and 
marbles that element of music which they may never have 
realized resided there. 

Benjamin Franklin having wisely said, "In union there 
is strength," perhaps a more intimate blending of all the 
arts will make for an easier victory for Art in these States. 
If the forces of the musical, painting, sculpture, dramatic 
world should make a grand combination in restraint of 
trade, for the betterment of beauty — but that is for another 
discussion. 

Suffice it to say, that if painters and sculptors will listen 
more to the strains of harmony and seek the rare inspira- 
tion at the fount of melody, some new impetus may be given 
their great work. 

I make the broad statement that some paint with brushes 
and oils and some paint with melody and harmony. Some 
put the seas, the forest stillness, the living men upon a 
canvas, and some depict these same pictures in accents of 
music. 

The painter conveys the world to a still piece of board 
within a frame. The composer captures the soul of the 
universe and sets it free. 



The painting shows the subject at a definite moment. It 
may be a running horse or a flowing stream, but the pic- 
ture is a still life. Music paints the galloping steed gal- 
loping, the flowing river rushing over its rocks and rapids 
and falling over reefs. In the musical painting the sun 
rises and passes its orbit and sets. Man is born, lives and 
dies. 

Compare the forest scene of the painter and the com- 
poser. In the first you see all the brilliant colors, the con- 
tour of trees and plants are nicely suggested. But all is 
silent — like Coleridge's "painted ship upon a painted ocean." 
Note the musical forest. There is the pulse of the very 
stillness! You hear the beating of the quiet. It throbs. 

Have you ever sat, on a summer's day, out in the coun- 
try? You close your eyes as you lie in your hammock and 
all nature is alive. You cannot see it, but it is there. 

You cannot see it? Why, music is painting in flaming 
colors. Some chords are red as carmine, some are drab as 
steel gray ; some are dirty and muddy ; some lurid and 
murky; some are the color of ashes, and some are the pink 
of the rose-petals. You can listen to some music and see 
only black — the blackness of infinity, of overwhelming 
space. You will see cats' eyes, green and distrustful in a 
phrase. Whitecaps dance in an arpeggio. The golden 
beams of the sun are reflected in all their brilliancy in cer- 
tain writing. You cannot mistake it. 

But the golden rays are not flat as on a canvas. They are 
warm and dancing. The whitecaps are wet. They smell 
salt and sea-weed. They are surging and ebbing with rest- 
less impatience. The rose petals are soft and velvety. A 
sweet fragrance is wafted in the nostril. It is strange; diffi- 
cult to understand. 




Between the White Trunks — Bv Carl Larsson 



February, 191V 



A R T S and DECOR A T I O N 



217 



There is a simple little composition of Chaminade. It is 
called "The Flatterer." At the first bars a brilliantly lighted 
ballroom is painted. Later individuals are pointed out. 
Here is a gorgeously gowned young lady — oh, so beautiful. 
See what red, red lips! And this gentleman. He draws 
on his white gloves and he bends over the girl and flatters 
her. The laughter — the smiles, the pretty phrases. So 
many paintings in one. 

Schumann has painted "Scenes of the Forest." What 
painter has done anything more realistic? Grieg has written 
music of the Vikings. What illustrator has made them live 
more truly? MacDowell has written o\ the sea. Have 
you ever seen a marine canvas that smelled so of the ocean 
and crashed with such vehemence against the rocks? 

As St. Martin heard notes that shone and saw Mowers 
that sounded. — can you see the speaking flowers and hear 
the musical colors? 

In listening to music you must see the picture. What is 
the music painting? It is making a scene with rapid strokes. 
Human life or nature stands revealed. 

Many composers purposely gave names to their music 
suggesting the subject for the imagination. Some have 
religiously attempted to imitate the sounds of the thing they 
are describing. Others try rather to create the atmosphere 
by suggestion, to people the world in a total atmosphere of 
color. 

There are some compositions of Debussy which fill the 
room with summer night stillness and a purple mist. A 
nocturne of Chopin makes you see the sorrow of a man's 
heart. Regret is painted for you. Melancholy stalks with- 
out a definite shape to mark her. 

But, oh, how a simple phrase of Beethoven's Pastoral 
Symphony sets free the whole of the outdoors. You are 
cooped up in the city and you find yourself in the forest. 
"The glow diffusive lit each countenance," says George 
Idiot in her poem to Tubal. "The sun had sunk, but the 
music still was there. Is moonlight there? I see a face of 
love." 

See your music painting. See your paintings make music 
for our ears ! 

Xow, have you ever realized that music is a sculptor 
without equal, even to Michael Angelo ! It models and 
adapts minds and souls. You cannot listen long to music 
without its influence showing itself in your face, in your 
eye. in your mentality, but, most important, in your soul. 
Look at the man who hates music. Is he not a hard speci- 
men — sinister, unsocial features, with desires not of the 
most idealistic ? But look at the true music lover — Ik >w 
kindly has nature modelled his features — soft and tender ! 

Recall your last symphony concert. You are seated. 
The musicians come upon the stage. The director taps his 
baton. The orchestra starts the Ninth Symphony of 
Beethoven. 

Xow, let us pause for a moment. Think of a piece of 
level ground. Workmen appear. There are a foreman and 
superintendent, an architect, and contractor. The level 
ground is soon transformed. A steel structure is erected. 




Spring Painting — By Toho Hirose 

It is the framework of a great mansion. Soon mortar and 
brick and stone are added ; paint and plaster, decoration. 
A palace stands where nothing stood before. Now, in- 
terior decorators, upholsterers, artists are working; the 
place is ready for occupancy. The owners take possession. 
They enter with all their hopes, ambitions, foibles, hatreds, 
loves, and their little world centers about them. 

Letters and telegrams and visitors come from near and 
distant cities. Perhaps one man alone in that new house 
directs a factory, with its thousands of toilers and their 
families and friends. Perhaps one woman in that house 
sings to hundreds of thousands and makes them vary happy. 
Perhaps some other is manufacturing propaganda hateful 
to this nation and its people. Perhaps — so much. That 
level empty ground has been given every proportion. 

Let us pause further for a moment and think of the 
sculptor. He fingers a lump of cold clay, and with hands 
imitative of the Master has modelled men and women. 



218 



ARTS and DECORATION 



February, 1919 



children, angels, horses, lyres, monuments. See it grow 
under his finger! See the fine line become clearer; eyes 
look at you, mouth quivers, hands uplifted! 

Let us return to our symphony concert. The director 
has lifted his baton. All the instruments respond. Soon 
a structure like the stone house has been erected. The 
dominant themes have been riveted unmistakably. You see 
in your mind's eye the formation of this great palace. 
Cement and stone are piled up by 'cellos Now violins play 
decorations, flutes and oboes paint in the colors — the ex- 
terior is complete. But the composer has only just begun. 
The inside must be made habitable. How cosy and com- 
fortable are those chairs. How real and material are those 
pillars. The residence is open for occupancy. The people 
come in — some romp like children, some so sedately and 
severely, some drag themselves along with melancholy mien 
and burdened trouble. 

You see the men and women, modelled with true likeness. 

Here, where the child is portrayed, like the transformed 
lump of clay, the features are marked out. The mouth 
quivers, the hands are upraised, the eyes look out at you. 
But here is where music goes further. The child breathes. 
It talks. It moves. Its very soul is made to love and to 
express itself. Its whole past, present, and future, are ex- 
tolled. All of its family, friends, and enemies are brought 
into the group. 

But hear that music. The tremendous structure is all 
about us. 

In all its bigness, coloring, modelling, — with all its hu- 



manity and dramatic beauty. The final chord crashes. The 
director bows. The men leave the stage. But still that 
structure stands and still it remains with you forever. 

Many have bemoaned the fact that the music, unlike its 
sister arts, painting and sculpture, is fleeting. You hear 
music and it is gone. You see a painting, or a piece of 
sculpture. You can touch it, keep looking at it — it is there. 

Those who imagine music so ephemeral do not really 
know music. When you hear it you do not lose it. You 
gain it. Yours it becomes when it seems to have gone. 
You are holding it within you. Its melodies recur to you 
time and again. 

Let me show you how all music is dancing. You may 
see painting without and in this thought alone. Does not 
the note come dancing out of the singer's throat, setting 
the air dancing as it goes? Does not the string of the piano 
dance as it vibrates its joy at re-life? Does not the violin's 
whole body dance — back, sides and top — with the rhythm 
of the note that is sounding? All the molecules are swirling 
about in complete abandon, it seems, but in reality governed 
quite completely by the sound post, which serves as con- 
ductor. 

Music is vibration. Vibration is dancing. There you 
have it. Play a piece of music and watch the listener re- 
spond. If the composition is in march rhythm, instantly 
the desire to mark time becomes apparent. The feet just 
can't keep still. If the rhythm is of a waltz character the 
body starts to sway. 

It is a fact that the more native the individual the quicker 




Tung Fong Su at the Golden Horse — By Pas Yung-ting 



February, 1919 



ARTS and DECOR A TIO X 



219 



r 



is his response to music. The Negro is most whimsical in 
this respect. The colored people are like sensitive recorders 
when music is played. It takes hold of the whole system— 
you see it in their eyes, in their dilated nostrils, in their 
mouths, which seem to be opening with impulsive move- 
ments. It gets into their joints — of the wrists, the elbows, 
the knees. How in the world can you expect a colored man 
to sit still when music is being played? 

But did you ever feel the dance of nature — did you ever 
realize that all nature is perpetually dancing? Look at the 
country land. See the leaves and branches in the breeze; 
They are happy. It is summer and everything and every- 
body should dance a dance oi praise. Last summer 1 loved 
to go up the little mountain passes of the Catskills. The 
waterfalls and the brook dancing and singing. The trees 
humming and dancing. One little stem I will never forget. 
It must have been a dwarf tree. A tiny stem coming out 
of the ground, — not six inches tali. A single leaf was at 
the end and like a flag it kept waving — like a little girl it 
kept dancing. 

So it is a good thing and a natural thing that people 
should dance. What is irreligious or disrespectful in the 
dance? 

Some chords suggest certain words. They are like some 
•colors. A chord has just sounded for me and it said 
"Death." Once there was a march I listened to, and it told 
of all that is happy and joyous. It said "'Marry her, marry 
her." Some 'music says "Dance." Some says "Weep." 
Some says "Laugh." Some says "Cold. cold, told." Some 
says "I'm colored, I'm a jolly negro man." Some means 
to be an imprecation as vile as a longshoreman's drunken 
oath, and some seems to speak a prayer as solemnly sweet 
as a saint's invocation to the Lord God. 

Some music is all but the spoken word. Some spoken 
"words are all but the sound of music. Are there not pas- 
sages in literature you recall which sound like the deep- 
throated church organ? Thus I think of poems of Walt 
Whitman — "Proud Music of the Storm," There are bits 
of Wordsworth which weep with the sad accent of the 
oboe. In Flaubert's "Salammbo" there are paragraphs so 
harmonic that yon might imagine the chords of a sym-' 
phonic orchestra being played. The French balladists, like 
Yerlaine, du Nerval, Baudelaire, all were musicians in 
words. They knew that the sound of certain words sug- 
gested musical symbols. 

Reverberating sounds "like a drum roll, tripping, skip- 
ping" might suggest a pizzicato on the violin. "Quickly 
the foe advanced," a trumpet call. The analogy might be 
carried a long way. It is an interesting study, showing 
the relationship of words and musical symbols. 

Certain authors were masters in this respect. There was 



first of all the morbid drug fiend de ' juincy, who knew how 
to make a sentence sound like a strain of melody. And 
who is there to compare with our own American, Poe? In 
his "Raven" can you not hear the lugubrious bassoon ai 
"Nevermore" But in his "Bells," he has achieved the 
masterpiece ^\ melody writing in words. There are real 
sounds of hells; you can hear them in the words ol the 
"tinkling little sleighhells," "The hanging, clanging lire 
hells," and the "tolling and the moaning of the funeral 
bells." 

Words suggest their companion notes — there is no doubt 
of this. Notes suggest their words. In our work among 
the school children this latter has been amply demonstrated. 
Thus in Rachmaninoff's "C sharp Prelude," when the chil- 
dren are asked to think of the chords as depicting a soldier 
attempting to escape from prison, the last notes sound like, 
"I am giving my life for my country." 

Grieg's "Ase's Death" is a chant. Mendelssohn's "Spin- 
ning Song" tells many children Priscilla's answer to John 
Mien's proxy proposal for Miles Standisb, "Why don't 
you speak for yourself?" 

My father was a great violinist. Many famous painters 
would ask him to play for them while the\ were at work. 
It was easy for my father. lie had to practice — every 
musician must do that or he is lost. While practicing he 
inspired many beautiful canvases. I know a celebrated 
sculptor who spends half his time listening to music and 
the other half listening at his own work. 

The remarkable relationship of the arts; particularly of 
painting, sculpture and music is astounding in its possibil- 
ities. Recently at a series of musicals I tried several daring 
experiments. 

One day, I placed some canvases on the stage ; and threw 
a spotlight on each of them at the appropriate moment. 
To a marine, I had played a piano solo of a Grieg sonata. 
I urged the audience to watch the canvas while listening 
to the music. Soon the water seemed to move — you could 
smell the salt, the wind howled 1 . We were really out in 
the wild night. 

Another composition was played while concentrating on 
a rural scene of sweet peace. The music was not written 
for the canvas — but the initial inspiration was about the 
same nature. I tried similar experiments with pictures of 
children, old men, mothers. The results were amazing, and 
helpful to composer, pianist, painter, audience. 

Another time I had a row of canvases and asked the 
audience to tell which one the music described. The vote 
was unanimous every time. 

The same thing was done with pieces of marble. Isn't 
it remarkable? What are the artists going to do to avail 
themselves of the relationship? 




220 



ARTS and DECORATION 



February, 1919 



NOTES OF THE BOOK WORLD 

By CHARLES HENRY DORR 



THE past month has been prolific in the dispersals at 
auction sales of treasured books and manuscripts 
bearing the signatures of noted authors. 

Interest centered in the sale of the collection of literary- 
treasures assembled by Herschel V. Jones, of Minneapolis, 
which took place on the closing days of January at Ander- 
sons, too late to be reviewed in this issue, but worthy of 
comment later on. 

One of the literary gems in this portion of the Jones 
library was the famous dedication copy of Milton's 
"Comus," formerly owned by Henry E. Huntington, and 
known to collectors as the Bridgewater "Comus." The 
Bridgewater library was preserved intact from early in the 
seventeenth century until its purchase by Mr. Huntington, 
which caused a ripple in the literary mart. 

This rare old volume by Milton with its historic interest 
has always been mentioned among the first of the treasures 
in the Bridgewater collection. 

Another rarity of interest was the first edition of "Uto- 
pia," by Sir Thomas More, dated at Louvain, 1516. Com- 
pleted in 1516, the manuscript, it appears, was sent to Peter 
Giles, Tunstall and Erasmus, who were enthusiastic in its 
praise. 

Other items of interest were the first complete edition of 
"Polychronycon," by Ranulph Higden, and containing the 
first appearance of music in print in any English book ; 
"The Royal Book of Hours," by Verard. printed at the 
Court of France, during the reigns of Louis XII. and Fran- 
cois I., 1503, on vellum, with illuminated initials and mini- 
atures; a Flemish illuminated psalter about 1250, written 
on thick parchment at Ghent, a work of great rarity, and a 
Persian manuscript written on native glazed paper reciting 
the chivalrous deeds and wars of the Shah. 

Although no definite date has been announced for the 
dispersal of the third division of the Jones library, the sale 
will probably take place in March and will occupy three 
sessions. Thus far the Jones collection of rare books and 
manuscripts has maintained first place in the literary sales 
of the present season. 

The J. C. Young Inscribed Books 

r I " 11 E feature of the sale of the inscribed books and other 
-*- literary gems in the collection formed by the late James 
Carleton Young, of Minneapolis, was the collection of one 
hundred and forty-seven original manuscripts by Joaquin 
Miller, poet of the Sierras. 

This interesting collection of manuscripts by the Cali- 
fornia poet was purchased by George D. Smith for $800, 
the top price of the Young sale, which took place on Janu- 
ary 15 and 16 at the Anderson Galleries, netting a grand 
total of $5,327. 

One of the Joaquin Miller items of more than usual in- 



terest was the poet's farewell to Bret Harte : "Yon yellow 
sun melts in the sea, a sombre ship sweeps silently," the 
first two verses ending : "Good bye Bret Harte, good night, 
good night." 

Altogether the Miller manuscripts comprise about twelve 
hundred pages in the handwriting of the author, with his 
corrections. 

The original manuscripts of ballads, prose, and prologues 
by Paul -Verlaine, in three groups, brought $705, from 
George D. Smith, who also secured the proof sheets of a 
poem by Mrs. Lewis, entitled, "Lament of La Vega," with 
a review by Edgar Allan Poe, in his handwriting, for $235. 

The Robert H. Dodd Sale 

ANOTHER literary collection dispersed in mid-January 
■ at Andersons was part two of the rare books assembled 
by Robert H. Dodd, which brought a total of $6,423.65 for 
two sessions. 

The notable features of the sale were "Fragments of 
Rare Books," including early London Imprints, at $510, 
and a quaint item, "Nova Britannia — offering most excel- 
lent fruites by planting in Virginia," London, 1609, $400, 
both acquired by George D. Smith. 

Another Huth Sale 

HP HE sale of another portion of the famous Henry Huth 
-*■ library will take place at Sotheby, Wilkinson and 
Hodge's, London, probably during the present season, al- 
though no definite date has been chosen for this interesting 
event in the literary auction mart. 

Collectors in this country will doubtless be represented 
at the coming Huth library sale, and will probably acquire 
some of the gems asesmbled by the English bibliophile. 

A number of the rarities dispersed at the last Huth li- 
brary sale, found their way to America and are now in 
private collections. 

Quaint Literary Acrobatics 

AN odd literary collection has been formed in London, 
■ and includes books dealing with acrostics, anagrams, 
labyrinths, palindromes, monosyllabic verse and other freak- 
ish and rare volumes. It is the John Hodgkin collection, 
and has been placed on view in the London Library. A 
specimen of the "Retrograde" is illustrated by the "Ludus 
Fortunae," Louvain, 1633, in which the couplets can be 
read from either end of the line. 

Collectors of rare manuscripts will be interested in the 
announcement of an important sale in preparation at Sothe- 
by's, London. The collection of illuminated manuscripts 
formed by Yates Thompson, and including many rarities 

(Continued on page 234) , 



February, 1910 



A RTS and 1) ECO R AT [ON 



221 




IX THE AUTUMN 



CONTEMPORARY ITALIAN PAINTING 

By CARLO SIVIERO 
Translated from the Italian by Helena van Perinyl de Kay 



T 



HE anient and discerning art-lover who has followed 
the course of the International Expositions at Venice, 
will have become aware of the great advance made 
in the last twenty years by Italian art, in the research of 
color and form. 

And we must aknowledge that foreign painting, especi- 
ally the efforts of the Northerners to express their sur- 
roundings and atmosphere and their desire to direct the art 
of painting towards new visual emotions, has contributed 
not a little to diverting it from the old forms of romanticism. 

If, however, on one hand, the contact and comparison 
with world-art has been of aid to certain painters and sculp- 
tors, one should recognize also that it has tended to and in 
part succeeded in annulling the ethnical character and local 
expressions, which by producing a quantity of diverse es- 
thetic emotions have at all times contributed to Italian art 
its highest value. 

. The first to feel the impetus of these new currents and 
the influence of the "veiled" visions of Northern painting- 
were the landscapists, urged on by Nature herself towards 
the research of more efficacious modes of expression. And 
the most typical examples were first shown us by certain 
Venetian painters, among whom one may cite Pietro Fra- 
giacomo, Francesco Sartorelli and Ferrucio Scattola. The 
pictorial visions of Fragiacomo are full of sentiment; they 



express an intimate emotion and a sense of infinite repose. 
He loves dearly the calm of the lagoon and effects of twi- 
light and night and knows how to render them with a subtle 
and penetrating poetry. 

The Ciardi family possesses three interesting and taste- 
ful painter's physiognomies. Old Guglielmo Ciardi is in- 
tent on the research of "tones" and "rapports," is admired 
for the cut and flaming of his "marines" and his "Cam- 
pagna Veneziana" furrowed by the immobile waters of the 
lagoon and the flaming sails of the Adriatic. Beppe, his 
son, loves a richness of color reminding one of the dense 
and juicy pictorial representations of Pietro Longhi, and 
takes his pleasure in small canvases, the crowd of "tose"* 
and children in the "campielli"t and on the "fondamenta."| 
The sister, Emma, turns to eighteenth-century visions of 
Venetian houses in moonlight or in the veiled light of a 
pale sun, animated by vivid touches of "crinoline," by the 
gayety of festive couples, by the mysterious and diaphanous 
shadows of dances and cavaliers in love. 

Marius Pictor (Mario de Maria ) is also fond of moon- 
light intrigues and chevaleresque adventures and is in truth 
the poet of the silvery languor of the moon. He renders it 
with a technique slightly labored but convincing, and suc- 
ceeds sometimes in producing real pictorial jewels. 



Young girls, f Little squares. J Quays skirling the lagoons. 



222 



A R T S and DECORATION 



February, l 1 '!'* 




"Portrait of a Lady" 

The painter of the noisy, agitated, kindly and sentimental 
Venetian crowd, is Italo Brass. He delights in scenes of 
Venetian festivities, afternoons at the cafe Florian, walks 
in the Piazza San Marco or beneath the "procuratie,"* and 
knows how to depict them with a nervous and synthetic 
"verve" although abusive sometimes in his coloring of the 
bituminous blacks and grays. 

Ettore Tito has the most complex, vivid, and we may 
say solid talent of the Venetian painters. He is a fervid 
and imaginative decorator and seems sometimes the power- 
ful echo of Giambattista Tiepolo. He is an excellent por- 
trait painter, a clever and vivid landscapist and a fine illus- 
trator, having given many fruits of this aptitude to English 
and American papers and magazines. 

Milanese painting is very well represented by Gaetano 
Previati. pupil of Giovanni Segantini. Mystical figures and 
the great religious and poetical allegories have attracted 
bun for a number of years, causing him to abandon his 
"first manner" in which he expressed with much objective 
success the external world. Now he paints large decorative 
panels where the figures, etherialized by his mysticism and 
the flowers humanized by his pallet create accords of form 
and harmonies of color full of infinite subtlety and poetry. 
Previati has succeeded in inventing a delicate technique 
which gives him a distinct personal character. 

Among the painters that can be placed beside Previati 
tor the intimate emotion of their art we must note Giuseppe 
Mentessi (who has a pathetic canvas "War" at the National 
Gallery of Modern Art in Rome) and Pietro Chiesa, who 



loves scenes of maternal affection and expresses them with 
a touching and sweet sensibility. And Angelo Morbelli, a 
patient and careful "divisionist"* who exalts the spiritual 
beautv of the good and humble old people in the asylums 
and churches where they take refuge. 

Beside these "spiritual" painters we have Ambrogio Al- 
ciati who paints portraits and figures with great ardor and 
ability and seeks to approach the "impressionism" of An- 
tonio Mancini. While among the landscapists we may note 
Lodovico Cavalleri, Giorgio Belloni, and Carlo Fornara 
who is one of the most faithful and able followers of 
Segantini, the robust painter from the high mountains of 
Lombardy. 

Piemonf counts one of the best Italian portrait-painters : 
Giacomo Grosso, who expresses happily the objective world, 
with a precision and a realism almost excessive; then Mar- 
co Calderini, a powerful old landscapist, pupil of Fontanesi ; 
Cesare Maggi, a young and vivid "divisionist" loving the 
solemn and lonely plains on high snowy mountains. An- 
drea Tavernier, and Felice Carena, a painter who used to 
love the nebulous and pathetic visions of Eugene Carriere 
and who now has decided to brave the violent colorings of 
the French "synthesists" and is inspired by Van Gogh and 
Matisse to the suppression of his own undeniable qualities, 
Plinio Nomellini and Galileo Chini are the most vital 
representatives of the Tuscan school. The first is a notable 
divisionist painter. He loves the joy of the sun and of 
children; the expressions of family life, and has depicted 
with fancy life on the sea and certain episodes of the Gari- 
baldian epopee. Galileo Chini is essentially a genial and 
tasteful decorator. He descends from that Florentine fif- 
teenth century which has given the most beautiful pages to 
the life and history of Italian art. 

The traditional school of Tuscan "macchiaioli"t boa-t- 
two remarkable descendants ; the brothers Luigi and Fran- 
cesco Gioli, painters of sensibility and lovers of the subtle 
poetry of Tuscan country. Also Ludovico Tommasi, a 
ready and vivid artistic intelligence; and at last, among the 
representatives of advanced tendencies and worthy of at- 
tention, Eugenio Cecchi, who is able to reconcile with dar- 
ing forms the beautiful tradition of Giovanni Fattori. 

Giulio Aristide Sartorio, Camillo Innocenti, Arturo 
Xoci, Umberto Caromaldi, Pietro Gaudenzi, Ferrucio Fe- 
razzi, Armando Spadini will be enough to represent Lazio 
(province of Rome) in this flying note on contemporaneous 
art. We should add to this valorous group two painters of 
Neapolitan origin but of Roman artistic adoption : Anto- 
nio Mancini and Enrico Lionne. 

Mancini is perhaps the most expressive and representa- 
tive painter' of our times. He is a powerful "impressionist" 
and a wonderful compositionist, with an impetuosity worthy 



Porticoes surrounding Piazza San Marco. 



* Divisionisme : painter's technique; a process by which one tries 
to reproduce the phenomenon of light as it appears in nature. The 
colors are not mixed but employed as a succession of little points placed 
one beside the other. 

fAn impressionist school of painting which grew up in Tuscany 
after the French movement. Among the best "macchiaioli" are 
Giovanni Fattori, Lega, and also Boldini. the distinguished por- £ 
trait-painter living in Paris. 



February, l l H9 



AR TS and 1) E COR A T I O X 



223 



of the great masters of the seventeenth centun 



le paints 



everything that interests his pictorial sensibility and is 
without the formulas and the preoccupations belonging to 
certain painters. The joy of creating urges him sometimes 
towards esthetic springs neither pleasing nor delectable hut 
his high and solemn rendering of the real makes every 
aspect of tilings created by him interesting. Mancini is 
not distracted by any technical preoccupation; to express 
his dream he uses anything that comes to hand; and some- 
times in order to arrive at a successful rendering of the 
vibrations of light, he employs in the color-paste pieces of 
tin or glass or silverpaper, obtaining not rarely surprising 
results. He has worked for some time in England under 
the leadership of John Sargent, ami his portraits are dis- 
cussed and coveted by the intelligent. 

Enrico Lionne was one of the first and most fervent 
"divisionists" in Italy. He is an intelligent and intuitive 
painter. The technique, the laws and the evolution of divi- 
sionism are profoundly known to him. The picture "Grassi 
e Magri," now at the Gallery of Modern Art in Rome, 
raised some twenty years ago considerable discussion. 
Lionne dedicates himself to-day to the fatiguing divisionist 
technique and paints floral panels of robust and intense 
coloring. 

One of the most cultivated painters of our times is with- 
out doubt Aristide Sartorio, able and earnest painter, sculp- 
tor and writer on art. His figured decorations are rich 
and solemn and descend from the Italian Renaissance, fla- 
vored with a solid culture of Grecian art. He has painted 
recently the large frieze for the new Chamber of the Italian 
Parliament ; an allegorical composition of more than a 
hundred life-size figures, where he exalts the achievements 
and the symbols of the Italian race in thought and action. 
The solemnity of the Roman campagna has inspired in Sar- 
torio a series of fine delineations of the country and the 
life of Lazio where he glorifies, as in a poem, latin beauty 
and latin force. He has modelled, a short time before 
enrolling as volunteer in the war with Austria, a series of 
horses worthy of attention and study. 

Camillo Innocenti delights in feminine elegancies, the 
fresh and vaporous "toilettes" of women, the intimate 





"The Family" — Pietro Gaudenzi 



"Via Tasso" — Napoli 

adornments of the bedroom and knows how to express- 
them with delicacy of tone and with aristocratic pictorial 
vision. Noci also, who is one of the best Italian portrait- 
painters, loves to depict feminine beauty. But he prefers, 
the subtle and well-modelled forms of the nude and can 
render them with excellent painter's gift. 

The South of Italy has been traversing for several years 
a period of slight artistic desertion and sleep. This is due 
no doubt to the geographical position of Italy and to the 
lessening of traffic and communications in the South. And 
Naples and Sicily are almost cut off from the Italian artis- 
tic movement. Nevertheless, these conditions have preserved 
in southern painting a more living and intense traditional 
character, and if the new currents have not succeeded in 
favoring its development toward fresh horizons it has at 
least been prevented from becoming the pallid imitation of 
foreign models. 

The most robust and expressive painter, the most sincere 
and authentic representative of the South of Italy and who 
shows the greatest traces of Latinity, is certainly Fran- 
cesco Paolo Michetti. His canvases are vast and solemn re- 
presentations of the country and the people of Abruzzo ; 
they are songs of love and joy; poems of gentleness and 
force; they are living and palpitating pages of customs, of 
prejudices, of passions ardent and strong as the earth which 
has nourished them from the mountains to the sea. 

The art of Francesco Paolo Michetti has a potent echo in 
the writing of Gabriele d'Annunzio. "La Figlia di Jorio," 
the tragedy of the poet of Pescara, is in fact derived from 
the picture by Francesco Paolo Michetti; and certain d'An- 
nunzian pages and touches recall vividly the great painter 
of Francavilla. 

We must not forget around the figure of this master a 
group, various and rich, of Neapolitan painters. There is 
Vincenzo Volpe, the director of the Accademia die Belli 
Arti at Naples, who is a delicate painter of small sentimen- 
tal pictures which tell of episodes in the lives of little white 
nuns, in the convents full of sun and flowers, in the festive 



224 



ARTS and DECORATION 



February, 1<>|<> 




'The Feast of Divine Love" — Enrico Lionne 




Mancini's Peasant Girl 



gardens beside fresh singing fountains. And Yincenzo Mi- 
gliaro, a painter of customs and their environments, executed 
with the truth and the "verve" of an acute and profound 
observer. The art of this fine artist is allied with the short > 
stories, poems and plays of Salvatore di Giacomo, a writer 
in dialect, who describes and sums up the Neapolitan soul. 
Then too Caprile, de Sanctis, Postiglione and other painters 
of less representative importance. 

An ardent and impetuous landscapist, a rapid and fertile 
painter, tasteful, significant, is Giuseppe Lasciaro. His 
pastels and oil paintings are pure joys of color and composi- 
tion and are much in demand with intelligent and enthusi- 
astic collectors for their fresh emotion and their rich and 
pleasing formal expression. He can say with Corot : "Le 
reel est une partie de l'etat; le sentiment complete. Sur la 
nature cherchez d'abord la forme, apres les valeurs en rap- 
port de tons, la couleur et 1' execution; et le tout soumis au 
sentiment que vous avez eprouve." ( The real is a part of 
art ; sentiment completes it. In nature look first for the 
form, then for the values in accordance with the tones, the 
color, and the execution ; and submit the whole to the feel- 
ing it has inspired in you.) 

Italian art has undubitably an important place in the his- 
tory of contemporaneous art. Born from the glorious ruins 
of that opulent and pompous eighteenth century which 
Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Giambattista Tiepolo had carried 
to the highest pinnacle of dreams, its exuberant life was 
drowned in the classicism issuing from the smoking ruins 
of the French revolution. The courageous battle engaged 
with romanticism was necessary to reconduct it towards 
those springs of fresh and sensible emotions to which it 
owes a great part of its beautv. 



February, 1910 



AR T S and I) E CO RAT [ON 



225 



A NOTABLE COLLECTION OF 
PERSIAN POTTERY 



P>V GISELLE D'UNGKR 



THli greatest diversity of opinion exists as to Persian 
Pottery. Some claim that porcelain was never made 
in Persia, while others say that much of the porcelain 

catalogued in our museums as Chinese is really Persian. 
Long before the Europeans made china, the Persians made 
such beautiful earthenware that it might have been taken 
for Chinese porcelain as regards color, design, and form. 
Wherever clay was found, men became potters. What part 
the Byzantium civilization and the Persians played during 
the early days of the world, we are beginning to realize. 
At the time of the Mohammedan conquest, the potters' art 
reached its highest expression. Methods confined to Egypt, 
Syria, and Persia were spread from Spain and the south 
of France to India and China. There is a beautiful and 
mysterious ware called Gombroon, quite translucent and 
made from a mixture of pipe clay and glass and glazed 
with a soft lead glaze, so that a fragment would meet an 
opaque glass. It was made as dishes, apparently bowls, 
often mounted on feet, and saucers are more frequent. 

"If by originality in art is meant the presentation of a 
new idea. Byzantine art is highly original. It engrafted 
Persian art upon old classical style and breathed into the 
compound a totally new religion, philosophy, and idea of 
life and death," says H. Cunynghame, an authority on 
European enamels. The strong influence exercised by the 
art of Byzantium on that of medieval Persia is unques- 
tionable, it is asserted, and when a lover of antiques views 
the collection in the Gunsaulus Gallery of the Art Institute 
of Chicago, it becomes a pleasurable and reverent attitude 
to study the intricacies of design and speculate upon the 
origin of a lost art which has never been surpassed, but 
closely adapted in later centuries by other nations. While the 
tiles may present a more imposing appearance than the vases 
of the same date as noted in museums, more richness and 
variety than those of Seville, Granada, etc., there is an un- 
speakable charm which claims the attention of the student 
of ceramics. The magic of color, the joyous interpretation 
of those potters of Persia whose curious buds and winged 
beasts one sees resembling the Assyrian demons and guard- 
ian angels, the opalescent hues pervading the decoration of 
bricks, tiles, vases, and other examples of Persian art, arouse 
a most fascinating vista of the past. The delightful un- 
certainty of the origin of Persian art assists in the joyous 
contemplation and speculation of the artists who have left 
'to posterity examples of such great interest to artists, archi- 
tects, connoisseurs, and collectors. The poetry of the Near- 
East is most aptly transmitted in an harmonious whole 
Conceive the brilliancy attending public and domestic build- 
ings of Persia — the wondrous effect of color and design, the 
motives around which flowed remarkable arabesques, in- 
genious complications which resolve into a splendid delinea- 



tion of art worth. A central motive, a figure subject oc- 
casional!)' (always recalling to the connoisseur that old 
Mohammedan law which followed this period, in which all 
objects portraying the living form of men and gods were 
destroyed ) with a suggestion of painting, possessing a charm 
no less delicate than that period id" Terburg and Metsu, 
those illustrious masters of Genre panting. The animals 
show nothing of the elaborate finish of Paul Potter, but the 
essential characteristics are of the living creatures in which 
sureness and quickness of perception, which would have 
pleased the delineators of animal life of the Dutch school, 
are observable. But it is not animals or figures that attract 
one, it is the street scenes, the flora, the butterfly, which 
furnished endless motives for decoration. 

The old city of Rhajia, or Rai, mentioned in the book of 
Tobias, one of the ancient cities of Persia, near Teheran, 
which was destroyed in 1220 by Genghis Khan, partially 
rebuilt and again destroyed in the following century, so that 
its existence, practically closed in the fourteenth century, has 
furnished most remarkable examples where colorings of blue 
turquoise, green, red, purple, olive green, indigo, flashed a 
scintillating brilliancy. It was considered an important 
center in ceramic industry. But this was transferred to the 
neighboring town of Veramin in the thirteenth century. 
Certain excavations were made and much interesting light 
has been thrown on the development of the potter's art 
in these countries between the fourth and twelfth centuries. 
Nature was not imitated, for, if a purple cow harmonized 
better than a dun or brown one, the artist did not hesitate 
to depict it so. His impressionist sense of color was ap- 
plied whether others understood it or not. 

Persian Pottery is a lost art as the tiles exemplify. When 
they were first employed as architectural decorations, it has 
not been discovered, but there are panels or painted plaques 
which mark a distinct advance in the art during a later period. 
Wall decorations are the historical data of a nation, usually, 
regardless of the medium employed 1 , and these relics serve 
to accentuate the assertion. "The system of decoration by 
glazed tiles was a special characteristic of Persian architec- 
ture and this would serve as an attainment of the highest 
artistic excellence in their ornamentation, hence it must have 
been an important part of the potter's art in Persia. The 
advantages of glazed wall decoration are obvious, as a rich- 
ness of effect is attainable in vitrified glaze which gives 
brilliancy and transparency to the color. Glazed bricks had 
been employed in the architecture of the Babylonian and As- 
syrian empires." In the palace of Susa bricks, as shown, 
the colors were separated by what appears to be a vitreous 
wall, something after the manner of the metal walls of 
Cloisonne enamels. Early Egyptian tiles reveal only one 
color — purple on a blue ground. 



226 



ARTS and DECOR AT [ON 



February, 1919 




This method of wall decoration had long ceased to be 
practised in Persia previous to the twelfth or thirteenth 
centuries with the removal of the seat of government to 
Byzantium when the mosaic decoration came into use. 

The collection of potter)- of the Near-East at the Art In- 
stitute of Chicago given in memory of -Mrs. .Mary Jane 
Gunsaulus by her son, Frank W. Gunsaulus, has recently 
been enriched by the addition of a number of beautiful and 
important pieces. Among these, the following are repro- 
duced, — Veramin lustre tile, script pattern in relief in light 
and dark blue on ground of brown lustre and cream color; 
Persian tile, blue glaze with pattern in relief ; MesopOtamian 
vase, almost completely covered with iridiscence, scroll pat- 
tern bands incised and in relief ; Phages modeled jar, blue 
with decoration in black of fish and leaf motifs. 

Other objects recently presented for this collection are 
as follows : blue Rakka Vase with black decoration ; Phages 
bowl of the thirteenth century with radiating bands of 
script; Ispahan bowl (small), exterior of bright blue with 
bands of brownish lustre, interior a flower pattern in lustre 
on white ; deep Koubatcha bowl, cream ground with pattern 
in blue ; Persian plate, allover pattern in black with birds 
and flowers reserved in white ; blue, black, and white water 
bottle with pelican and flowers; Kutahia mug; Koubatcha 
bulb jar; Anatolian wall tile with flower pattern in colors 
on white ground ; Rhages bowl, blue with decoration of birds 
and scrolls in black; two small Rhages bowls — lapis lazuli, 
blue, decoration in white with touches of gold — one with 
arabesques, the other with fish. 

It is not difficult to conceive of the artist drawing inspi- 
ration from the daily theatre of humanity, with all its vivid- 
ness of color and activities before him. Persian pottery re- 
flects the Past in its many vicissitudes of every-day life. 
The more opalescent hues are characteristic of the earlier 
work. That the ruby may have been more effective than 
burnished copper and corresponding coloring, the elements 
of design in ornament serve to reveal a spontaneous imagi- 
nation. As examples are limited, the closest scrutiny by 
accepted authorities has been given to the world as accu- 
rately as possible, yet much doubt remains. The Arab char- 
acters mingled with the composition or ornament reveal 
"a picture resplendent in color, its curves moving in a mea- 
sure either graceful or piquant and pregnant with suggestions 
of the mystery and splendor of the East." Joy, gladness, 
dignity, quaintness, tragedy, or comedy, passed in review 
before the artist wdio seized upon a motive and developed 
it with avidity. Decoration with iridiscent metallic films 
is one of the most astonishing and beautiful inventions ever 
made by the potter of these lustred tiles. 



Rhages Jar — Top illustration 

Persian Plate 

Mesopotamian Jar 



At the Grolier Club 

AN exhibition of rare liturgical books is open at the Grolier 
• Club, 47 East Sixtieth St., and will continue to March 
15. One of the features of the display is a celebrated 
psalter printed at Mayence (1459) and said to be one of 
the finest books of this type in existence. 

Many of the volumes exhibited are books of the Hours 
or Horae, with Paris imprint. 



February, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



in 



Chinese Paintings from T'ang 
to Ming 



w 



HILH the interest in the Oriental pictures is steadily 
growing, the Metropolitan Museum has added sev- 
eral Chinese paintings to its collection; they are oi 
different periods and kinds and will be most welcome to the 
many who wish to study the subtle art of the Far-East. 

The earliest is a most decorative large scroll ascribed to 
the later Tang period. A long procession of ladies and high 
dignitaries passes in serried ranks over a bridge or along 
the railed borders of a lotus pond. The flowing garments, 
the ribbons and banners form a rhythmic, uninterrupted de- 
sign, which fills the space of the long scroll with an unusually 
decorative design, spaced at regular intervals by the heads 
of the ladies and courtiers. The heads are drawn in simple 
outlines : without being realistic, they are so personal that 
they almost seem to be portraits. The picture has all the 
characteristics of T'ang art and reminds one of the famous 
bas-reliefs in the Lung-men grotto, also a procession of dig- 
nitaries and well known from the reproductions in Cha- 
vannes' book. The drawing is firm but shows as yet no sign 
of the brilliant brushwork of the later painter-calligraphers ; 
the interest of the artist has been in the decorative lines with 
which he built up his composition and the splendid drawing 
of the faces. 

Of a somewhat later date is the painting attributed to Li 
Chao Da. We see in a simple hut, the secluded dwelling of 
a sage, the great man receiving a visitor in the quiet atmos- 
phere of a sheltered room, which contrasts strongly with 
the snow-covered, lonely surroundings. The picture, painted 
during the period of the Five Dynasties of the early Sung, 
shows the intimate communion with nature which is the 
great quality of the paintings of this period. The real sub- 
ject is not the sage receiving his visitor, but the wintry feel- 
ing of the lonely mountain scene, the trees laden with snow 
on a quiet day in early winter, and the contrast of the cold 
outside with the sheltered, comfortable room. 

A very fine example of the well-known subject of the 
dragon in the clouds has been attributed to Chur Sun San. 
The dragon does not represent to the Chinese mind the cruel 
monster which the idea conveys to use westerners; besides 
its more abstract meaning as the emblem of celestial power 
and might, the dragon is, so to speak, the patron of rain, 
rain the fertilizing power, bringer of wealth andl plenty, a 
blessing to the country. Therefore, the Chinese see in the 
heavy thunder clouds, gathering after threatening drought, 
the dragon bringing relief and the promise of coming rain. 
It is this aspect which is masterfully rendered in this picture. 
Furiously rolling and unfurling clouds of a coming thunder 
storm, which seem to sweep down ready to burst in abundant 
rain, suggest the tortuous lines of a powerful dragon; here 
and there the dark masses are rent and show parts of the 
benevolent monster, more grandiose than fearful, whose 
claws, piercing the stirred masses, suggest lightning piercing 
the clouds. The almost realistic, surging thunder clouds are 
masterfully studied from nature and composed with great 
skill and taste. Evidently the picture has been slightly cut 



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The Highest Class Talking 
Machine in the World 



^^£_TOE INSTRUMENT OF" QUALITY 






CLEAG 



SELL 




THE wonderful tone which has made the Sonora 
famous is rivalled by the beauty of the period 
cabinets in which the mechanism is placed. 

The Sonora plays all makes of disc records 
perfectly without extra attachments and won 
highest score for tone quality at the Panama 
Pacific Exposition, 

To hear the Sonora and to see the Sonora is to 
be convinced that it is unequalled. 

A complete line of standard upright styles and 
these magnificent art models are available: 



l 

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Gothic 
Louis XV 
Louis XI 7 
Chippendale 
Chinese Chippendale 



William & Mary 
Jacobean 
Adam 
Colonial 
Duncan Phyfe 



Special designs or complete 
equipments will be made to order 

$50 to $1000 
sonora phonograph g>alea Company, 3htc. 

GEORGE E. BRIGHTSON, President 

NEW YORK— Demonstration Salons: 

Fifth Avenue at 53rd Street 279 Broadway 

50 Broadway (Standard Arcade) 

TORONTO: Ryrie Building 
Dealers Everywhere 




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Sonora Duncan Phyfe 



228 



A R T S and D E C O R A T I O N 



February, 1919 



in Hun J i in hi 111111111 iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii linn minim i i i ■«■ i i i i ■■ ' ' Iii ,lii | 

The COLONY SHOPS 

GINSBURG dr LEVY 

ANTIQUES 




Seventeenth Century Italian Wrought 
iron table, a specimen from our vast 
collection of antiques 



/'"W the first floor you will find early 
English and Italian pieces, on other 
floors French eighteenth century and 
Georgian antiques, as well as a repre- 
sentative collection of early /American 
specimens. 



397 MADISON AVENUE 



NEW YORK 



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rfEft'i-CHfc 



»*«*.' 



INTERIOR DECORATOR 

TO those who desire homes in which culture and good taste are 
expressed in interior decoration, my organization offers the 
utmost facilities. I will handle the entire problem of interior 
decoration of the home for you or I will co-operate with you in 
purchasing bits of furniture, draperies, etc , to fit into the various 
rooms and halls of your town and country houses. 

I am now showing specially painted furniture, also chintz and 
net curtains for country homes. My collection of antique mir- 
rors and frames is indeed unusually attractive. 

MRS. GERRIT SMITH 

31 East 48th Street New York City, N. Y. 



down, especially at the top — probably the edges had boon 
damaged owing to repealed remounting — the trail of the 
thunder eloud, which after a beautiful sweep ends in a streak 
of light rain cloud in the right-hand upper corner, may have 
been a few inches longer, but very little of the original pic- 
ture is lost. In its splendid preservation the picture gives 
us one of the most beautiful and attractive renderings of 
this poplar subject so often hard and commonplace. 

The head of Buddha, Gotama the Saviour, has been at- 
tributed to Wu Tao Tze, but this very early origin seems to 
me at least risky. The painting may be founded on tradi- 
tions of the early master's work, but it is much more likely 
that it should be the work of Yen Hui, a master of the 
Yuan period. The head of the Buddha, not represented as 
the glorified deity, but as the man who has given up wealth 
and position to follow his mission and to be the saviour of 
mankind, is full of compassionate, thoughtful expression. 
Realistic in conception, it shows the peculiar cranial forma- 
tions, to the Oriental mind the outward sign of superhuman 
gifts, which in more conventional pictures are represented 
by symbolic decorative, sometimes jeweled forms. The 
drawing", full of feeling, and the expression of the face are 
the real beauty of this picture. 

The Ming picture of an elderly lady in a wonderful cos- 
tume of harmonious brocades is a fine example of the por- 
traits painted for the ancestral hall, where they were hung 
on the anniversary of the death and on the occasion of cer- 
tain celebrations in memory of the deceased. They were 
often posthumous portraits, sometimes, however, painted 
during the lifetime and put away till the inevitable day had 
come, always done in a formal, never varying position and 
in robes recalling early ages such as the person had 1 never 
worn in life. The faces, very simply done without effects 
of light and shade, recall the European portraits of the six- 
teenth century, wonderfully impressive in their quiet dig- 
nity and simple Holbein-like lines. 

From Ni Tsan, a well-known painter of the Yuan period, 
there is a simple and very charming landscape, the shores 
of a lake in the late autumn where a few tenderly drawn 
trees retain their last leaves. These leaves, cleverly painted 
with the calligrapher's consummate art, form the main fea- 
ture and remind one of the skill with which Korin, the fa- 
mous Japanese painter of the seventeenth century, applied 
his wet, masterly touches. The long series of inscriptions 
by different well-known artists of the Ming period shows 
that the picture was considered a gem which gave Ni Tsan 
at his best. One of the inscriptions is by T'ang Ying, the 
famous calligrapher, and precious as a specimen of his art. 
This picture and the Seven Pines by Tang Tze Hua, also 
of the Yuan period, are of the kind most prized by Oriental 
connoisseurs, and it seems easy to understand their appre- 
ciation. Nature is rendered just as seen, simply and truly, 
in the Tang Tze Hua with a realism which makes it difficult 
to understand that such a modern, direct vision was the 
work of a painter of the fourteenth century. What escapes 
the casual observer is the wonderful brush-work which could 
be produced only by an Oriental painter-call igrapher.- i 

(Continued on page 230) 



February, 191') 



A RTS and 1) E COR A TIO X 



229 



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Authentic Period 

Furniture and Decorative Accessories 

Rare and beautiful pieces, authentic antiques of Italian Renaissance and 
other Decorative Periods may be seen in the enlarged and newly 
arranged galleries of Emil Feffercorn. 

The completeness of the exhibition is most exceptional — it includes 
Antique Furniture, Reproductions, Tapestries, Needlework, Decorative 
Accessories and fine Architectural Cabinet Work. 

In addition to presentations of Furniture and Art Objects, the complete 
handling of home decorative problems is a major feature of my galleries. 



Mr. Feffercorn will be pleased to 
make appointments for consulta' 
tion with out-of-town clients. 



/ 26 and /2<5 East 23th Street 






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230 



ARTS and DECORATION 



February, 1919 



CHINESE PAINTINGS FROM T'ANG 
TO MING 

i Continued from page 228 I 

A scroll inscribed with grand, bold letters in which Mi Fei, 
the great Sung painter and calligrapher, puts down some of 
his ideas on the technique of painting, shows how splendid 
Chinese letters are when written with the strong hut subtle 
and eminently dexterous brush of the calligrapher. The 
seemingly free and careless but in reality very studied letters, 
each in itself a splendid ornament, make us understand why 
an Oriental of the old school who prides himself on his beau- 
tiful writing has to practise at least an hour a day to keep 
his hand in training. 

Then there is a scroll representing Lohans at rest and at 
play, saintly persons who have reached a spiritual higher 
plane hut are quite human still in other respects. The paint- 
ing is in the freer style of Li Lung Mien; the expression of 
the faces, admirably drawn, is rendered by a great artist 
even if it is not by the great master himself. 

Another scroll by Kung Kai shows us philosophers in their 
different artistic occupations rendered in a free, almost im- 
pressionistic way with a keen eye for the funny side and a 
very life-like expression. 



It is announced that the Annual Exhibition of the 
AMERICAN WATER-COLOR SOCIETY will be held 
at the National Arts Club, 11 ( > East 19th Street, New York, 
from February 6th to 28th, inclusive. 



Common Sense in Home Decoration 

AS in all that touches us very intimately, interior deco- 
ration is more a matter of "why" than of "how." 
It is of little use to examine samples of wallpaper 
until we have some personal convictions about wall cover- 
ings and what they should accomplish in the complete 
scheme of the room. It is unnecessary to decide whether 
we shall buy William and Mary or Louis XVI chairs, un- 
less we ourselves thoroughly understand the basic reasons 
that are to govern our purchases. A definitely conceived 
purpose is the sine qua non of the successful room. We 
must know first of all what effect we wish to achieve, for 
it is only then that we can intelligently adopt means to 
obtain this effect. 

But broader than this conception of the particular room 
is the underlying idea of the purpose of interior decoration, 
in general. Setting aside the few isolated instances in 
which money and taste make it possible to indulge whims 
or fancies or even "grand ideas," the purpose of interior 
decoration is to make the house more livable. "Livable" 
is a comprehensive word, implying many things to many 
people. But it is safe to say that to all of us who cherish 
ideals of home and the expression of home in material 
terms, "livable" will signify qualities of charm and interest 
and the comfort, which is a much more subtle thing than 
can be attained by a collection of easy-chairs and luxurious 
sofas. 








Interior Decorations 

furniture, hangings, 

^h\H'i^aAL§ 9 wail.il, a:\* n 

FLOOR COVERINGS 

ALSO 

ILT N I <Q TLT IE 3])115(UOEATIVB 

ARTICLES SHTITAB1L1E 

['•<0>1R A1L.IL, II NT IE III I © US 8 



February, 1919 



A RTS and 1) ECO RATIO X 



231 



p€MOTT€ 

of Ptrte 

27 rue de Berri 

For many 5>ears the House of Demotte has 
occupied a unique field in Paris, specializing in 



FRENCH ART OF THE MIDDLE AGES 



We extend to you a cordial invitation 
to visit the American Branch at 8 East 
57th Street, where a Private Collection 
of the finest Masterpieces, brought from 
Paris owing to the War, is on view 



SCULPTURES 

TAPESTRIES 

FURNITURE 



STATUARY 
PAINTINGS 
RARE FABRICS 



The interest now being taken by Americans in French Gothic 
art is particularly fitting, because the noble appeal and 
humanity of this art typifies France and her beautiful cathedrals 



Z B Saat 5rti? Stmt Nrw fork ^ 



232 



ARTS and DECORATIO N 



February, 1919 




T^il/nf IXFpkf The most beautiful of 

i lie i ii ci all curtains . Hand . 

made in original and exclusive designs. 

$9.00 Pair Up 

If you prefer to do this simple, interest- 
ing work yourself, we will supply NET 
BY THE YARD— THREADS BY 
THE SKEIN. (Exclusive sale of 
threads used.) 

Send for circular with designs illustrated. 

Instructions Supplied With Each Order 

HARRIET de R. CUTTING 

Interior Decorator. Color Schemes Submitted 
Studios: 6 East 37th Street, New York City 



Interior Decoration 

Selection, not price, is the genius of good taste in 
choosing decoration for the home. The House of 
Huber manufactures its own reproductions from 
rare antiques with strict adherence to the originals. 

In the Huber Galleries you will find exclusive de-- 
signs of furniture of our own creation as well as 
period furniture and imported fabrics. 

We make a specialty of furnishing 
and decorating homes. Our booklet 
on this subject is of interest — it will 
be sent upon request. 



Exact Reproduction 

of Georgian Chair 

by Huber 



H. F. Hubert Co. 

New York, 13 East 40th St. 

FACTORY 

18th to 19th Sts. & Ave. C 



Paris, 18 Faub. Poissonniere 




•53 






Comfort is so much likelier to be a state of mind than a 
condition of body that its incorporation in a house calls 
for the rarest sort of skill, the most careful looking to de- 
tails. Our homes are the backgrounds of our social exis- 
tence and must be planned to accommodate our needs and 
desires, and to reflect and gratify our taste. A room which 
is cluttered and overcrowded irritates because it clashes 
with our sense of order and repose. A room which is 
under furnished, or too stiffly and formally arranged, ap- 
peals to us as bleak and forbidding, and discourages even 
the most cheerful and congenial of companions. If no at- 
tention is paid to the creation of decorative "incidents," 
our homes, though planned with the utmost attention to 
comfort and good taste, will be lacking in character and 
interest. 

An invitation to ■friendly talk may be tacitly extended 
by a judicious grouping of chairs, or a quiet hour with 
books suggested by a low table with conveniently arranged 
reading-light. It is in planning of this sort directed toward 
making human association in the home a pleasanter and 
more significant and fruitful thing, which constitutes "in- 
terior decoration" in its best and in its truest sense. To 
know how to create gracious or beautiful or interesting 
interiors is indeed the aim of the decorator or the home- 
maker. But unless there is first full realization of what 
these interiors are to mean in human terms and what they 
are to effect in human associations, there can be small hope 
of real success. The "how" of interior decoration belongs 
to talent — sometimes a talent for starting or adapting a ^ *■ 
sensational fad — and is superficial ; but the "why" is in the 
realm of genius, and is revealed to those who make patient 
and loving study of their subject in general and of each 
specific problem in particular. 

It is almost as necessary for the person trusted with the 
furnishing of rooms to know human nature, as it is for the 
writer of fiction, and to be as ready in intelligently relating 
causes with effects. Observation and common sense and 
an infinite patience with detail are other qualities which the 
creator of rooms and the creator of stories should hold in 
common. They must both possess more than ordinary 
humanness and the ability to interpret or express it for the 
enjoyment of others. 

Nowhere is this purely human and common-sense side 
of interior decoration more in evidence than in the ar- 
rangement and grouping of furniture. Perhaps if we paid 
less attention to the specific period or the individual attrac- 
tions of our tables and chairs and sofas, and gave greater 
thought to their disposition in the whole scheme of things, 
our rooms would be more coherent and more expressive 
of our lives and interests. We love the cheeriness of the 
open fire — and isolate all the comfortable chairs in the 
opposite corner of the room, with not so much as a fender 
bench to invite us to the magic circle made by the glow of 
the flames. We enjoy nothing so much as intimate talk — - 
and arrange our chairs at impossible distances from each 
other, as if offering to maintain diplomatic relations with 
our friends, but suggesting that they do not attempt undue* 
familiarity. 







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tJ C~J{ei.ngings 
^/Intiques 

lOl Park Ave at 40* St ■• "Newjybrk 



Qccomlionc 
Uurniture 



The HUTAFF 
GALLERIES 

The furnishing and decoration of 
a home to-day calls for a knowl- 
edge of furniture, paintings, tap- 
estries, etc. The service Mr. 
Hutaff extends to home-owners 
is relatively the same as an archi- 
tect's to a home-builder. 

The Hutaff Galleries are show- 
ing an interesting collection of 
Needlework. 

You are invited to view this col- 
lection as well as many pieces 
of antique furniture on view. 



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234 



ARTS and DECORATION 



February, l'M'» 




MINNET DINING-ROOM SET (stained), 45-inch oak-tot) table and 
four chairs, the latter cushioned with plain rep or figured cretonne, 
$67.51); Buffet, $41; Serving Table, $24; Tray Wagon, $22.50; Fern 
Basket, $5.25. Express prepaid 100 miles; freight 500. Upholstery 
samples and catalog on request. 



Atmosphere 

Loads of it. You can do any- 
thing with Minnet Willow. 
The free, graceful lines and 
variety of desikn afford end- 
less possibilities for the coun- 
try home. Leading decorators 
favor Minnet furniture because it 
is solidly constructed of the finest 
French willow, more valuable than 
ever because of importing diffi- 
culties. Minnet Spring designs 
suggest many inviting interiors. 
Catalog gladly sent. 



<ntp" 



&Qo 



Manufacturers of High 
Grade Willow Furniture 

365 LEXINGTON AVE. 

Between 40th and 41st Streets 

NEW YORK CITY 




The Highest Type 
Small Player Grand 

VTRANICH-ff-BACH 

Rg| GRANDETTE Player Grand Piano with its 
Player mechanism hidden from view is the most beau- 
tiful possession with which the home is adorned. 

Inventive minds have developed for Kranich & 
Bach this exquisite type of small Player Grand, mak- 
ing it possible for those who cannot themselves play 
to secure all the tonal qualities possible to hand- 
playing without study or practice. 

Three generations of music-lovers have been captivated 
by the never-to-be-forgotten loveliness of tone which has 
made the Kranich & Bach Pianos the world over. 

KRANICH & BACH 

235 East 23rd Street, New York 
Send for illustrated catalogue Convenient Terms of Payment 



WYANT— THE NATURE-PAINTER « 

(Continued from page 200) 
ring sleep that swallows up the littleness of man in its 
immensity ." 

Tin's last quotation unquestionably describes Wyanl and 
the soul of Wyant far better than the others. This writer 
sees more than paint, style, technique — he gets into the 
heart of things. 

Wyant was a nature painter, as were Corot and Rous- 
seau. Daubigny was rather a painter of the country, of 
the landscape in its relation to mankind — not that he in- 
troduced figures, for he seldom did (and Corot often 
did) — but that the spirit of man reigns in all his pictures. 
If Wyant had painted with words, he would have been a 
Wordsworth rather than a Tennyson; and his poetry would 
have been lyrical rather than idyllic or pastoral. He would 
rather sing of more serious things than tell of the glad- 
someness of smiling nature, with its fragrant meadows and 
sun-kissed fields. As a painter he preferred to interpret 
Nature rather than to use it for a setting for his own 
thoughts and ideas, in which respect he resembles Rousseau 
and Daubigny rather than Corot. His profound devotion 
to Nature gave him the ability to interpret her with a 
subtlety of tone that is bewildering; and some of his works 
suggest infinity. He was the Thoreau of Art. He is the 
American Angelo; for, as Michael Angelo painted the soul 
of persons and angels, Wyant painted the soul of Nature." 



NOTES OF THE BOOK WORLD 

(Continued from Page 220) 
will probably be offered at Sotheby's soon to the highest 
bidder, unless some ardent collector secures the lot at' 
private sale. 

Altogether the collection comprises about one hundred 
items, and the first portion of about thirty manuscripts is 
now being catalogued. Yates Thompson has been for many 
years a discriminating collector in Europe of medieval 
manuscripts and his treasures of early literature are widely 
known in Great Britain. 

In New England 

A COLLECTION of rare and fine books from the pri- 
vate libraries of the late General Walter Harriman. 
Governor of New Hampshire, and of the late Isaac Adams 
of Sandwich, New Hampshire, was dispersed by C. F. 
Libbie & Co. in Boston last month. It included some in- 
teresting items of Americana, and the early Tulley's Al- 
manac, printed in Boston, 1696, and originally in the pos- 
session of Zachariah Symmes, first minister of Bradford, 
Mass. In the sale were a number of items of Lincolniana, 
and others relating to Washington. 

A February sale at Libbie's includes some items pertain- 
ing to Washington, and other Americana. 

Autographs and MSS. 

A NUMBER of interesting autographs and manuscripts 
are included in a recent catalogue issued by James F. 
Drake. Several bear the signature of militarv leaders of 



and D E CORA! tO X 
















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236 



ARTS and DECORATION 



February, 1919 




(Continued from Page 234) | 

the Revolution and the Civil War. A remarkable letter to 
General Knox is signed by Baron von Steuben. It was 
written to General Knox with a view to inducing him to 
interest Washington in behalf of the soldiers. 

Another letter of the same period is signed by Richard 
Montgomery, Major-General in the American Revolution. 

This epistle was written on the day that Montreal sur- 
rendered to General Montgomery. 

History of the Salmagundians 

A HISTORY of the Salmagundians has recently been 
-^~* completed by William Henry Shelton, for many years 
librarian of the society of artists. 

Mr. Shelton has a wide acquaintance among the artist 
members of the Salmagundi Club, and is well equipped to 
chronicle the many interesting events which have taken 
place within the boundaries of this unique organization, 
which gave its first exhibition at Leavitt's, Broadway and 
Thirteenth St., the sales gallery of the metropolis in the 
early days, when the favorite foreign masters, according to 
Mr. Shelton, were Meyer von Bremen and little Preyer, 
who painted the bubbles in the champagne. 

It grew up with the great magazine movement led by 
Scribner's Monthly, afterwards the Century Magazine. 

Almost everybody in the "Who is Who" of the art world 
has been present in one season or another at the annual 
"Get Together" and "Get Away" dinners of the Salma- 
gundians. It will be interesting to see what Mr. Shelton 
has to say about Salmagundia, his story of the Artists' ^'fe* 
in Gotham. 

THE PALMER COLLECTION 

(Continued from Page 211) 

elaborate frets and clustered legs, is an admirable example 
of furniture in this exotic manner. It may be dated about 
1755-1760. A few years later, about 1760-1765, is an 
armchair combining certain Gothic motives, the pointed 
arch, for example, with others French in origin. It is 
hybrid in design, but nevertheless pleasing in result. 

The fashion of tea-drinking as an afternoon function, 
which raged between 1760 and 1770, gave a decided im- 
pulse to the production of tilt-top or tripod tables, made 
popular by Chippendale and his school. As we have seen, 
the tripod-table used as a teakettle and candlestand occurs 
in the early Georgian period, and presumably furnished 
the suggestion from which the tripod tea-table was evolved. 
Although Chippendale included in the first edition of the 
Director various designs for tripod fire-screens and candle- 
stands, no single tripod-table is illustrated. Since Chip- 
pendale's designs were compiled with the hope of securing 
new patronage, it would seem that, had tripod-tables been 
fashionable at the time, they would have been included in 
the Director. It is a reasonable inference that the fashion 
for tripod-tables, which were made in considerable num- 
bers, during the later half of the eighteenth century, com- 
menced shortly after 1754. 

A remarkably beautiful example of the tilt or snap-top 






February, 1919 



A RTS and D E CO R A TIC) N 



237 



finely designed. The date is about 1760-1765. Another 
fine piece is a three-tier waiter with tripod feet. This 
piece dates about 1760-1770, and although the carving is 
not of the superlatively fine quality of the tea-table, it is an 
exceptional example o\ an unusual type. 

If the furniture of the first halt of the eighteenth century 
is anonymous in character, in the second half of the cen- 
tury designing was in the hands of artist-craftsmen of 
marked individuality. 

Although the brothers Adam were not cabinet-makers, 
they designed furniture which was executed by others, 
Chippendale among them, and the classical style which 
they made fashionable necessarily had a vast influence upon 
furniture. A mahogany round-about chair in the Palmer 
collection is an excellent example of the Adam influence 
in furniture design, and may be dated about 1770. 

The delicate and refined style of Hepplewhite is well 
exemplified in four armchairs of satinwood ornamented 
with carving and inlaid decoration dating about 1780-1785. 
The shield back favored by Hepplewhite is finely illustrated 
in these chairs. 



WILLIAM SAVERY 

(Continued from Page 203) 

copied after those on an Inigo Jones bookcase, Plate CLXI 
of Chippendale's "The Gentleman's and Cabinet Maker's 
'A rector," London (1754), and the female head and bust 
frequently appeared on the plates of the various architec- 
tural books of Langley. The peculiar designs of the beau- 
tiful fretwork beneath the cornice on this, as well as that 
which appears on the desk we are next describing, may 
well have been worked out from Plate 31 of "The Cabinet 
and Chair-Maker's Real Friend and Companion," by Rob- 
ert Manwaring, cabinet-maker, London (1775), a copy of 
which is in the Metropolitan Library. The original flat plate- 
handles have been replaced by those shown in the illustra- 
tion. Instead of the characteristic shell and foliation on 
the lower drawer, a design of floriated scrolls and birds has 
been used. 

The beautiful desk which had lived its quiet life at Cam- 
den, across the river from Philadelphia, until brought to 
light by the omnivorous Palmer, is also thoroughly Chip- 
pendale in feeling. Its whole workmanship stamps it as 
almost a companion piece to the highboy just described. 

The evidence in regard to the tripod-stand and the re- 
markable tea-table is as yet purely circumstantial. The 
tripod-stand has long been in the Lawrence family, and 
was. bought by Mr. Palmer at the same time as the superb 
highboy and lowboy. This allows the inference that the 
three pieces were originally purchased together and that 
the table-stand is the work of Savery. The carvings on 
the bases of the two tables show great similarity of motive 
and treatment. The guilloches on both are identical and 
must have been obtained from the Batty-Langley books, 
as they are not found on the Chippendale plates. The pie- 
crust table is remarkable not only for its extraordinary 



I 



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Fifth Ave. &- 30th 

New York City 



St. 



K1 



238 



A k TS and I) ECO R A TIO X 



•'ebruary, I'M 1 ) 



YALE SCHOOL OF THE FINE ARTS 

YALE UNIVERSITY, NEW HAVEN, CONN. SERGEANT KENDALL, Director 

Departments of Drawing and Painting, Sculpture and Architecture 

GLASSES IN COMPOSITION. ANATOMY AND PERSPECTIVE 





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Painted from life by member 

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sen, Jr. Sculpture — Robert G. 
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Kingsley Porter. Composition, 
Perspective — Edwin C. Taylor. 
Anatomy — Raynham Townshend, 
M.D. 

DEGREE — The degree of Bache- 
lor of Fine Arts (B.F.A.) is 
awarded for advanced work of 
distinction. 

The Winchester Fellowship for 
one year's study of art in Europe, 
the English Scholarship for study 
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(Continued from page 237) 
workmanship as to its carvings, hut 
lor its proportions and the delicac) 
ot the form of its base. 

The two sideboard tallies are of 
great merit and are typically Euro- 
pean in general character; the) ran 
not as yet he definitely ascribed to 
Savery. The less elaborate was found 
in an old house in Baltimore and is 
generally agreed to he of American 
workmanship. Authorities differ as to 
the origin of the other. It appears to 
be more French than English in char- 
acter, but at this period Philadelphia 
had almost no trade with France. \\ e 
know, however, that for a hundred 
and fifty years its home was with the 
Cadwalader family in Philadelphia, 
and a careful study of some of the 
carving allows more than a mere con- 
jecture that the work may have been 
Savery 's. The query naturally arises, 
if these tables are American and of 
the vicinity of Philadelphia, who hut 
Savery could have made them? 

No attempt has been made to de- 
scribe in detail the superb workman- 
ship of the various Savery pieces ; 
only upon the closest scrutiny are re- 
vealed the beauty of their moldings, 
the strength and simplicity of design 
of their carvings, and the variety of 
form and ornament. Ever}' bit of th<»>. 
detail invites careful study. Certain 
pieces of the furniture have been de- 
scribed minutely in Mr. Lockwood's 
book on American furniture. 
(Courtesy Metropolitan Museum of Art) 



T 



The Master Ornamentalists 

Notes On An Exhibition 

HE ornamentalist differs from 
the decorator in that he is the 
designer of decorative motives 
which the latter assembles into a har- 
monious ensemble. From him came 
the patterns and pattern-books which 
were widely circulated among the 
crafts and had an immense influence 
on the formation of the styles of dec- 
oration. The Gothic designs are chiefly 
for ecclesiastical silver objects. In the 
Renaissance, Italy and Germany are 
particularly rich in ornamentalists, 
Michael Angelo, Raphael, Beham, 
Holbein, Aldegrever, among many, 
figuring as designers of doors and 
windows, friezes, grotesques, silver- 
ware, garden ornaments, and much 
more. In the 17th century the art is 
fully developed, France taking the 
lead, and in the 18th century the ar- 
tists of all other countries became 
mere copyists of the French masters. 
Besides the designers of articles of 
luxury there were those, — Moreau le 
jeune, Choffard, ct at, — who made tJae 

charming 



18th century books 
things they are. 



the 



February, 1919 



A R TS and D E CO R ATI ON 



239 



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Tliis great repertory of art has ap- 
parently remained until now virtually 
unknown in this country to collectors, 
and to students of design. Of late 
years reproductions of the principal 
works have been published : the de- 
signs of Marot, Berain, ( )ppenord, 
Meissonier, La Londe, etc. These 
facsimiles arc not, of course, for the 
collector, but as "laborator) material" 
for the student they are of great use, 
- not to he used textually. but as 
sources of suggestion for the artist. 

Let us hope that the present exhibi- 
tions will arouse an interest in this 
most charming of the minor graphic 
arts, so that we may, in the dawn of 
what we expect will he a long era of 
peace, see gathered together a great 
collection representing it, both of or- 
iginals and of hne reproductions. 
Thus the Master Ornamentalists may 
live among us, too, to continue their 
beneficent influence on the arts which 
stand so largely for civilization. 

—Lloyd Warren. 

Some of the originals to which Mr. 
Warren refers in the foregoing note 
may be found in various public art 
libraries. The reproductions are more 
easily available. But, originals or re- 
productions, the designs are there for 
the student to see. It is with the 
object of emphasizing the great value 
of this mass of "documentary" or 
"source" material that the Art Divi- 
sion of The New York Public Library 
will arrange in the Stuart Gallery of 
the Central Building, an exhibition of 
books as well as individual plates, the 
latter lent by Mr. Warren. 

This exhibition, to be on view dur- 
ing January and March, follows one 
at the Grolier Club, just closed, and 
precedes an important one at the Me- 
tropolitan Museum. 

Obviously, all this has relation to 
the movement for offering better op- 
portunities for the training of design- 
ers, and just as obviously it is not 
slavish copying that is aimed at, but 
study and assimilation and inspiration. 

As part of the bigger educational 
movement, such exhibitions have their 
share in that general work of recon- 
struction and preparation, the neces- 
sity for which is increasingly appre- 
ciated. 

Many noted names appear in the 
present exhibition : Androuet Du Cer- 
ceau, Marot, Berain, Germain, Pille- 
ment, Boucher fils, Delafosse, Moreau, 
Oppenord, Gillot, Delia Bella, Percier, 
Pergolesi, Chippendale, Sheraton, 
Adam, — to name a few, — as well as 
16th century engravers and the lace 
designers. Arrangement in groups 
(goldsmithing, lighting fixtures, lace, 
etc. ) makes its appeal to various spe- 
cialties. Of course, the object of it 
all is to bring before students the ac- 
tual designs from which artists 
worked in those days, instead of adap- 
tations and compositions. Equally, 
of course, completeness is out of the 
question. One cannot display all of 
the material, any more than one can 
show more than one plate of a given 
pattern book. But the way can be 
shown : such exhibitions are guide- 
posts for those who will read. 



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A Message to American Book Lovers 

from L'ACADEMIE FRANC A1SE, the World's Highest Authority 

"America may rest assured that she will find in this series of crowned works all that she may wish to know of France at 
her own fireside— a knowledge that too often escapes her, knowledge that embraces not only a faithful picture of contem- 
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feel certain that when they have read these romances, they will have sounded the depths and penetrated into the hidden 
intimacies of France, not only as she is but as she would be known." /O 

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France Offers America 
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America has been missing the greatest masterpieces of French literature— the writings 
by which France wants to be known to the world. But now the famous French 
Academy, the "World's Supreme Court of Literature," has acted to give to America 
the most splendid romantic and dramatic novels ever produced in France. 

In full session, L'Academie Frangaise selected the finest examples of French writing, 
and formed them into a set called "The Immortals." These works, translated into Eng- 
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This set. without doubt, will be one of the most 
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was literary excellence considered in selecting 
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some phase of French life, and the result is a 
most vivid and intimate insight into the lives of 
the French people. 



FREE 

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To everyone who orders "The Immortals" with- 
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greatest examples of realistic writing, which de- 
scribes the life of a girl who took the wrong path 
in her search for happiness; Salammbo, a superb 
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showing all that is lofty and all that is base; and 
many others of the same gripping interest. This 
set admirably supplements "The Immortals" in 
giving the reader the fullest jnderstanding of all 
phases of French life. 



Let These Frenchmen Intro- 
duce You to France 

Among the superb novels in this set you i" :i I 
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story of a heartless coquette, by Anatole France, 
is one of the most powerful warnings against 
faithlessness to duty, falseness to love, and yield- 
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Risler, by Alphonse Daudet, is a powerful romance 
which introduces the reader to the life of the 
Parisian working people, and shows their gaieties, 
sorrows, temptations. Madame Chrysantheme, by 
Pierre Loti, is a piece of oriental writing of ex- 
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of a French naval officer and a pretty little 
Japanese mousme. Zibeline, by Philippe de Massa, 
is a sparkling and original story of an American 
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After Reading These Books You 
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So truly and in such intimate detail is the so- 
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through the works of these great writers. ' 



Some of 
"THE IMMORTALS" 

Serge Panine, 

By Georges Ohnet. 

The story of an unprin- 
cipled Prince. 

Jacqueline, 

By Thi'6 lientzon. 

The p'ory of a young 
girl in high Parisian life 
is drawn with the vivid- 
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whd knows thoroughly the 
intimate sides of French 
society. 

The Ink-Stain, 
liy Rem- liazin. 

A charming story of 
joyous youth and inno- 
cent love. 

A Woodland Queen, 
liy Andre Theuriet. 

An exquisite idyl of the 
finest, full of annealing 
glimpses iuto-French ru- 
ral life. 

Gerfaut, 

liy Charles de Bernard. 

The story of a man's 
snuggle between the wiles 
of Venus on une hand 
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the other. 

Confessions of a Child of 

the Century, 
By Alfred de Musset. 

'fins story incorporates 
the passionate experience 
ut de Musset with George 
Sand. 

Monsieur, Madame, and 

Bebe. 
By Gustave Droz. 

The veil is lifted from 
tlie romance of matri- 
mony by a hand as deli- 
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Monsieur de Cantors, 
By Octave Feuiliet. 

The wild career of a 
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for men or women except 
as lie could use them for 
pleasure ur advancement. 
Prince Zilah. 
By Jules Claretie. 

This story of strong 
emotions and passionate 
deeds describes the tragic 
love affair of Zilah and 
Marsa the Gipsy girl. 
Conscience, 
By Hector Malot. 
Cosmopolis, 
By Paul Bourget. 



An Extraordinary Offer — and Generous Terms 



Order on 
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Current Literature Pob. C». 
/ 63 We,t 36th Slreel 

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Only a most unusual opportunity makes it possible for Americans to secure the great "Immortals," / Gentlemen- Send me the 

for in forming this set the French Academy has taken an unprecedented action in order to give f 20- volume set of THE 
Americans the very best of French writings. The twenty volumes of this set are bound, as » IMMORTAIS and the 10 
befits their value, in rich half leather. They are illustrated with fine photogravures and have volume set of FLAUBERT'S 

illuminated title pages. The terms are extremely generous considering the value of the work. / WORKS I enclose $3 If the 
The complete set of "The Immortals", and the ten volumes of Flaubert will be sent you on / S ets are satisfactory I will oav 
. payment of a deposit of only $3.(10. If you do not decide to keep the sets, return them within / $3. each month until I have paid 
5 days and your $3.00 will be refunded. If you do keep the sets, you need pay only $3.00 a $43 j n a |] jf , he sets are not 

month until $48 in all has been paid for "The Immortals." The ten volumes of Flaubert are / satisfactory I will return ttem 
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March, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



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ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 1919 



Jin 




ARTS & DECORATION 



VOLUME X 



MARCH, 1919 



NUMBER 5 



CONTENTS 

DECORATIVE PORTRAIT Cover 

BEAUVAIS-BOUCHER TAPESTRY Frontispiece 

BEAUVAIS-BOUCHER TAPESTRIES By George Leland Hunter 245 

THE POPULARITY OF ETCHINGS By Charles de Kay 249 

THE HOME OF WILLARD E. DAY 252 

THE FAN By Vance Armstrong 254 

RUSKIN CENTENARY 255 

THE HOME OF ALFRED NATHAN, ESQ 256 

JEROME MYERS— ERNEST LAWSON 257 

THE ROMANTIC STORY OF WALL-PAPER By Stockton W. Woodruff 260 

APPRECIATION By A. M. Graham 261 

THE WENTWORTH-GARDNER HOUSE 

Printed by Courtesy of Metropolitan Museum of Art 263 

PORTRAIT OF WASHINGTON 265 

THE GARDEN OF E. P. THOMAS, ESQ 266 

NOTES OF THE BOOK WORLD By Charles Henry Dorr 267 

THE NEW YORK HOME OF MR. BERNARD POLLAK 269 

THE GARDEN OF MR. SAMUEL UNTERMYER 270 

EXHIBITIONS IN THE NEW YORK GALLERIES By Peyton Boswell 271 



Published Monthly by HEWITT PUBLISHING CORPORATION 

470 FOURTH AVENUE, NEW YORK 

London: 407 Bank Chambers, Chancery Lane 
Subscription $4.00 a year in the United States, Colonies and Mexico. $4.50 in Canada. $5.00 in Foreign 
Countries. Single copies 35 cents. Entered as Second Class Matter May 27, 1918, at the Post Office at New 
York City, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Copyright 1919 by Hewitt Pub. Corp. Registered U. S. Patent Office. 



MIMB 



March, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



243 



I 



i . ■■ 



I « 







Early English FvrniIvre 
and Objects of Art 
Antiqve Tapestries 
HandV^ovghT^ep^odvcTions 
—Decorations— 
Floor Coverings 



Fac -Simile of XVII Century 
English Dresser 



W&J. SLOANE 

FIFTH AVE &47tk.ST. 
NEW YORK CITY 



244 



ARTS and DECORATION 



llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll Illlllllllllllllllllll! Illlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 



March, 1919 



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"The Chinese Fair." One of the set of 

Chinese tapestries designed by Boucher 

and zvoven at Beauvais. No. 21b. 



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A ICT S 3 i^ 

D E C O BAlil O Tsl 



Formerly— ART WORLD and ARTS fir DECORATION 



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Volume X 



MARCH, 1919 









Number 5 

111 



BEAUVAIS-BOUCHER TAPESTRIES 

By GEORGE LELAND HUNTER 

Author of "Tapestries, Their Origin, History and Renaissance," 
"Decorative Textiles," "Italian Furniture," Etc. 



BEAUYAIS-BOUCHERS are the finest tapestries of 
the eighteenth century, surpassing even the wonder- 
ful cloths woven at the Gobelins, which during the 
seventeenth century stood preeminent. Beauvais-Bouchers 
get their name from Francois Boucher, by whom they were 
in the middle 



designed 



eighteenth 



third of the 
century, and from the 
Beauvais Tapestry 
fc Works, where they were 
woven between 1736 and 
1778, inclusive. As the 
dates and the name of the 
designer would indicate, 
Beauvais-Boucher tapes- 
tries are warm with the 
spirit of Rococo and of 
Louis XV., and gracefully 
passionate in form and 
color as well as in sub- 
ject. 

The records of the 
Beauvais Tapestry 
Works shows that Bou- 
cher designed for them 
six sets of tapestries to- 
taling forty-five separate 
pieces. The Italian set 
consisted of fourteen 
pieces; the Story of 
Psyche of five pieces ; the 
Chinese Set of six pieces ; 

the Loves of the Gods of nine pieces; the Opera Fragments 
of five pieces ; the Noble Pastoral of six pieces. I have for 
convenience of reference numbered them serially in the fol- 
lowing table, and would call the attention of my readers to 
the fact that this is the first attempt to illustrate and de- 
*cribe Beauvais-Boucher tapestries on the scale merited by 




"Psyche abandoned by Cupid." 
One of the Psyche set of five designed by Boucher and woven at Beauvais. 



their importance as art objects. Although many of the 
pieces were woven ten or a dozen times, Beauvais-Boucher 
tapestries in good condition are rare in the open market, and 
extremely difficult and expensive to acquire. The only 
Beauvais-Boucher in any American Museum is the inferior 

Vertumnus and Pomona 
in the Altman Collection 
of the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art. 

LIST OF BEAUVAIS-BOU- 
CHER TAPESTRIES 

Italian Set (Les Fetes 

Italiennes, \7 36-62) 
(Set of fourteen tapes- 
tries) 
( 1 ) The Quack Doctor 

(L'operateur). 
( 2 ) The Fortune Teller 
(La Bohemienne). 
The Hunters (Les 
chasseurs). 
The Fair Fisher- 
man (La Pecheuse). 
lie Peep Show 
(La Curiosite). 
The Girls With the 
Grapes (Les filles 
aux raisins). 
The Dance 



(3 



4) 



(5) 



No. 16. 



(7) 



(La 



danse). 



(8) The Luncheon (La collation). 

(9) Music (La musique). 

(10) The Gardener (Le jardinier). 

(11) The Shepherdess (La bergere). 

(12) The Taverner (Le cabaretier). 

(13) The Parrot (Le perroquet). 



246 



A R TS and DECOK A TIO N 



March, I'M') 




"Psyche at the Basket Maker's.'' 
Another of the Psyche set of five designed by Boucher. No. IS 

(14) The Egg Seller (Le marchand d'eeufs). 

Story of Psyche (Histoire de Psyche, 1741-70) 
(Set of five tapestries) 

(15) Psyche Arrives at Cupid's Palace (L'arrive de 
Psyche). 

(16) Psyche Abandoned by Cupid (L'abandon). 

(17) Psyche's Toilet (La toilette). 

(18) Psyche at the Basket Maker's (Le vannier). 

(19) Psyche Displays Her Treasures to Her Sisters (Les 
richesses). 

Chinese Set (La tcnturc chinoise, 1743-75) 
(Set of six tapestries) 

(20) Chinese Luncheon (Le repas). 

(21) Chinese Fair (La foire). 

(22) Chinese Dancing (La danse). 

(23) Chinese Fishing (La peche). 

(24) Chinese Hunting (La chasse). 

(25) Chinese Toilet (La toilette), also called Chinese 
Garden. 

Loves of the Gods (Les amours des dieux) 
(Set of nine tapestries) 

(26) Bacchus and Ariadne. 



(27) Pluto and Proserpine. 

(28) Neptune and Amymone. 
( 2° ) Jupiter en Raisin. 
(30) Mars and Venus. 
( 31 ) Boreas and Orithya. 
(32) Jupiter and Furopa. 
( iZ ) Vulcan and Venues. 

(34) Apollo and Clytie (Sunrise). 

Opera Fragments ( /■rat/incuts d'opera, 

1752-76) 

(Set of five tapestries) 

(35) Rinaldo Asleep (Renaud en- 
dormi). 

(36) Vertumnus and Pomona. 

(37) Slumber of Isse (Sommeil 
d'Isse). 

t (38) Venus and the Cupids (Venus et 
les amours). 

(39) The Castanets (Les Castag- 
nettes). 

The Noble Pastoral (La noble pastorale, 

1755-1778) 

(Set of six tapestries) 

(40) Fountain of Love (La fontaine 
d'amour) ; also called Country 
Pleasures. 

( 41 ) Flute Player (Le joueur de flute ) . 

(42) Fisherman (Le pecheur). * 

(43) Bird Catchers (La pipee des * 
oiseaux). 

(44) Luncheon (Le dejeuner), also 
called Vintage. 

(45) Shepherdess (La bergere). 

Perhaps nothing illustrates better the success of Boucher 
as designer of tapestries for the Beauvais works than a 
petition presented to the Government in 1754 by the three 
shop managers of the Gobelins, Audran, Cozctte and Neil- 
son. They say that "to prevent the decadence of the Gobe- 
lin factory it is necessary to attach to it Sr. Boucher," giving 
him the assistance of other painters of the Academy, such 
as "Sieurs Dumont le Romain, Jeaurat, Halle, Challe, Vien. 
For lack of suitable designs the Gobelins cannot get private 
work, "and for nearly twenty years the Beauvais factory 
has been kept up by the attractive paintings made for it by 
Sr. Boucher." No wonder that Oudry, the artistic director 
of the Beauvais Works, prided himself on his good sense 
in having employed Boucher so generously, or that the direc- 
tors of the Beauvais Works were ready and anxious to give 
Boucher an interest in the business in 1755 in order to make 
sure of retaining his services. The efficient proprietors of the 
Beauvais Works during the years when Boucher tapestries 
were woven there, were Nicolas Besnier (1733-80) and 
Andre Charlemagne Charron (1753-80). Among signatures 
that appear on the bottom selvages of Boucher tapestries 
made by them are BESNIER.ET.OUDRY.A.BEAVVAIS, 
and A. C. CHARRON, or A. C. C. BEAVVAIS. with a^j 
fleur-de-lis. The name of Boucher is conspicuous by its ab- 



March, 1919 



ARTS and DECOR A T I O N 



247 



sence, with one or two exceptions, such as the reversed F. 
Boucher, 1757, in the panel of "Vertumnus and Pomona." 

Boucher was much greater as a designer of tapestries than 
as a painter of pictures. The decorative qualities with which 
his work so richly abounds arc expressed more completely 
and more satisfactory on the loom than with the brush. 
The ribs and hatchings and horizontal slits and stepped slits 
of tapestry accentuate his contrasts so powerfully thai in 
tapestry he is able without losing or neglecting detail to 
play with elusive graduations of tone, and mysterious blend- 
ings of hue, just as did the Chinese who inspired him with 
their marvelous silks and porcelains. Perhaps the fact that 
his father who taught him to paint was a designer of em- 
broideries may have developed his texture sense exquisitely 
at an early and unforgetting age. Certainly his texture 
and color treatment of nudes — skin rosy with blood flushing 
hot beneath — transforms them from the least attractive to 
one of the most attractive parts of tapestry. It was pre- 
cisely the tapestry qualities of his genius that caused his 
paintings to be despised by the bad taste that arrived even 
before the Empire, and that dominated most of the nine- 
teenth century. Already in 1761 Diderot wrote of Boucher's 
exhibit at the Salon : "What colors ; what variety ; what 
wealth of objects and ideas; this man has all but truth ; his 
figures do not belong to one another, or to the painting." 

For nearly a century the art of Boucher 
was neglected until restored to public atten- 
tion by the general exhibitions of his paint- 
ings and engravings held in Paris in 1860. 
Since then sale prices show that the painter 
| of all the graces is once again brilliantly in 
vogue. 

The brothers Goncourt wrote of Boucher 
with justice: "Boucher is one of these men 
who typify the taste of a century, who ex- 
press it, personify it, and incarnate it. The 
French taste of the eighteenth century is 
manifested in him in every particular of his 
character. Boucher will remain not only the 
painter of it, but the witness, the represen- 
tative, the type of it." 

An important and significant contemporary 
opinion of Boucher is that of M. de Ma- 
rigny, the king's director general of build- 
ings, and brother of Madame de Pompadour, 
whose friendship and patronage meant much 
for Boucher. She studied drawing ami 
etching with Boucher, had her portrait and 
her dogs painted by him, and followed his 
advice in the purchase of furniture. 

M. de Marigny wrote: "M. Boucher has 
all the talents a painter can have. He is 
equally successful in history, landscape, 
architecture, fruits and flowers, animals, 
etc. He composes well, he draws well: his 
compositions are always rich, profuse and 
in the high style. His color is agreeable 
fresh, his brush facile, flowing and light, his 
'touch spirituelle: there is little expression; 



his female heads arc rather pretty than beautiful, coquettish 
rather than noble; his draperies almost always have too 
many folds, and the folds themselves are too much broken 
up: sometimes they are a little heavy and do not follow the 
line of the figure sufficiently. He has painted many large 
ami very rich pictures from which excellent Beauvais tapes- 
try has been executed These pictures are not highly fin- 
ished, they are completed almost in a stroke; but that is 
enough for tapestry, as witness thereof M. Oudry." 

The three years that Boucher spent in Italy (returning 
at the age of twenty-eighl in 1731) did not mark him for 
long. From the religious canvases painted by him there, he 
soon turned to the kingdom of Venus enshrined in Ro- 
coco. Even about the Italian set of tapestries designed by 
him for Beauvais, started on the looms in 1736, and en- 
titled by him "Italian Village Scenes (Fetes de village a 
l'italienne), there is comparatively little that is distinctly 
Italian — principally the background of ancient architec- 
tural ruins treated in the Rococo manner, and a suggestion 
in some of the costumes. 

Boucher is not only always a Frenchman, but especially 
and characteristically always Boucher, with a style so unique 
and individual that he may perhaps be excused for often 
doing what many of his contemporaries also did — copy 
Boucher. He was so successful and had so many lucrative 




"The Hunters." 

One of fourteen of the Italian set designed by Boucher and woven at Beauvais. No. 3. 



248 



ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 1919 



orders that we find him repeating himself over and over 
again with comparatively unimportant variations. 

Of Boucher's Italian set, tapestry No. 1, The Quack 
Doctor, was more than once woven in a combination with 
No. 5, The Peep Show. My illustration shows The Peep 
Show on the right, and on the left The Quack Doctor, in 
Oriental costume, holding out a bottle of his wonderful nos- 
trum to the crowd, while his trumpeter attracts attention with 
shrill blasts, and his monkey tries to avoid the thrusts of 
a stick in the hands of a mischievous boy, and his mistress 
of ceremonies, sceptre in hand, sits resplendent and admired 
for her royal robes. In the foreground a wheel of fortune 
amuses other children, while fragmentary classic architec- 
ture supplies the background, suggesting the Roman Forum 
and the temple of Vesta. 

The Fortune Teller, that is No. 2 in the Italian set, is one 
of Boucher's happiest creations, presenting as it does a sub- 
ject peculiarly suited for Boucher foliage and costumes, and 
throwing the charm of polite and graceful rusticity about 
the gypsy who plays the part of a modern sibyl. The Hun- 
ters, that is No. 3 in the Italian set, was one of the most 
admired tapestries in the famous Doucet collection, and is 
also by Boucher, despite the fact that M. Badin in his book 
on the Beauvais tapestry works attributed it to Oudry. The 
Luncheon, that is No. 8, is less interesting in all the ex- 
amples that I have seen, and seems to lack the grace of com- 
position and pose that distinguished the style of the master. 
Music, on the other hand, that is No. 9, possesses not only 



charm but also unusual dignity, especially in the example 
illustrated in Les Arts of May, 1902, where it is entitled 
the Concert Champetre. The classic background is sup- 
plied by a fountain with huge dolphins on the right, and by 
a large stone vase on the left, while the musicians in the 
foreground seem quite as much in love with love ami one 
another as with music and their musical instruments. 

The Story of Psyche in a series of five tapestries, Nos. 
15, 16, 17, 18, 19 of my list, achieved an immediate suc- 
cess that placed Boucher at the head of tapestry designers 
of the eighteenth century. This ancient romance that the 
modern world has borrowed from the pages of Apuleius, 
was admirably suited for Boucher's method of interpreta- 
tion, and gave a story interest absent from most of the 
tapestries of the Italian set. Psyche's Arrival at the Palace 
of Cupid is found in the Tuck collection effectively joined 
to Psyche's Treasures, in which she displays her riches to 
her jealous sisters. The magic of the architecture and 
decorations and costumes makes vanish the improbabilities 
of the story and, if I may be permitted to coin the words, 
contemporizes Psyche quite as completely as the Gothic 
tapestries of the fifteenth century made all of ancient his- 
tory and ancient life sensuously Gothic. Strong also in hu- 
man appeal are Psyche Abandoned and Psyche at the Bas- 
ket Maker's, while Psyche's Toilet enshrines the heroine in an 
environment worthy of Venus herself, the ancient goddess 
of love, or of Pompadour, the Boucher goddess of love at 
the Court of Louis XV. 



1 




"Psyche's Toilet." 
One of the most decorative of the Psyche series of five designed by Boucher and woven at Beauvais. No. 17. 



$ 



March, 1919 



ARTS and I) ECO R A TIO X 



249 






THE POPULARITY OF ETCHINGS 

The Seven Cardinal Sins of An Amateur 

Bv CHARLFS Dli K \Y 



I 



HAVE a friend who has a gallery full of pictures and 
a library beset with finely bound hooks — crowned with 
busts from Homer to Edgar Allan Poe — but among all 

his costly things the object that really arrests and holds the 
eye and soothes one's nerves is a little etching. In the pic- 
ture mart it has no great value. It is a small thing by 
Appian of level lines and no consequence; but there is a 
large yet intimate quality to it that disposes one to dream. 

I have another friend, much worse equipped to figure in 
the world of collectors, who confined himself to picking up 
etchings. Is he a type. I wonder? At any rate he's guilty 
of the Seven Cardinal Sins of the amateur, one for each 
day of the week. Beginning with all the fresh innocence 
of youth, he gradually became sophisticated and with time 
has come to regard me with barely concealed contempt, 
having caught me several times in errors regarding recon- 
dite matters as to prints, and though I have plead forget- 
fulness, I know he sets it down to ignorance. 

He began by judging etchings from their near relatives, 
illustrations in books, having in his callow youth haunted 
the stalls where old volumes turn yellow in sunshine and 
squalls of rain — a venial sin — and followed this by per- 
i| suading himself that etchings are more easilv understood 
'than other forms of art, since they often tell an obvious 
tale. From this point he slipped into the sin of thinking 
them cheaper than pencil sketches, water-colors and pastels 
of original handiwork, and thence departed only to land in 
the fourth stage wherein he showed that he feared, if not 
positively disliked, positive color. It was at this period of 
his career as a collector that he indulged himself with wall- 
papers of dull indeterminate hues, perhaps because he liked 
the crisp contrast of the etchings that now covered his 
rooms in rather bewildering numbers. So far all was well 
enough, but next came a step upon which his true friends 
can scarcely look back without a tear. In this fifth period 
he began to cram on First States, Before Signatures, Re- 
marques, etc., and became so learned that he would argue 
with dealers by the hour and coming away explain to his 
friends just where he was right and the dealer an igno- 
ramus. From now on the downward path was steep and 
sudden. He ceased entirely to buy for the pleasure in the 
story or some beauty intangible, yet positive, like that in 
the little Appian just mentioned, and presently we found 
that, to speak by metaphor, he had become a lean and slip- 
pered one, babbling the slang of etchers and printers, men- 
tally bald and prematurely aged. Not feeling, not beauty, 
not the story — just the dry methods of statement was all 
he had gained for his trouble. O yes, there was something 
more : he had learned how to make an investment certain 
to pay for itself — double, perhaps quadruple, give it time, 
f This harrowing tale of the descensus Avcrni of a guile- 
less collector of etchings may act as warning to others who 



are embarked on the same slippery path. For the fact is, 
owing to various reasons etching is the most widely spread 
and popular art in America to-day and has been for the 
past hall" century. It presents some special attractiveness 
for Americans. Whether we hail this as an aesthetic gain 
or slur it as a mere fashion, it remains that etching leaves 
crayon work, pastel, water-color far behind, although these 
are simple, more direct and individual, and for the most 
part have the colors that etching usually lacks. The reason 
for this somewhat singular phenomenon does not lie on the 
surface. 

After all, an etching is a method invented or rediscov- 
ered in comparatively modern times to manifold a sketch 
in pencil or ink. Now if there is a branch of pictorial art 
which is not popular, one that seems to have the least at- 
traction for the layman in this country, it is the sketch. It 
has proved useless from the financial point of view for 
artists to form sketch clubs because of the lack of public 
interest in such exhibitions; that has been true from the 
days of the New York Sketch Club which antedates and 
in a way was the founder of our venerable Century Associa- 
tion in New York. It has proved useless also for artists 
to explain and repeat that the sketch often contains more 
meat for the connoisseur than the finished work of which 
it is the first rapid draft : the American public will have 
none of it. Dealers fight shy even of paintings to which the 
term "sketch" might be applied. Where art museums 
have sketches and drawings by old masters, no one except 
specialists ask to see them. And yet the etching which 
copies a drawing for the purpose of multiplying it, and for 
the most part a "sketchy" drawing too, and has to be drawn 
with the needle in no hasty fashion and reversed, will boast 
of ten collectors to one who acquires a painting", water-color 
or drawing. 

A phenomenon all the odder when one reflects that, a 
number of prints being taken from the etched plate, the 
collector is not getting a unique work straight from the 
hand of the artist, as he is when he buys a drawing" or 
painting. To say this is merely to testify that the etching- 
has an attractiveness above the ordinary which it might be 
interesting" to plumb. Certainly etchings hold their own at 
the summit of the graphic arts. To many minds so pleas- 
ing are they, that a language of the print has grown up 
which is employed by adepts in that maistrie. Slight varia- 
tions that have nothing one way or other to say about the 
artistic or aesthetic value of a print affect tremendously 
the financial result at a sale. As with rare books, so rarity 
also affects prices of etchings, but the experts have much 
to say on points wherein one print differs from its brother, 
points that raise or depress the print by comparison with 
others of the same kin, points that are canvassed in a dia- 
lect peculiar to connoisseurs. 



250 



ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 1919 




S: -i-a 



Etched by J. Aldcn Weir — Courtesy of Kennedy & Co. 



There is indeed one explanation for the long-standing 
popularity of etchings which has naught to do with aes- 
thetics. No other branch of art is to the same degree classi- 
fied and laid down in catalogues and tabulated' as to price ; 
so that buyers of etchings know very closely what they are 
buying. In no other field is the investor who is without 
reliance on his own opinion and diffident as to his own 




Etched by Whistler — Courtesy of Kennedy & Co. 



taste SO bolstered up by the advice of dealers and the rec- 
ords of previous purchasers. And with regard to mani- 
folded art versus the unicum the very fact that there exist 
more than one specimen of a print only helps to confirm 
the hesitating buyer, hearten the timid collector who dares 
not trust his own taste and knowledge, lie has the moral 
support of other investors. As a form of investment etch- 
ings promise sooner or later the agreeable prospect of 
letting go at an advanced price. So that while some buyers 
of etchings follow their own tastes or whims and collect 
for the sake of beauty they recognize in prints, many hesi- 
tate to invest except under guidance. Without exactly real- 
izing it, he is laying out his money as if on well-authenti- 
cated stocks and bonds. Etching has become a species of 
art which, closely resembles merchandise. 

Prints from the etched and graved plate have an intimate 
quality that comes in part from their small size, in part 
from their simplicity. Perhaps one underlying element of 
their attraction is the close relation they bear to woodcuts 
and other engravings made as book illustrations. The col- 
lector of books is apt to branch out into prints in general 
and then centre his attention on impressions from the metal 
plate etched by artists of note. Such transitions are nor- 
mal enough. 

Painters with extraordinary powers have shown by the 
care and time bestowed on etching that there is something 
appealing if not directly useful to them in the game. Line, 
mass, distribution of light and shade, the silhouette, these 
are some of the advantages gained by painters who dally 
with etching as a side issue. 

In the early days of etching when Prince Rupert swung 
his etching needle and his sword there were Claude the 
Lorrainer, Jacques Callot and, not mentioning the greatest, 
there were Diirer, Ruysdael, Berghem, Paulus Potter, An- 
thony van Dyck. A revival occurred in France and Eng- 
land about seventy years ago and soon affected America ; 

whence in 1877 the New 
York Etching Club, in 1880 
the etcher clubs of Philadel- 
phia and Cincinnati, in 1881 
that of Boston and the So- 
ciety of Etchers in Chicago. 
Not before 1634 do we meet 
in books with the word "to 
etch" or bite with acid, and 
not till 1762 do we learn that 
Prince Rupert of the cen- 
tury before was reputed to 
be the inventor of etching. 

In recent years we have 
M i 1 1 e t, M anet, Corot, 
Charles Jacque and Dau- 
bigny etching as well as 
painting. The Frenchmen 
Meryon and Lalanne were 
rather exceptional in being 
etchers pure and simple, but 
so were Raj on, Bracqu«) 
mond and Jacquemart. In 



March, 1919 



A R T S and DECORATION 



251 



• 



America we see Julian Alden Weir turning aside from 
painting at one period in order to etch most charming 
plates, while Joseph Pennell, like Lalanne in France and 
Sir Seymour Haden in England), denotes his life to etching. 
Mot only is there a peculiar pleasure in etching as the vehicle 
of impressions but there is a gain to the workman in the 
color field. Take Rembrandt for example. 

It is said that in his great love and capacity for work he 
grudged the hours when night or cloudy weather forced him 
to quit the brush for lack of daylight and so turned to 
etching, which could be pursued under the lamp as painting 
could not. Though it seems hardly likely that Rembrandt 
produced the hundreds o\ etched plates assigned to him for 
the purpose of "keeping his hand in" — somewhat as a musi- 
cian plays the scales — there is reason to believe that in the 
long run etching had an important reflex influence on his 
painted work. The strong contrasts of black and white on 
a simple scale may well have encouraged that individual 
style which marks the middle and end of his career if it 
did not directly lead him to it. The serious character which 
led him to religious and philosophical ideas — by no means 
to the taste of his fellow burghers in Amsterdam — is re- 
flected in many, nay, in most of his etchings. In modern 
days Whistler turned to etchings. He had a very different 
character from Rembrandt with a very different method ; 
he displayed equal genius, one more akin to Watteau, Fra- 
gonard and other French painters of the ancien regime, 
full of gay, restless wit, light of touch, aristocratic. As to 
style : he was the antithesis of Rembrandt, yet in his own 
way not less eminent. In painting it has been a fashion 
' to suggest for Whistler an influence exerted by Courbet, 
though the proof is lacking ; but as to etching, on his part 
there is no one to whom reverence from him is due. He 
was never an inwtator. 

Although artists like Rembrandt and Whistler who were 
verv strong on the color side 
have scaled the pinnacles of 
etching, yet etching appeals 
also to laymen who have 
very little appreciation of 
color as such. In this coun- 
try, especially, the circle to 
which it appeals is of the 
widest. In fact one may 
note among some collectors 
a progress from etchings and 
other prints in black and 
white to etchings printed in 
colors, then to water-colors 
and finally to paintings. 

One special quality of 
etchings from the practical 
side should be mentioned 
when we consider their pop- 
ularity, this being its perma- 
nence in time as opposed to 
the slow deterioration of 
y water-colors and pastels un- 
der the actinic effects of light 




Etched by Whistler— Courtesy of Kennedy & Co. 

and, in the case of paintings, through the subtle changes 
that take place in the canvas and in varnishes. Of course, 
paper, the best of paper will slightly discolor with age, but 
the etching that is properly defended by glass and an ade- 
quate frame holds wonderfully against the tooth of time. 
Here we have another cause, perhaps, for the overwhelm- 
ing popularity in America of etchings as compared to draw- 
ings in pencil, sepia, pastel and water-colors. 




Etched by Piatt — Courtesy of Kennedy & Co. 



252 



ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 1019 



• ■• . !"!!lllllllllll!!!l!! I!l!|i|!l|i!lll!llll!!lllllllllllllllllllllllllllll IlllllilllllllllllllHIIIIII Illllllllll I Illllllllll llllllllllll!llllllllllllllllllllllllllll!l!:i;>li:HIII!llll!l Illiil'llli'l 




The Home of 
WILLARD E. DAY 



White Plains, New York 



Perfectly proportioned, 
this splendid example of 
Georgian Architecture has 
a serene dignity, most un- 
expected in a new house, 
which is at once the foun- 
dation of all that means 
home. 




The graceful portico 
columns are crowned 
by capitals of particu- 
lar beauty which find 
a grate fid background 
in the plain walls and 
upper window treat- 
ment, a combination 
that throws into relief 
the fine door, arch and 
lighting arrangement. 



The promise of the home atmosphere given 
by the outside of the house is made good with- 
in where everything, correct in taste, offers 
comfort, enjoyment and satisfaction. 




mi 



Illllllllllllllllll!l!llllllllllllllll!lllllllllll!lllllllllllllllllll!llll!!lllllllllll!l!llll!ll!ll!U 



March, 1919 



ARTS and D ECO RAT [ON 



lil|lll!l!llll!llll!llll!llllll!lill!l![||l!!lli:il!lllllllill!!illlll[lllllll II I '..^'.illlllllllllllllllllll! 



KEXXETH M. MURCH1SON, 
. Irchitfrt 

Photographs by 
JOHX WALLACE GILLIES 




• 



The latch of this 
gate almost begs one 
to enter if for no 
other reason than to 
examine at close r 
range the good-look- 
ing awnings w h i c h 
carry out the archi- 
tectural feeling of the 
house. 




On entering t h i s 
architecturally deco- 
rated hall, one might 
make many compli- 
ments, yet, after all, 
there is but one thing 
to say — it is as it 
should be. However, 
note the curve in the 
ceiling which breaks 
satisfactorily the rec- 
tangular lines of the 
stair well. 




It tvas a wise taste that introduced into this 
extremely simple dining-room furniture of 
flowing curves. /Is will be guessed, this room 
flanks the hall on the right, while the living- 
room is on its left. 



i!lilll!!i:illll!i:illI!IDII 



,,..,,,,,;,:,, m.i..,, ,.,.i:i.:.'., ,:,'.,,,,',.!.. :„.u !:,„,., .liiiiiiLi.i.i.n.ii 



254 



ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 1919 





No. 1 



THE FAN 



By VANCE ARMSTRONG 



No. 2 



THE antiquity of the fan is so great that its origin must 
be traced back to that nebulous period which precedes 
the dawn of history. Many enchanting fables have 
come down to us recounting the story of its birth, but some- 
how one instinctively endeavors to prove for it a more re- 
mote ancestry than that furnished by even the most primitive 
legend. It is not difficult, indeed to imagine the Garden of 
Eden as the scene of its inception. One can easily picture 
Mother Eve toying with a fan cut from the palm tree as 
she listened to the blandishments of the serpent. However, 
the first account in the Scriptures to enlighten us as to its 
existence is found in Isaiah, where we make its acquaintance, 
not as an ornament in a woman's hand, but as an object 
used for the purpose of winnowing the provender for cattle. 
The Latin vannus from which we get the word fan is witness 
to its early agricultural usage. But even before the time of 
the Prophets it is certain that fans were in common use 
throughout Assyria, Egypt and China. 

Fans have even been found dating back to these archaic 
times by the unearthing of the old cities of the East, and the 
old sculptures and paintings on the walls clearly explain 
their different uses. The Orientals employed them as they 
do to-day in various ways, making them serve in their reli- 
gious, household, ceremonial and warlike pursuits. In many 
nations of the East the fan played a most important part as 
a symbol of power and authority. In India we see it car- 
ried majestically along in the procession of Jaganath. These 
fans made of peacock feathers were waved in a slow, im- 
pressive way to give the most imposing effect, and inci- 



dentally, too, it may be said to drive away the flies and othei 
insects. Behind the car holding the great idol arose an 
enormous fan, solemn in its grandeur, well calculated to 
strike awe into the souls of those about to throw themselves 
under the crushing wheels. 

In Greece, as one notes on the Corinthian and Mitylene 
potteries, the fan was also a feature of grand processions. 
It was made for the most part of the woods of myrtle, 
accacia or of the jagged leaves of the plane tree. Euripides 
tells us how the lovely Helen, overcome with the heat during 
the siege of Troy, fanned herself with the tail of a peacock. 

The fans used in the Greek church were made of palm 
leaves, feathers and a very fine quality of parchment. They 
were attached to a rod, and their manipulation contributed 
not a little to the impressiveness of the ritual. The Chris- 
tian church adopted the fan along with many other symbolic 
objects from the Pagans. To-day in Russia it is still made 
use of in the ordination of deacons, and by stepping into 
St. Peter's when some particularly solemn procession is go- 
ing on, one may see the huge peacock fan, once such a fea- 
ture of heathen ceremonial, carried before the chair of the 
Pope. 

The Armenians used the circular form embellished with 
bits of metal and tiny bells. There are only a few of these 
in existence to-day it seems, and these are preserved in cer- 
tain churches with as much care and veneration as the pre- 
cious reliques of the saints. 

Indeed to some of these fans are attributed peculiarly 
{Continued on page 27 S) 




No. 3 



No. 1 — The Chinese influence 
is seen in this Louis XIII fan 
which, with the others pictured 
here, is from the collection of 
Mr. Duvellroy, Paris. 



No. 2 — The very spirit of the 
time is depicted on this Louis 
XV fan whose sticks are gems 
of carved and painted art. 




No. 3 — Carved and inlay 
work of classic design make 
the sticks of this Louis XVI 
fan its chief beauty. 



No. A — Exquisite as arc the 
sticks of this Regence fan, the 
painted scene has a charm that 
nicely balances the whole de' 
sign. 



March, 1919 



ARTS and DECOR AT lO\ 



RUSKIN CENTENARY 



255 



THE all-absorbing interest in world politics lias over- 
shadowed so many lesser matters that American ad- 
mirers of John Ruskin will be glad to know that his 
old friends in England did not forget his centenary nor neg- 
lect to honor him on that day, February S, 1919. Itself a 
tribute to their greatness as well as his own. 

The tendency, on the part of nnthinking people, to be- 
little Rnskin is donbtless the national outcome o\ an ignor- 
ance of the conditions, social and political, in which he grew 
up. Appreciation and taste in art matters had sunk to a 
maudlin state and against this he struggled with all his tre- 
mendous powers. 

What England thinks of his worth may best be gathered 
from the following extract in the Morning Post of Feb- 
ruary 8th : 

AUTHORITY STILL INDISPOSED 

In England to-day Ruskin's authority in art and economic 
science is still recognized by all thoughtful people. His bit- 
terest detractors are those who are themselves blinded by 
prejudice, or musty-minded with the mildew of documen- 
tary eyidence, long hidden in airless archives. Ruskin's 
passionate generalizations and errors of judgment and of 
fact place him at the mercy of specialists, and bring sneers 
from the "little men" who make his oppostion to Whistler 
a raison d'etre for their own critical existence and their 
defence of any fumiste movement in art. 
■ Sift generously the honestly formed prejudices and the 
fierce denunciations in moments of exaltation, and there re- 
mains of his life-work a dynamic and moral force unparal- 
leled in the history of art. By incessant study of Nature 
Rnskin was able to bring a new meaning to art, to clear 
our vision to its aesthetic and spiritual purposes. To the 
students of Oxford University he said : "Whether in Gothic 
or Classic Art, it is not the wisdom or the barbarism that we 
have to estimate — not the skill nor the rudeness — but the 
tendency.'' 

Thus, also, with economic science, he saw that the facts 
on which it rested in his day were valuable only as far as 
they were applicable to the growth of human happiness and 
hope. Each principle of art and economy was traced by 
him to some vital or spiritual fact, and preference accorded 
to one school over another was "founded on a comparison 
of their influences on the life of the workman." 

Many of Ruskin's suggestions in regard to political econ- 
omy have been carried out, yet so bitterly were they resented 
when published in the Comhill and Frascr's magazines that 
their editors, Thackeray and Fronde (both brave men), 
were forced to stop the publication of his articles. The 
ideas and suggestions which were "howled out" of those 
periodicals include "a system of national education, the or- 
ganization of labor, the establishment of Government train- 
ing-schools, old-age pensions, and the provision of decent 
homes for the working classes." All are now more or less 
^in active operation, and any failure in their working is due 
not to impracticability but to the lack of "honorable per- 



formance ot" duty," to competition, selfishness, and class 
distinction, causes ni schism never more evident than in the 
present deplorable labor unrest, llis message was epito- 
mized by himself in a sentence: "There is no wealth but 
life — life connoting all its qualities of love, joy, and admi- 
ration." 

Lord Bryce's eulogy before the Royal Society of Arts 
reads in part : 

"I [e was an amazing master of style. I think we may say 
that he was one of the first two or three greatest masters of 
English prose in his lifetime. 

"I do not know anyone, indeed, whom we should put as 
his equal except Cardinal Newman." 

Rnskin was the man who first wakened up his generation 
to a sense that there was something else outside the old 
conventional opinions. Those who did not remember the 
pre-Ruskin age could hardly understand with what different 
eyes everybody since the appearance of "Modern Painters" 
had thought of pictures and of the things which pictures 
are meant to represent. 

Rnskin was also a great interpreter of Nature. He was 
in many respects the best successor of Wordsworth. 

He gave the most full development to the fundamental 
ideas which animated Wordsworth. Under the simplicity 
of Wordsworth and the luxuriant prolixity and variety of 
Ruskin you could feel the same spirit. 

He taught us not only appreciation of natural scenery, 
but also how to appreciate scenery in landscape painting. 

RUSKIN AND CARLYLE 

In the sphere of social ethics, Ruskin certainly showed 
himself an extraordinary and vitalizing force. A great deal 
of Carlyle's teaching was changed through the process of 
such a different mind as Ruskin's, and made a more direct 
moving and emotional appeal to many people than when 
made with the vigorous abruptness of Carlyle himself. 

Perhaps it was in that way that Ruskin had most effect 
on what he might call the younger half of the generation to 
which he belonged. 

In this respect he did make a great difference and had 
been the parent of many movements and of many new cur- 
rents of opinion which had been playing backwards and 
forwards over the face of the country during the last twenty- 
five or thirty years. 

The inconsistencies of a man of genius were a mark of his 
greatness, for he saw things under many aspects. In Ruskin 
we found such a variety and diversity of matter that we 
never knew that what he uttered on one page would not be 
modified, altered, or even contradicted on another. 

New critics would arise from time to time, and new 
prophets, but the inspiration of Ruskin would never be lost, 
and he would always stand in the place of honor in English 
literature. 

Whatever his shortcomings — and they appear to have 
been the outcome of his intense earnestness in modern art, 
and artists owe him an immense debt. 



256 



ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 1919 




March, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



257 



JEKOME MYERS 



O most lovers of the graphic arts the creative artist is 
a vague, more or less disembodied, spirit. The actor's 
chief asset is his own physical personality. Even the lite- 
rary man has the peculiarities of his physiognomy, the inner 

secrets of his kitchen, thrust upon us, not always against 
his will by an eager press-agent. But the painter is gen- 
erally considered a mere showman who dexterously produces 
for our delectation a hit of nature seen through eyes some- 
what different from our own, hut not too different. At the 
best he is depicted as blessed with a dual personality, one 
part of which leads a life of more or less doubtful value to 
the State, while the other is occupied with extracting the 
silver lining from the cloud of existence and putting it on 
canvas for us. 

It is a pleasure to assure the lovers of Jerome -Myers' 
life-work that it actually is a life-work — the distillation in 
exquisite tone and color of thousands of days and nights 
spent in living with and among the children whom he paints. 

The accident of birth made Jerome Myers a Virginian, 
but his sympathies and his peculiar genius have conferred 
upon him the citizenship of Manhattan's great East Side. 
For twenty-four years the summer day dedicated by most 
artists to green fields and salt waters have seen him with 
tireless enthusiasm transmuting the tarnished brass of that 
sordid melting-pot into the pure gold of his paintings. 



Training in the art-schools of New York and occasional 
living visits abroad did not leave the trade-mark ol any 
technique or tradition upon his work. 

It is the exemplification of his own theory that technique 
should he the subconscious result of an effort to express the 
artist's deepest feeling and purpose. It should grow from 
within rather than he imposed from without. 

In the clear eyes and unaffected manner of the man him- 
self can he read the sincerity of his purpose, and the cer- 
tainty of the fact that his metier has keen found, that his 
message is getting over in line fashion. 

Jerome Myers has been especially fortunate in the appre- 
ciation and support of his wife, Ethel Myers, whose quaintly 
modeled statuettes of New York life are full of keen and 
good-humored satire, and in his daughter Virginia, the most 
naive and 1 poetic of little dancers, who is already beginning 
her art-student days under her parents' guidance. 

The recent exhibition of Mr. Myers' work is the first 
that has been held in twelve years, for as a rule his canvases 
are sold before they can reach a dealer's hands. Some ex- 
cellent examples of both drawing and painting have found 
a permanent place in the Metropolitan and Brooklyn Mu- 
seums, although most of them are in private collections. 
Here is one poet-artist who has not been obliged to await 
the questionable pleasure of post-mortem appreciation. 



ERNEST LAWSON 



THE profession of painting in the twentieth century has 
taken on many of the characteristics of the social and 
husiness life by which it is surrounded. The belief that a 
discreet amount of self-advertisement is necessary to secure 
public appreciation is a fundamental commonplace in artis- 
tic circles — and rather bad form to mention. Of course as 
in the case of the doctor and the lawyer, announcement of 
one's virtues in the public prints, other than in the news- 
columns, would be an irreparable shock to the ethical tradi- 
tion of the painter. 

Be this as it may, the sheer merit of his work has given 
Ernest Lawson a secure place in the affections of art-lovers. 
A many-sided, delightful and companionable personality, he 
has instinctively shrunk from the usual methods of the 
business-artist in placing his work. 

His name has found a place in the membership of the Na- 
tional Academy of the Institute of Arts and Letters, and of 
the'National Arts Club, but invariably because of the quality 
of his painting. And for a landscape-painter of forty-six 
this is a most commendable record. 

If there is one outstanding virtue of Ernest Lawson's work 

it is that of distinctive Americanism. He has spent in all his 

visits not more than a year abroad. Although he has learned 

'from the great impressionists the secret of light and at- 



mosphere, as have all modern painters, he does not find it 
necessary to attempt to change our fine Westchester Hills 
into the Vosges or the Ardennes, and has been content to 
paint the Hudson river and Connecticut valleys so that they 
look like part of Uncle Sam's country. 

The fact that Lawson first studied art in Kansas City may 
or may not account for the United States quality of his 
rocks and rills. At any rate, for the American artist it is 
a better place to begin work than in the forest of Fontaine- 
bleau, inspiring as it is. 

For many years he was privileged to live near Twacht- 
man in his Connecticut home and to be his personal friend 
and companion. Although the work of the two men is quite 
distinct in view-point and technique, there is in both the 
same sincerity, the same poetry and the same feeling for the 
exquisite changing moods of nature. At the present time 
the Westchester Hills are among Mr. Lawson's most inti- 
mate friends in his Manhattan studios. 

The character of the man is the character of his work — 
full of color, appreciative, honest, vital, solid and full of 
subtle charm. The damnation of cleverness and self-con- 
sciousness so prevalent in our exhibitions has passed him by. 
If you wish to know more about him do not consult "Who's 
Who" — go to see his pictures. 



258 



ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 1919 



New York 

the 

Beautiful 



Paintings on View in 
the Daniel Gallery 




"The Big Tree" 
Ernest Lawson 



March, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



259 



New York 

the 

Colorful 



Paintings Recently 
Exhibited in the 

Milch Galleries 




The Wooden Indian" 
Jerome Myers 



260 



ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 1919 



THE ROMANTIC STORY OF WALL^PAPEK 



By STOCKTON W. WOODRUFF 



INDUSTRY and Manufacture arc terms that have come 
to have stodgy meanings to many of us. Vet all busi- 
nesses have their romantic stories — many have beauty 
as well — while some, like wall-paper, are so enfolded by 
them that it is hard to consider it without its story. 

Here is the romance of the wall-paper industry — which 
has its beginnings in the Art of Nature and its end in the 
Art of Men. 

Back in the Dark Ages, long, long before our present 
state of civilization had even been 
thought a remote possibility, when 
our ancestors were more or less 
beasts of prey, there seemed to be an 
impelling force toward the decorat- 
ing of ones surroundings. The blank, 
cold walls of cave or dugout afford- 
ed the most promising field for dec- 
oration which found expression in 
crude drawings and chiselings rep- 
resenting the conquests of the master 
of the family. 

At a later stage, in the evolution 
of the human race, skins were tan- 
ned and upon these were drawn the 
pictures previously engraved upon 
the stone walls. These skins were 
used as hanging for the walls, and 
undoubtedly were the foundation for 
the present international desire for 
wall coverings. At this period the 
art of designing merely for an ef- 
fect of beauty had not been con- 
ceived, and it remained for the Chi- 
nese many, many centuries later to 
bring forth what was to be the 
foundation of modern wall-papers. 

The original Chinese papers were 
hand-painted and usually took the 
form of a scroll some five or six 
feet in length, which was suspended 
from the ceiling and allowed to ex- 
tend its full length to the iloor. Later 
it was found advisable to cover the 
walls with paper, and then an art- 
ist was employed to paint the design 
which was always left to his own 
imagination. Many of these papers 
were imported by the Furopeans, 
where it was not long before an 
enterprising person discovered the 
commercial possibilities of wall-pa- 
per and the process of printing it in 
quantity from woodcuts which were 
usually copies of the original Chi- 




A beautiful Chinese zeall-paper in the Victoria 

and Albert Museum, London, probably 

tzvo hundred years old 



nese painted papers. After this period wall-paper be- 
came a recognized commodity and its progress was rapid. 
It would seem that the Fates were fearful we would forget 
the far-off origin of wall-paper — hence they baptise us 
Americans — once more in the fount of Romance. The first 
scene of our paper industry is laid in our northern forests 
— fabled in all our history. 

From these forests of the far North, spruce saplings 
chosen for their suitability are rafted together and floated 

down the rivers in great rafts. The 
preparation for a drive is an all- 
winter task. The lumberjacks are 
kept busy chopping down the select- 
ed trees and "snaking" them down 
to a distance from a river or creek 
which will enable them to be readily 
floated when the spring thaw comes. 
Who has read Gilbert Parker's fas- 
cinating logging-camp stories but 
will not experience a thrill over the 
wild excitement of the spring thaw 
and its attendant floods? The mad 
rush of the logs in the river — the 
jams that end only when the rafts 
are tied up above the mills, where t 
after the logs have been properly*" 
trimmed and prepared, they are cut 
into lenghts and the process of re- 
ducing them to pulp begins. 

And there is beauty even here 
since the machinery itself is marvel- 
ous in its exactitude and power. 
Oscar Wilde once said: "I have al- 
ways wished to believe that the line 
of strength and the line of beauty 
are one — that wish was realized 
when I contemplated American ma- 
chinery. The rise and fall of the 
great steel rods, the symmetrical mo- 
tion of great wheels is the most beau- 
tiful rhythmic thing I have ever 
seen." This can be said of the pulp 
machinery. After the pulp has been 
reduced to the consistency of dough, 
it is treated with sulphite, which 
gives to the finished paper the de- 
sirable toughness and whiteness nec- 
essary for the colors which are to be 
applied during the printing process. 
Wall-paper, though sometimes 
printed from metal, is usually print- 
ed from wooden rollers or "blocks" 
as they are called in the trade. |- 
.(Continued on page 285) 



March, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



261 



APPRECIATION 



By A. M. GR Ml AM 



TO appreciate is to awake. Appreciation is the awaken- 
ing of onr dormant senses. It is the attitude of 
response, the projection of ourselves into new ami 
future ranges of feelings and emotions, with a resultant 
expansion of our personality. 

Unless we can thrill to the Beauty of Nature, quicken 
to the throb of human life, its burdens and joys — unless we 
find answers to our needs in the sunlight and the storm — 
unless each new day is a gift and opens up new opportuni- 
ties, then we have not learned to interpret the real meaning 
of life, nor solved its riddles. 

I should have little hope of interesting you in my pres- 
ent analysis, did I not realize the vital issue of my subject, 
as associated with so many of your daily pleasures. I know 
it to be the root and essence of all 
excellence, to know the truth and his- 
tory of earthly things, so far as it is 
within our power, is good for all of 
us. It is good because of the larger 
horizon it gives us, because of the 
insight we grasp of the marvelous and 
fascinating depth of Nature. 

To have imagination and taste, to 
love the best, to be carried by the con- 
templation of Nature, to a strong 
fcaith in the ideal, is more than gold. 
A sunset is not to be described, but 
it must be felt and enjoyed. Obser- 
vation will not do — appreciation is 
, needed to awaken the intellectual life 
within us to the object of average 
worth about and near us every day. 

Go into the open. The sky is blue 
— that marvelous blue dome encir- 
cles us wholly. Buttercups sprinkled 
throughout the grass. The bright 
sun casts a thin yellow glow over all. 
Birds chant their heavenly songs. 
Clouds wondrously sail over our 
heads. Surely all is very beautiful. 
How many of us see it all and feel 
it? Go into the woods. Open your 
heart. The pines sigh and beckon to 
you. The lights are softened. There 
is an influx of joy and beauty. Theo J 
dosia Garrison has understood and 
felt and appreciated it, else she could 
never have written "The Green Inn." 

Nor could Van Dyke have com- 
posed the poem containing the lines : 

"These are the things 1 prize 

And hold of dearest worth : 

Light of the sapphire skies, 
" Peace of the silent hills, 

Shelter of forests, comfort of grass, 




Madonna and Child — Rubens 



Music of birds, murmur of little rills, 
Shadow of clouds that swiftly pass, 
And, a iter showers, 
The smell of flowers 
And of the good brown earth — 

\ i n 1 host of all, along the way, friendship and mirth." 
It is worth) of note that an appreciation of the beautiful 
has followed rather than accompanied the greatest inspi- 
rations, hut once having awakened that sense within us, we 
will never behold them again, without the deepest thrill. 
Our sense of beauty has been enhanced by the primary 
charm at the outset. Bright flowers, gaily plumaged birds, 
all colors and sounds attracted primitive man. Truly 
Beauty lies in the domain of perception, it is perceived in 

the ratio in which the mind is edu- 
cated and developed, spiritually, mor- 
ally and esthetically. The very mean- 
est of man is said to perceive some- 
what of Beauty and to be aware of 
color effects. The neglect of the esthe- 
tic — the failure to cultivate taste is a 
great fault. 

Things ugly awaken in most of us 
a sense of amusement, a mockery, and 
can only be touched upon as the op- 
posite of things of Beauty. But we 
must not fail to keep in mind, "that 
Beauty is in the eyes of the beholder." 
As Crousaz held, "Beauty is not 
known by us as an absolute, but that 
the word expresses the relation in 
which the objects we call beautiful 
stand to our intellect and to our feel- 
ings." The characteristics of Beauty 
are varied. 

There are Beauties so sublime, so 
striking that all minds recognize them 
as such — and again a higher order 
which requires more penetration to 
discern, more delicacy to feel. 

Albrecht Diirer says, "Men deliber- 
ate and hold numberless different 
opinions about Beauty, and they seek 
after.it in many different ways. I cer- 
tainly know not what the ultimate 
measure of true Beauty is . . . but we 
must find perfect form and Beauty in 
the sum of all." More important are 
his words, "Depart not from Nature, 
neither imagine of thyself to invent 
ought better — for art standeth firmly 
fixed in Nature and who so can thence 
rend her forth, he only possesseth 
her." This is true, for we find in Her 
a Beauty so far surpassing our under- 



262 



ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 1919 




Ville D'Avay Morning — Corot 

standing that not one of us can fully bring it into our works. 

The deep-thinking men of all ages have been touched by 
and expressed their views on this subject. 

Plotinus says, "Beauty is the word of reason of the Uni- 
verse dimly shadowed forth by symbols in matter." 

Bellard, the Italian essayist, writes (and you will find his 
opinion quite different from that of Albrecht Durer), "Na- 
ture is inferior to art. The higher artist does not paint man 
as he is, but as he ought to be. He advances are above Na- 
ture itself." 

Van Alphen of Holland (1746-1803) states, "We can 
call all that pleases our senses outward and inward, beau- 
tiful." 

Heine says (1799-1856), "Beauty has no quality in things 
themselves. It exists merely in the mind which contem- 
plates them, and each mind perceives a different Beauty." 

And further, a wise American has said, "I am doubtful 
of the possibility of determining the universal and real es- 
sence of Beauty." 

Another theory which lies very near the lowest rung of 
the ladder, and one which is held by many in our time is, 
that Beauty is that which pleases us. The discussion of 
Beauty leads necessarily to that of Art, Art being primarily 
the result of the perception and appreciation of the beau- 
tiful. 

Art is the original universal language of mankind. In 
the early life of the ordinary man or woman, a life crowded 
with diverse interests and perhaps increasing demands, a 
few moments of the time are accorded to an interest in Art. 

As a layman they remain frankly, and for some, happily 
on the outside, they feel none the less that art has an inter- 
est even for them. They enjoy beautiful things, books, 
plays, a beautiful building, attractive rooms, statues, pic- 
tures and generally have a full appreciation of music. But 
is this enjoyment awakened through the higher sense of 
appreciation? No. We are most of us so apt to use our 
books, our plays, our paintings, Nature herself, as a tem- 
porary escape, a momentary refuge from the cares of life. 
Not careful in our selection for the value of education and 
culture we ought to receive, but rather as material pos- 
sessions to be classed with fashionable clothes, a fine 
house, automobiles and steam yachts. Culture (unfor- 



tunately) to many people is a kind of ornamental furniture, 
maintained to impress visitors. Of course we do not be- 
lieve this, but we do know people who do. "While the true 
end of Culture and education is the building up of person- 
ality, the making of human power and its fruit is wisdom." 

Mastering the subject of Art and its objective points 
requires the work of a life time. But there is a place for the 
"outsider" in art. A strong meaning of art to the ordinary 
man, indicating methods of approach, and tracing the way 
to appreciation. For art is not remote from common life 
after all, as we shall see in rambling through its field. 

It is important that we point out that art is not merely 
a pleasant past time, but that it contributes to the highest 
and most earnest purposes of life. The possibilities of art 
lie withjn, the scope of any man, no matter what his calling, 
given the right conditions, and I would impress the fact upon 
you that the measure in which a work is art is established 
by the worth, intensity and scope of its maker's power to set 
forth his telling in sympathetic and harmonious forms, no 
matter what medium he employs to convey his ideas to us. 
The emotions represented in Primitive Art are narrow and 
crude. Its forms are poor and coarse, but its essentials, 
motives, means and aims are at one with the art at all times. 
There is no people without art. 

Its very development was accomplished under the law of 
natural selection, and if we study more closely we find three 
{Continued on page 276) 




Madonna and Child — Raphael 



March, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



263 




THE WENTWORThLGARDNEPv HOUSE 

Printed by Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 



THE policy adopted by the Metropolitan Museum of 
acquiring fine examples of American decorative and 
industrial arts of the colonial and early federal 
periods is strikingly exemplified in the purchase during the 
past year of the Wcntworth-Gardner house at Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire, well known to the public as one of Wallace 
Nutting's chain of colonial houses which has been open to 
• visitors for some years past. While the Museum is entirely 



• 



sympathy with the prejudice against the demolition of 
historic landmarks, the circumstances of this purchase can 
not but justify its consummation. Had the Museum not 
purchased the building, it would have passed into the hands 
of a private owner who planned to remove the building in 
toto and reestablish it as a dwelling. It is obviously prefer- 
able that it should be in the possession of a public institu- 
tion where all of the fine interior woodwork may be installed 
in its original arrangement, and where the skill of the 
eighteenth-century craftsmen may serve as a joy and inspi- 
ration for generations to come. 

In the third quarter of that century, Mark Hunking Went- 
worth (1709-1785), a man of wealth and one of the most 
prosperous merchants of New England, built in Portsmouth 
two houses, one for each of his grown sons. The first, lo- 
cated on the water front 
and finished about 1761 for 
the younger son Thomas 
(Harvard, 1758; M.A. 
1761), is the one which the 
Museum has just acquired. 
The "second was completed 
in 1767 in time to receive 
the elder son, John, upon 
his return from England 
bearing his commission as 
Royal Governor of the 
^Province of New Hamp- 
shire. In comparing the two 



HTHE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM 

OF ART has again placed the Ameri- 
can public in its debt by acquiring for us tke 
Wentworth-Gardner House at Portsmouth, 
I\J. H., since by so doing it not only pre- 
serves it for us but fosters and gives impetus 
to all American Arts and Artcrafts. 



houses, it would appear that upon the first had been lavished 
a care and an elaboration which, by making too great a de- 
mand upon either the time of the builders or the pocket- 
book of the owner, led to a very much simpler form of 
decorative treatment in the second house. 

Thomas Wentworth occupied the house for a period of 
only eight years until his death in 1768. The property then 
came into the possession of a Colonel Gardner locally promi- 
nent during the Revolution, and after his death in 1834, the 
house passed into the hands of a series of owners until its 
reclamation by Mr. Nutting. 

The rectangular plan of the house, similar in the two 
main floors, follows the usual two-chimney type and is di- 
vided symmetrically by the hallway running through from 
front to rear, whence open the doors of the four rooms on 
each floor. The house faces the water and in its original 
estate a large garden was laid out at the back. 

The wood exterior frankly meets the requirements of the 
simple plan. The symmetrical fenestration and the ample 
doorway, the simulated rustication of the front elevation, 
and the quoins are all characteristic in their handling and 
present no unusual features. The cornice with its block 
modillions is well proportioned in its size and members to 

the height and general scale 
of the building. 

It is, however, in the in- 
terior that the chief interest 
centers. The front door 
opens directly into the en- 
trance hall-way, which is 
marked off from the stair 
hall by an elliptical arch 
spanning its width and 
springing from a pier group 
of three fluted Doric pilas- 
ters. A wainscot thirty- 
eight inches high runs 



264 



ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 1919 



around this entrance hall as well as the stair hall, where 
it follows the easy rise of the stairs to the second floor. 
This dado with its low basehoard and rather heavy cap 
molding is divided into two series of nicely proportion- 
ed panels, a lower approximately two feet square, an 
upper of equal width but only five inches high. These 
panels, as indeed all of those in the house, are beveled, set 
within moldings, and composed of single pieces of pine. 
The great panel along the first flight of the stairs is of a 
single piece of wood. The architrave of the door frames 
takes the familiar form of the five-mitered corner with the 
applied rosette, and is carved on some of its moldings. The 
cap is formed by a denticulated cornice returning against 
the wall. The inside frame of the front door is similar in 
design without the overdoor cornice, but is broader to en- 
frame the five-light transom and the fifteen-paneled door- 
leaf. The ceiling cornice in the downstairs hall has dentil 
and egg and art moldings below the carved modillions and 
above are the usual cyma recta and fascia. This cornice 
is carried in all its members above the archway, thus mark- 
ing strongly the square entrance hall from the rear or stair- 
case hall. 

The stairway has many points of interest. The newel 
post is made up of turned base and a cap upon which rests 
the termination of the hand-rail, while the shaft between 
is formed of five pieces, a central spirally turned spindle and 
four carved ribs. The spindles of the rail are of three types, 
three to the tread, and take in succession the form of a thin 
Doric colonnette, a spirally turned column, and a graceful 
gourd-shaped baluster. The hand-rail is heavy and broad. 

The newels of the landing and the upper floor are alike, 
the four faces of each carrying out in simplified form the 
Doric theme of the archway piers below. The balustrade 
around the stair-well is of unusual height and adopts the 
somewhat intricate shape of the opening whose vertical faces 
are finished with beveled panels set in moldings which fol- 
low the curves of the corners. A particularly interesting 
detail is the paneled soffit of the second flight of the stairs — 
a large elliptical panel, beveled and surrounded by successive 
moldings which form subsidiary panels, filled at the corners 
by rosettes carved from the wood and applied. 

The stair landing has received much care in its treatment. 
The transition to the Ionic pilasters of the second-floor hall 
is made on this landing by the employment of pedestals be- 
low the bases of the pilasters. The round-arched window 
is set in splayed and paneled 1 jambs surmounted by a key- 
stone carved with a woman's head (legend says that of the 
queen of the period) and flanked by narrow strips of carv- 
ing set between the window frame and the pilasters. 

The upper hall is paneled from floor to ceiling. The wall 
is separated into corresponding bays on either side by fluted 
Ionic pilaster strips which carry the cornice and coved ceil- 
ing. The symmetrically placed doors to the rooms are 
flanked by pilasters and the space between the two doors 
on either side is divided into six panels. The remainder of 
the wall space is treated with panels conforming to the 
available space, and in the corners the Ionic pilasters are 
inhered against one another. 



Just what explanation accounts for so elaborate a treat- 
ment in this upper hall is a mystery, and it would seem as 
though certain domestic uses of this hall, as well as the front 
upstairs chambers, had disappeared in the interval between 
that day and this. 

In the eight rooms of the first and .second floors, the inter- 
est is concentrated upon the fireplace walls, which are pan- 
eled in wood from floor to ceiling. In all but two of these 
rooms the fireplace is flanked by Corinthian pilaster strips, 
supporting the cornice, and the remainder of the wall to 
right or left is occupied by simple paneling or doorways as 
the exigencies of the plan demand. 

The south parlor has on the fireplace wall the treat- 
ment of fluted Corinthian pilasters supporting a full entab- 
lature with convex frieze, the cornice members being car- 
ried completely around the room; the lower part of the 
pilaster fluting is filled with reeding. The fireplace opening 
is framed by an architrave molding and surmounted by a 
broad frieze with applied carving and a mantel shelf with 
a row of dentils below. The carved decoration consists of 
garlands of the flowers, fruit, and leaves of the pomegranate 
and two small vertical panels of more formal decoration but 
similar scale. It is suggested that this "mantel arrangement 
is a later addition, but the form of carving, obviously a 
simple craftsman's interpretation of an English prototype, 
is so similar to other carving in the house, and other carving 
in other houses of the period in Portsmouth, that it may 
well have been part of the original scheme. The fireplace 
and breast are flanked by a section of four panels on the 
left, and a narrow panel and door to the right. The roonuj 
immediately behind this one has the two Corinthian pilas- 
ters raised on pedestals, and above them a cornice without 
architrave and with simple, flat, broad frieze. The chimney 
front is paneled with one large panel above and a narrower 
one below, while the frame of the fire opening is an archi- 
trave molding. Doors flank the chimney breast and the 
whole treatment is less elaborate than in the front parlor. 
This room overlooking the garden was probably another 
parlor or living room, rather than dining room, as its recent 
furnishing would suggest. The corner cupboard here was 
not part of the original installation. 

The north room on the front of the house, connected 
with the kitchen by a narrow passage, would seem to have 
served as a dining room. Here the pilasters are again raised 
on pedestals, the cornice treatment is without architrave or 
elaborate frieze, the breast is treated with two unequally- 
sized panels, and the opening is framed with an architrave 
molding with five-mitered corners. Two doorways open 
into a closet and the passageway respectively. An addi- 
tional elegance is given to the room by the leaf and tongue 
decoration carved upon the principal molding of the frames 
of the fireplace and doorways. 

The kitchen is by no means the least interesting room 
in the house. The great fireplace, measuring six and a half 
feet across, is set in splayed recess and surmounted by a 
long shelf and a broad panel. The remainder of the walls 
is fitted with doors and necessary paneling. On the opposi^ 
(Continued on page 281) 



March, 1919 



A RTS and DECO R A TlO \ 



265 




GEORGE WASHINGTON— Portrait by Gilbert Stuart 

From the private collection of Mr. James Speyer, New York 



According to Mason's "Life of Stuart," there were three 
portraits of General Washington painted by Gilbert Stuart 
from life. One painted in 1795, of which this is a photo- 
graph, showing the right side of the face. Then the so-called 
"Lansdowne portrait," painted in 1796, and the picture in the 
Boston Athenaeum, both showing the left side of the face. It 
is from the last-mentioned picture that the many well-known 
copies of "Stuart's Washington" are made. 

Of the first picture, and its history prior to 1815, little is 
known generally. It is not known for whom it was painted, 
but there are five known replicas of it. According to an ar- 



ticle in "The Curio" for September, 1887, the original had 
been in the possession of a Mr. Michael Little, of Greenwich 
Street, New York, from whom, in 1815, Mr. Samuel Betts 
purchased it when he bought the house in which it was hang- 
ing, together with the other contents of the building. The 
picture remained in the Betts family until 1912, when Messrs. 
Knoedler & Co. secured it from Miss Emily H. Betts, of 
Jamaica, L. L, a daughter of Mr. Samuel Betts. Messrs. 
Knoedler, in 1913, sold the painting to the present owner, Mr. 
James Speyer, of New York, and it now hangs in his Library, 
at 1058 Fifth Avenue. 



266 



ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 1919 




The Garden of 

E. P. THOMAS, Esq. 

Plainfield, N. J. 
Photographed by John Wallace Gillies 



Simple and artistic tho small, this garden is in- 
formally formal, if one may so nominate it, since 
it possesses the best qualities of both types — full 
use having been made of Nature's provision in the 
way of trees. 










Here is perfect balance of plan and ornament 
without overcrowding. The tea-house beside the 
placid pool gives a sense of permanence felt in few 
gardens and fits well into the scheme. 



And there is poetry here! Do you not imagine 
that just around the corner lurk Jessica and her 
famous lover? Who shall say that it was not in 
such a garden they made the age-old speeches be- 
ginning, "On such a night as this!" That is what 
gardens should be and inspire — poetry — and this 
one does. 



March, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



267 



NOTES OF THE BOOK WORLD 



By CHARLES HENRY DORR 



ENGLISH literature proved the feature of the sale of 
the second portion of the Herschel V. Jones library, 
which took place late in January at the Anderson 
Galleries, when new records were established, and high 
values achieved by the gems in this notable collection. 

It was known that many of the rarities assembled by Mr. 
Jones, the Minneapolis publisher who made pilgrimages 
abroad in quest of literary prizes, would bring substantial 
figures in the auction mart, but no one could tell until the 
sale occurred just how high Milton's "Comus" would soar, 
or how much the same author's "Lycidas" would command. 
The first edition of John Milton's celebrated "Comus," 
known among collectors as the "dedication copy," orna- 
mented with the Bridgewater crest, achieved new flights in 
the final session of the second portion of the Jones library, 
when it brought the record price of $14,250 from George 
D. Smith after spirited bidding, which enlivened the sale. 

This famous old mask by Milton has a history and cre- 
ated something of a furore when it was sold about a year 
ago at the Anderson Galleries for $9,200. 

The work was formerly in the Bridgewater collection and 
was preserved intact from early in the seventeenth century 
until its purchase by Henry E. Huntington. At the Hunting- 
ton sale of duplicates it was secured by George D. Smith, 
1 who disposed of the old play to Herschel V. Jones. 

Now it has returned again to the possession of George 
D. Smith, who was obliged to pay a marked advance in 
price for this coveted trophy of early English literature. 

The "Comus" was dedicated to the Earl of Bridgewater, 
the young Lord Brackly, who took the part of the "Elder 
Brother," when it was first acted before his father on 
Michaelmas night, 1634. The title page of this rare work 
reads : 

"A Maske Presented at Ludlow Castle, 1634, on 
Michaelmas Night, before the Right Honorable John 
Earle of Bridgewater, Viscount Brackly, Lord Presi- 
dent of Wales, and one of his Majesties most honorable 
Privie Counsell. 

"London, Printed for Humphrey Robinson at the 
signe of the Three Pidgeons, in St. Paul's Churchyard, 
1637." 

The "Comus" was rebound about 1800, when the Bridge- 
water crest was impressed upon its sides. 

Another interesting Milton item was the rare first edition 
of the volume containing the author's "Lycidas," dated 
1638. This copy of "Lycidas" was also acquired by George 
D. Smith for $4,400, the second highest figure of the sale. 
The first part of this collection of verses by various writ- 
ers on the death of Edward King, who was drowned while 
crossing the Irish Sea in 1637, contains twenty-three poems 
in Latin and Greek; and the second part (which has a sep- 
j arate title) has thirteen English poems, the last of which is 
the prized "Lycidas," signed with the initials of Milton. 



There was some rivalry for the possession of the rare first 
edition of poems by John Milton in the original binding, with 
London imprint, 1645. This copy was secured by the Rosen- 
bach Company of Philadelphia for $1,050, who crossed 
lances with Mr. Smith in the bidding for a number of the 
gems of English literature. Several books of the hours 
written on vellum and illuminated with miniatures were in- 
cluded in the second division of the Jones collection of lit- 
erary treasures. 

A. remarkable Franco-Spanish manuscript of the fifteenth 
century, written about 1450 in Paris (?), brought $2,850 
from George D. Smith. The origin of Horae is compara- 
tively recent, it is stated, although still very obscure. None 
earlier than the beginning of the fourteenth century are 
known. According to some authorities the books of the 
hours were introduced by the Benedictines. 

Only one other copy of the gem, the Royal Book of Hours, 
by Verard, printer of the Court of France, during the reigns 
of Louis XII. and Francois I., 1503, is known. 

This book containing" one hundred and ten leaves in a fine 
state of preservation, with illuminated initials and mini- 
atures, was secured by Mr. Smith for $1,000. 

An illuminated manuscript of one hundred and seventy- 
two pages, with initials in red, blue and gold and- ornamented 
with miniatures in brilliant colorings, a specimen of the 
seventeenth century, brought $1,000 from James F. Drake. 
This work was executed by N. Jarry entirely on vellum, 
with each page ruled in gold. The arms of "Claremont" 
appear laid down on the inside cover. 

A copy of an early English play, "A New Interlude Called 
Thersytes," by Jasper Heywood, and said to be founded on 
Homer, a first edition (1550-1560), was acquired by the 
Rosenbach Company of Philadelphia for $3,300. This early 
play was acted at Oxford University and for years it was 
unknown to collectors. Only two other copies of this early 
dramatic work are known to exist. It is the scarcity of 
these early works, often invested with historic interest, which 
sends the prices upwards. 

For the poems of John Keats, a presentation copy of the 
rare first edition, London (1817), the Rosenbach Company 
paid $2,400. The volume was presented by Keats to Charles 
Wells, and one of the sonnets is inscribed : "To a friend who 
sent me some roses." On the title page is the inscription: 
"From J. K. to his young friend Wells." 

"The Imitation of Christ," by Thomas a Kempis, Augs- 
burg (1470), one of the most famous books in the world, 
was purchased by George D. Smith for $3,450. The copy 
from the first printer of Augsburg is in perfect condition. 

A work of great rarity, "The Historie of the Two Valiant 
Knights," by George Peele, the first edition with London 
imprint, 1599, was acquired by the Rosenbach Company for 
$1,420. This work is known as the Heber-Huth copy, with 
book-plate of the latter. Another George Peele item, "The 



268 



ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 1919 



Battell of Aleazar," a first edition printed in London, 1594, 
the Bridgewater copy with book-plate, brought $1,100 from 
W. M. Hill of Chicago. 

One of the gems of the second portion of the Jones library 
was the great Bruges Boccaccio manuscript on vellum and 
with illumination (Bruges, 1462), purchased by George 1). 
Smith for $4,000. The first page of this work contains a 
large miniature showing the translator presenting his book 
to a noble, possibly the Duke of Burgundy, for whom the 
manuscript was made. There is a landscape scene with por- 
trayals of Adam and Eve, and numerous and large initials 
appear throughout; the larger with the arms of Jehan de 
Croy, Seigneur de Chimay. It is said that about fourteen 
years later after the completion of this manuscript there was 
printed at Bruges the first printed edition of this book on 
type founded on the same script. The legend on the scroll 
of this script is "Souviengne vous." It is still one of the 
mottoes of the Croy family. 

"Fanshawe," a tale by Nathaniel Hawthorne and the rare 
first edition of the author's first book, brought $660 from 
F. W. Morris. This work was published in Boston, 1828. 
The two divisions of the Jones library dispersed have al- 
ready netted a total of more than a quarter of a million 
dollars, or to be exact, $255,708.35. 

The high prices realized for the gems of English liter- 
ature emphasizes the fact that these works are a profitable 
investment for the collector. 



THE J. C. YOUNG LIBRARY 

The inscribed books and original manuscripts in part two 
of the collection formed by the late James Carleton Young 
were dispersed early last month at the Anderson Galleries 
and yielded a total of $4,822.25. 

Interest centered in the original manuscripts of Paul Ver- 
laine and Eugene Field, which commanded good figures. 
Verlaine's famous work "Elegies," with the signature of 
the author, was acquired by James F. Drake for $265. 

The original manuscript of four poems in "Amour," by 
Verlaine, brought $260, and a collection of sonnets and 
ballads by the author realized $225. 

Eugene Field's original manuscript of "Felice and Petit 
Poulain," with the author's book-plate, was secured by Ga- 
briel Wells for $180. 



THE F. R. HALSEY LIBRARY 

The feature of the sale of the library formed by the late 
Frederic R. Halsey, which, took place at Anderson's late last 
month, was the famous first edition of Edgar Allan Poe's 
"Tammerlane, and Other Poems," with Boston imprint 
(1827), a rare souvenir of the author of "Annabel Lee." 

"Tamerlane" was acquired by Gabriel Wells for the 
high figure of $11,600, the top price of the Halsey sale, 



which included many rarities of literature by American and 
English authors. 

Jt is significant that a first edition of an American author 
brought the highest price at the dispersal of the Halsey 
library. Only four copies of this work are known to ex- 
perts: one in the British Museum, another in a Philadelphia 
library, one in the Huntington collection, and the Halsey 
copy, now in the possession of Gabriel Wells. 

One of the gems of the sale was the copy of VerardA 
"Romaunt de la Rose" on vellum, by De Lorris and Meung 
(1496), embellished with miniatures of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, which was acquired by James F. Drake for $4,500. An 
illuminated manuscript of this romance of a later period 
(1530) was sold at Sotheby's not long ago for more than 
$10,000. According to reports from abroad this manuscript 
was destined for America. 

A 'rare French manuscript, "Prieres de la Messe," of the 
late seventeenth century, by Rousselet of Rennes, with two 
full-page miniatures of Christ and initial letters in colors on 
burnished gold ground, brought $1,450 from George D. 
Smith. The scarce Theodor De Bry's "America" in French, 
with "Adam and Eve" plate (1590), was secured by the 
same buyer for $2,300. 

"The Vicar of Wakefield," by Oliver Goldsmith, a first 
edition and said to be the only known presentation copy of 
this work, Salisbury (1766), with inscription from the au- 
thor, was purchased by Gabriel Wells for $2,350. 

A collected set of first editions of "Mark Twain" yielded 
$2,100, and at this figure the Clemens items are doubtless a 
good investment, for they were secured by George D. Smith. 

At the closing session of the sale the Jean Grolier copy of 
"Arcadia," by Jacopo Sannazaro (1534) brought $3,350 
from the Rosenbach Company of Philadelphia. 

As an illustration in the advance in values it may be noted 
that this work was purchased by Quaritch in 1883 for $625. 
It is a fine copy with the four Aldine anchor devices. 

The Halsey library netted a grand total for the five ses- 
sions of $158,749.50, thus taking rank with the notable 
literary sales of the present season. 



GIFTS OF RARE MANUSCRIPTS 

Of interest to bibliophiles is the announcement of the 
gifts of two rare manuscripts by Henry A r ates Thompson 
of Trinity College, England, to the British Museum and the 
Fitzwilliam Museum. Mr. Thompson, who is widely known 
as a connoisseur, has presented to the British Museum the 
remarkable illuminated manuscript known as the Psalter of 
the St. Omer family, which ranks as one of the finest speci- 
mens of English art of the fourteenth century. 

The group to which the manuscript belongs is of great his- 
toric interest. The earliest of these works is the De Lyle 
Psalter bound with another fragment in the Arundel manu- 
script, which is in the British Museum. 

The other gift made by Mr. Thompson is the noted work 
of art known as the Metz Pontifical, produced for Raynaud 
de Bar, Bishop of Metz, and described by connoisseurs as the £ 
most famous French liturgical manuscript in the world. 



March, l'HQ 



ARTS and 1) ECO RAT [ON 



269 



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. /.\-/</i- frowt ///(■ furnishings, correct and beautiful as 
they arc. the architectural features of this bedroom claim 
first attention. Note the gracefully arched inset of the 
fireplace, the mantel itself, the mirror-paned door, the 
nice placement of the lighting fixtures as well as the 
pilasters which, framing fireplace and doors, break the 
wall faces, support the henry molding and give dignity 
to the whole room. 



TAYLOR & LEVI 
Architects 



miss sin FT 

Decorator 



In this glimpse of the 

breakfast room, it is diffi- 
cidt to decide whether one 
is most impressed by the 
cleverness thai has used 
square wooden parquetry 
in juxtaposition with a 
marble floor, the charming 
combination of wood and 
iron furniture, or the beau- 
tifully pointed zvall decora- 
tions. Whatever the deci- 
sion, they form an artistic 
and thoroughly satisfying 
scheme worthy of study 




The New York Home of 
MR. BERNARD POLLAK 



Simplicity in furnishing, there arc no decorations- 
other tJian the medallions, exact appreciation of light, 
natural and artificial, and utility form the chief con- 
siderations given this room, the office. As will be seen, 
it is in excellent taste and perfectly equipped for ex- 
pediting work, the table and chairs being good-looking, 
roomy and comfortable. 



270 



ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 1919 




The Garden of 

MR. SAMUEL UNTERMYER 

Yonkers, N. Y. 
Photographs by John Wallace Gillies 

Splendid columns — long vistas — formal plantings 
that border the edges of pools whose slow - moving 
waters are broken at intervals by low splashing foun- 
tains — reminiscent of the water gardens of Persia — 
are all found here in splendid completeness of detail. 
Yet Nature has not been robbed of a single contribu- 
tion and as a result she has paid a heavy interest to the 
beauty of the whole. 



As interesting in its way as the 
Temple of Love at Versailles, 
the Colonnade seen here across 
the long pool is as artistic a pic- 
ture as one could hope for. Sil- 
houetted against the greenery, 
the marbles take on an alabaster 
quality that gives the scene a 
kind of a dramatic point. 



Seen closer, the Colonnade, with its background of 
distant hills, is reminiscent of those fabled isles of 
Greece where goddesses reigned in voluptuous enjoy- 
ment of life. In some such temple Iphigenia found 
Orestes and lived forever happy. And tho the day of 
fables is past, happy are we that beauty is kept alive. 




March, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



271 



' EXHIBITIONS IN THE NEW YORK GALLERIES 



By PEYTON BOSWELL 



IMAGINE a National Academy exhibition rigorously 
culled to one-tenth of its proportions and brought down 
to its essentials, revealing only the finest and most rep- 
resentative in contemporary American art ! Fundamentally, 
that is what the Macbeth Gallery's annual exhibition of 
"Thirty Paintings by Thirty Artists" really is. The only 
variation is that the display always has an example by 
[nness and one or two by others of his generation. The 
"jury of selection" is composed of the three members of 
the firm — Messrs. Macbeth, Miller and Mclntyre — and then- 
judgment is based on years of experience in selecting pic- 
tures that will appeal to the collecting instinct of Americans. 

The place of honor in the present exhibition, which will 
last throughout March, is held by Inness' "Golden Sunset — 
Medfield," a rich and deeply glowing example of that transi- 
tion period when the great American's art was passing from 
the positive colors of the 70's, as shown in his Italian sub- 
jects, to the synthetic subtleties of the late 80's and early 
90's, as revealed in his Montclair pictures. It was painted 
in 1881, and this is the first time it has been exhibited after 
having remained continuously in the possession of its orig- 
inal owner. It is a pastoral scene, shown a farmer driv- 
ing his cows over a bridge, beyond which a small stream 
widens into a lake. Inness used his best talent in planning 
ft this picture's composition, and his most pleasing color-sense 
in imparting the deep and luminous glow of evening. 

There are two other pictures by great Americans of the 
past — "The Daughter of the Concierge," a cool harmony 
by Whistler, through which bursts the warm and abundant 
vitality of a comely young girl, and "Marine — Moonlight," 
one of A. P. Ryder's dreamy and spectral glimpses of a 
sailboat at sea. 

Three pictures are from the Corcoran Gallery's 1919 ex- 
hibition by the group known as "The Ten" : "The Red 
Kimono," by Joseph De Camp, a work with a fine sense of 
light, with a girl standing before a window; "Mother, 
Mercie and Mary," a genre subject by Edmund C. Tarbell, 
with a woman and two girls reading and sewing in a room, 
the lighting of which from a window is charmingly handled; 
and "Interior," a typical example by Thomas W. Dewing, 
with two young women before a fireplace. 

"Afternoon Light," beautiful in its blending greens and 
yellows and faint reds, is an important 1913 picture by J. 
Francis Murphy ; "The Open Fire," by Gari Melchers, has 
all the fine elements of a still life painted on a grandiose 
scale ; "Little Boy Blue," by Frank W. Benson, is a charm- 
ing conception showing a youngster toddling on a hillside 
in a field of wild flowers against a sky full of pinkish, fairy- 
land clouds; and "Still Life" is one of Emil Carlsen's most 
delicate and refined pieces of color. "The Quiet Light of 
Evening" is probably the most satisfying work by Charles 
H. Davis that has been shown. It reveals a hilly section, 
whose deep green verdure is illumined by the light reflected 



by diaphanous clouds that are kissed by the sunken sun — a 
most difficult subject and therefore a triumph. 

The other artists of the thirty are Louis Betts, Elliott 
Daingerfield, Louis P. Dessar, Charles Melville Dewey, 
Paul Dougherty, Ben Foster, F. C. Frieseke, Albert L. Groll, 
Guide Hassam, Charles W. Hawthorne, Robert Henri, Wil- 
lard L. Metcalf, Kenneth Hays Miller, Ivan G. Olinsky, 
Chauncey F. Ryder, Gardner Symons, D. W. Tryon, J. 
Alden Weir and F. Ballard Williams. 



A combined exhibition of sculpture by Malvina Hoffman 
and paintings by Arthur Crisp is being held at Mrs. H. P. 
Whitney's Studio, 8 West Eighth street. It makes one of 
the most interesting displays yet seen in the studio, where 
many goods things have been revealed in the last four art 
seasons. Mrs. Whitney's studio has taken a high place 
among New York's galleries, where the best of contem- 
porary art is to be seen. 

Fifteen examples of Miss Hoffman's art are shown. 
Much attention is attracted by the remarkable portrait of 
Boris Anisfeld, which wins for the sculptor the same place 
as a portraitist that she had previously attained through 
"Russian Dancers" as an interpreter of movement. "Shiv- 
ering Girl" is a most charming fountain figure, and "Mort 
Exquise," a symbolic subject with its kiss of youth speeding 
death, serves to confirm the sculptor's versatility. 

Some vulgar person recently remarked that the world was 
"going batty over batiks," and now Mr. Crisp has shown 
how high an achievement in art a batik may be. One wall 
of Mrs. Whitney's studio is occupied by "Hospitality," a 
colorful Persian garden scene which the artist has done for 
the Hotel Dupont at Wilmington, Del. Besides this painting 
on silk there are seven other pictures by Mr. Crisp, including 
"October Days," a rich autumnal theme, and "Night," an 
impressive work whose subject is a great spacious garden 
with strings of lanterns, the whole appearing before the eye 
in cool bluish and purplish tones. 



Closing the doors on a matter-of-fact world, the visitor 
to the exhibition of works of Odilon Redon at the Ehrich 
Galleries is confronted by a mysticism that carries him into 
a realm akin to that which sprang from the brain of Poe. 
The symbolic representations of the great Frenchman grip 
one with an unearthly spell. It is the originality of a mas- 
ter, conveying his visions with a directness and a sincerity 
that completely win the beholder. Somehow one is pos- 
sessed by the awe of eternity and the fatefulness of mortal 
things by these visions. Redon himself wrote : "I have said 
nothing of which there is not the grand presentiment in the 
engraving of 'Melancholia,' by Albrecht Diirer." One can- 
not help thinking, while gazing at Redon's work, of the pro- 
found spell which "Melancholia" casts over the beholder. 

This exhibition of etchings and lithographs is in a way a 



272 



ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 1919 




as a painter. Because he was an illustrator, much sought 
alter by publishers, lie was able to keep those ideals and paint 
as he pleased, without regard to what anybody wanted to 
>uy. At first his pictures were not popular. Exhibition 
after exhibition was held and not a picture was sold. But 
ie kept to his ideals, and the last three years has seen recog- 
nition for his work among collectors. During March four- 
teen of his paintings are on exhibition at the Kraushaar 
( ialleries. 

The two best pictures are the two latest, 
"Wayside Inn" and "Hill, Main Street," both 
of them glimpses of Gloucester, Mass., where 
the artist teaches his summer class. In its 
quaintness and its hue treatment of sunlight, 
"Wayside Inn" is especially notable. One can- 
not help thinking of the beaut v which ten years 
will add to it by softening its lines and blend- 
ing its "colors. An example of this mellowing 
process of time is seen in "Spring, Madison 
Square," which he painted thirteen years ago, 
also in the exhibition. "The Dust-Storm," also 
a Madison Square subject, dates back four years. 
"Moving Pictures, Five Cents" is an example of 
the painter's earlier predilection for sociological 
themes. 



Both figures Copyright by The Gorham Co. 

"The Thread of Life" and "Joy of the 
Waters" by Harriet Whitney Frishmulh, 
shown in the exhibition of the "National 
Association of Women Painters and 
Sculptors" won for her much admira- 
tion and praise from the critics. 



memorial to Redon in this country, for he died in 1916 at the 
age of seventy-six years. The works date from the early 
80's, when he did the series of lithographs dedicated to Poe, 
showing the influence of the poet on the artist, down to the 
early years of the present century, to a series of portraits, 
including two of his brother artists, Vuillard and Bonnard. 
Redon's mastery is reflected typically in "L'Aile," in 
which the mythological winged steed appears as the eternal 
symbol of art, arising solidly out of darkness into light. 
Vastly different in theme is "Le Jour," a technical achieve- 
ment, simply contrasting bright daylight glimpsed through 
a window from a dark room, but in such a way that the 
beholder is poignantly conscious of a sudden feeling of joy 
at the vision. Altogether one hundred works are in the 
exhibition. 

John Sloan is both illustrator and painter. He won fame 
and income as an illustrator, all the time cherishing his ideals 



Those persons wdio have been watching the 
development of the art of Jerome Myers in the 
last few years with the feeling that the painter 
would one day fulfill the promise vouchsafed by* 
his interesting and colorful glimpses of the 
streets of New York's alien quarters, were 
amply rewarded by the exhibition held at the 
Milch Galleries, which revealed a fullness and 
a finality of color never attained by him before. 
In the past Mr. Myers' canvases, no matter how 
much you admired them, carried a jarring note, 
not exactly strident, not exactly crude, but still 
leaving the beholder with the feeling that there 
was something unfinished, something missing. 
These new works present in many instances complete har- 
monies, and those art-lovers who had faith in Mr. Myers 
now feel justified. 

An example of this change is "Childhood Charm," an 
oval work which simply presents here and there over the 
canvas heads and shoulders of children, grouped as suited 
the painter's fancy. It has two major qualities : one is its 
spontaniety, the other is its refinement of color, which would 
do credit to a master of the most exquisite period of eigh- 
teenth century French painting. Its prevailing colors are 
pale reds', yellow greens and tonal browns. Even in the pic- 
tures which suggest his earlier work, for instance "The 
Madonna Bearers," a visualization of an Italian procession 
as seen on New York's East Side, and "Recreation Park," 
presenting a row of "kiddies" at the water's edge, Mr. Myers 
has attained a harmony of colors that sings, even though its 
notes be high. Much credit is due this artist for the faithfu^ 
pursuit of an ideal that has yielded such rich results. 



March. 1919 



ARTS and DECO RATIO N 



273 



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274 



ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 1919 



A novelty in art exhibitions is the display of vellum por- 
trait drawing's by J. S. Eland at the John Levy Galleries. 
This medium affords both crispness and beauty, to which is 
added Mr. Eland's power in portraiture and character in- 
terpretation in his masculine subjects, and his tenderness and 
expression when his sitters are women or children. 

"Miss Parsons" has vivacity and beautiful color. "Miss 
Leonie Bun-ill" is an example of distinguished composition. 
The artist is probably at his best in depicting men, as is evi- 
denced by the portraits of Cardinal Gibbons, Murray Young 
and Guy Bates Post, Jr. 



If one has a love for technical achievement in art some- 
times he can get as much pleasure out of a tiny little drawing 
or a print as he can out of a big picture. The Knoedler 
Galleries have afforded a treat to art-lovers by exhibiting a 
collection of seventy-nine lithographs by Whistler. 

A delectable half hour can be spent with them. For in- 
stance, where can one find more charm and surety of han- 
dling than in "A Little Draped Figure — Leaning"; where 
more daintiness and delicate pencil work than in "Model 
Draping" ; where a finer poem in line than "Nude Model 
Reclining," or where a more precious "artist's document" 
than "Study — Maud Seated," of which only ten trial proofs 
were before the artist erased the stone ? 

At the Knoedler Galleries also is being held an exhibition 
of works by the Boston colorist, Louis Kronberg, whose 
fame, like that of Degas, is founded on his portrayal of 
ballet girls. "Ballet Papillon" is brilliant. Among his other 
subjects "Repose," a nude, has beauty and fine color. 



The mysticism of Ryder married to the color of Renoir 
has brought forth an interesting progeny in the exhibition 
of eighteen canvases by Kenneth Hays Miller at the 
Montross Gallery. Ryder proved the more prepotent parent, 
and it is mysticism that is the distinguishing feature of the 
group, while the Renoir color, with its sharply tingling com- 
binations of greens and browns and carnations adds a flavor. 
The combination, of course, is disturbing — at first. Mr. 
Miller's pictures are like olives — they are not liked when 
first tasted, but are relished by and by. 

The Ryder-Renoir combination is seen in its completeness 
in the picture called "The Source." On a high plateau, 
rounded rocks, whose contours suggest living forms, arise 
from the greenish-brownish earth, while even the clouds, in 
complementary masses, help along the symbolism. The place 
of honor in the exhibition is given to "Meditation," present- 
ing an aged woman, seated nude by a forlorn pool, sur- 
rounded by a waste, with dead and blasted trees, and over 
all a bleak and cheerless sky, — not exactly a work for my 
lady's boudoir. Mr. Miller when he places a human figure 
in bis pictures usually takes so much liberty with it in order 
to get a desired effect that its abnormalities negative the 
artist's effort, but "The Bather" is an exception, for its 
beauty of line makes it a joy. 



portraits. The subject naturally brings to mind the nanus 
of Stuart, West and Sully, but these painters were in reality 
the fruition of the earliest school of American art. In the 
present display are works by such artists as Joseph Badger, 
who lived from 1708 to 1765; Jeremiah Theus, who died 
in 1774; John Woolaston, who flourished in 1750; Ralph 
Earl, Jeremiah Paul and Edward Savage, as well as four 
examples of Copley. These men worked in the very dawn 
of American art, and there is a sentimental interest in their 
pictures which helps to make this exhibition a rare treat. 

One is genuinely surprised at Jeremiah Paul's portrait of 
Mrs. Clarkson, an elderly woman whose gentle lineaments 
are traced with the minute faithfulness of Holbein. The 
artist attained a striking revelation of character, with a 
draughtsmanship so apt that it concealed his methods. An- 
other surprise is the softness of color and grace, not unlike 
that of Gainsborough, revealed by Savage in his portrait of 
Colonel William Perkins. Both these portraits are works 
of art, as well as precious art documents. Historical interest 
surrounds Copley's small portrait of Elizabeth Page Stark, 
wife of General John Stark, of Revolutionary fame, and 
daughter of Caleb Page, a captain in the French and In- 
dian War. 

William Jean Beauley is probably doing more than any 
other painter to restore the popularity of water colors. Ex- 
hibitions of his work, held each year in New York, reveal 
to the public, not the limitations, but the possibilities of this 
(Continued on page 285) 




The Ehrich Galleries have added another chapter to their 
educational work in their latest exhibition of early American 



We are indebted to Gutson Borglum for another magnificent head oL 
Lincoln. Different from his others and done in Grecian marble, *' 
this heroic work was executed to order for Col. S. P. Colt 



March, 1919 



A RTS and 1) RCORA TIO X 



275 



THE FAN 

{Continued from payc 254 ) 

beneficent powers, and for that reason many pilgrimages 
are made to them. Tourists will remember the Cathedral 
oi Mouza in Lombardy — in this edifice reposes one of these 
curious fans that is supposed to have a particularly gracious 
influence on marriages. So famous has it become in the 
region about Milan that the young people of the district 
never fail to do it reverence before entering on the conjugal 
-state. It is interesting to note that the form of the fan has 
changed but little throughout the ages. The ivory fan can 
be traced as far back as 1000 B.C., while the feather fan, 
its precursor, belongs to the age of table that precedes his- 
tory. The oldest form is the circular and after that the 
rectangular. Assyrian and Egyptian sculpture prove con- 
clusively that the flag and the crescent form were in use in 
that far away period. The flag form is especially note- 
worthy, as it was the inspiration of a decorative motif that 
has appeared in many countries all through the ages. 

It is towards China and Japan that one's thoughts turn 
instinctively at the mention of fans. The folding fan prob- 
ably originated in China, but at any rate it was quickly 
adopted in Japan. The Portuguese were the first to bring 
this novelty westward in the sixteenth century, where its 
introduction created a veritable sensation in court circles. 
Portugal lost no time in adopting the new form, and soon 
we see her fan-makers as well as those of Spain and Italy 
embellishing it with their exquisite art. In Italy indeed the 
art of fan-making and decoration reached its greatest height. 
The materials used for the leaves in the Italian variety were 
* (the most part of vellum and mica. 

The method called decoupe was originated in Italy, and 
was seldom if ever improved upon by even the greatest 
eventaillistes of France. 

"Gay France shall make the Fan her artists' care, 
And with the costly trinket arm the fair." 
It is to France that we must look for the fan in its 
most charming loveliness as interpreted by Chevalier, Josse. 
Hebert and Madame Verite. Fan-making in these days of 
Louis Ouinze developed into its special manner and reached 
the dignity of a distinctive art. Both men as well as women 
of this frivolous and gorgeous time cool themselves and 
punctuate their conversation with light taps of the fan. 

The fans of the Louis Seize period preserved the same 
daintiness and beauty of the preceding reign. Bcrgcrs and 
bcrgeres flit across them with all their lighthearted coquetry 
and grace. The golden age of the fan as a female ornament 
now passes and the luxurious toy of a Marie Antoinette or 
of a Princesse Lamballe is followed by I'eventail revolution- 
naire with its pictures of Pagan gods and goddesses and the 
almost inevitable inscription "Liberte on la Mort!" Under 
the Directoire and the Consulat the ladies of France carried 
fans of an astonishing lightness. The military fan of the 
Duchesse d'Abrantes and the Princesse Pauline follow the 
tiny imperceptibles of the Mcrvcillcuscs. 

In looking at the fans that are manufactured to-day the 
future does not seem to hold for it such a reign of sump- 
tiK^isness and power that it has enjoyed in the past. It rests 
with woman herself whether or not this graceful sceptre 
drift the way of other articles of abandoned coquetry. 




^Ae Wealth^ 
Su^estion at ' tJ\e 



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ANY a delightful room owes its in- 
spiration to sources seemingly incon- 
spicuous — its color-scheme to a bit of 

ancient pottery or an old and time-worn rug; 

while its keynote perhaps might well have been 

an unusual piece of Furniture. 

tfj] Here and there among the twelve New 
-" York Galleries are the very objects which 
give characterto a room. Even the Furniture 
on view here which convention demands for 
the Dining Room and Chamber transcends the 
commonplace — though available in wide variety 
and at moderate cost. 

tfT] A stroll through these interesting Galleries 
-" will revive memories of those historic ages 
when the cabinetmaker took rank with the 
painter, the sculptor and the architect. 



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276 



ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 1919 



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APPRECIATION 

{Continued from page 262) 4 

elements by the cooperation of which it originates — The 
Race, The Climate and The Period. 

To attain a scientific knowledge of the art of civilized 
people we must investigate the nature and conditions of the 
Art of the Savage by following in the course of civiliza- 
tion, we see especially in architecture that certain forms oi 
culture forbid certain forms of art and favor others, that 
through its assent, from the hut to the Cathedral, it co- 
ordinates with the development of life. 

Utility has been a guiding element in all arts. The arts 
of use and decoration have an important message. There 
is no object fashioned by the hand of man so humble that 
it may not embody a true thought, a sincere delight to our 
spirit. There is not a design so simple, so delicate or so 
crude that it is not the overflow of some human mind and 
heart adequately touched and brought into expression. 

The message of art is for all. Individually we may pre- 
fer Raphael to Rubens, Whistler in a greater measure than 
Sargent. We may read Stevenson with more pleasure than 
Kipling. Wagner may thrill us more deeply than Strauss. 
Each in his work of art has stirred us by his creation, 
awakened our appreciation through the enjoyment we have 
received by his message. 

Art is a challenge, a reinforcement. Its action is to make 
us more conscious, its effect is to help us to a larger and 
justifiable appreciation of Beauty, and worth of Nature and 
Life. "It is a means to an end. Its end is personality." 
"We live," says Wadsworth, "by admiration, hope and love." 

The man whose eyes see more in Nature, who has*Jv 
power to portray her phenomenal forms of shape and color, 
so that we thrill with the joy of his expression, is truly an 
artist, and his highest function is to mediate between man 
and Nature. And all high Arts to a certain extent reflect the 
artist's personality, and in his finished production we be- 
hold the embodiment in form, sound and color of his 
thoughts and feelings. 

To the way in which an artist uses his mediums for ex- 
pression and to his methods in the actual handling of same 
is applied the term we so often hear used, technique. The 
general conception of his picture, its design, choice of mo- 
tive, selection of detail, main scheme of composition, fall 
within the province of technique. 

In the results reached by the art of painting, its achieve- 
ments are accomplished through the mediums of oil or water 
color, pastel or glass, the original productions of the engrav- 
ers' tools on copper, steel, glass or wood. The freedom of 
the composition allowed by light and shade, form and color 
combined, can at once and the same time aid him in repre- 
senting and idealizing the subject with which he is dealing. 

The origin of painting like all other prehistoric arts is 
lost in the haze of antiquity.' The earliest paintings discov- 
ered are mural, done in tempera, figures, single or in groups, 
heads being the most difficult to reproduce, were dealt with 
in the easier sidewise position, the bodies usually front view 
or profile. The discovery of the laws of perspective and of 
light and shade by Apollodorus was undoubtedly the gj" ;at- 
est even recorded in the history of painting. 
(Continued on page 278) 



(arch, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



277 






177, 



©1919 



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278 



ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 1919 




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APPRECIATION 

(Continual from page 276) 



* 



To intellectually enjoy a painting yon recognize at once 
the subject, note what the artist has represented, and un- 
consciously become interested in the picture portrayed; you 
are impressed by his power of execution, moved by the actual 
beauty and pleased by the color scheme. In fact satisfied, 
and this is the average man's viewpoint, but to see beyond 
the bare picture, to live with the artist and in the atmosphere 
he has created you must throw yourself into the attitude 
of full appreciation or you cannot respond to the appeal of a 
painting. Take for instance a landscape, unless you your- 
self have felt something of the charm of landscape in Na- 
ture there are elements which the painter may render more 
intensely and vividly than we perceive them, but to enjov 
the painting we must be able to throw ourselves into the atti- 
tude of understanding, his sensitive decision of line, the 
might or delicacy of form, the splendor or subtlety of color 
which he has employed. The final meaning of a picture lies 
in the total harmony of color and form. 

Color is felt — the crimson of the rose — the blue of the 
sky and the yellow of the field have left dyed impressions 
on our very souls ; when we behold them we are thrilled, we 
cannot forget them. 

There are certain effects of color which give pleasure — 
on the other hand, effects which jar almost as vividly as a 
false note in music. The more delicately and less pro- 
nounced we combine the colors, the more pleasing the effect. 
The value of colors change by virtue of their different s| ; il 
ulation of the senses. We have our widest relations with 
actual environment or quickest warning of approaching im- 
pressions through our visual contact with color, and we 
become most easily aware of objects through this agency. 
A person especially sensitive to the appeal of color finds 
himself at once in the open, as it were. There is revealed 
to him an inner principle on which his imagination can play. 
Color and form perceived in the things about him dominate 
his being and find expression in his life and work. 

There is beauty of Form as well as that of Color. There 
can be no doubt in our minds that even prehistoric man 
showed an appreciation of form as portrayed by its use in 
ornament. From his earliest phase of art, from tracing 
rude figures in partial relief to the molding of vessels — all 
essential functions of ornament have emphasized this. 

Symmetry of line helps us also to distinguish objects. 
The charm of line undoubtedly consists in the relation of 
its parts, one to the other, or of their position rhythmically 
combined as a whole which enables us to fix their boundaries. 

In memory stand again in the Hall of the Academy of 
Florence. At the end of the long corridor towers a superl: 
form. It is the figure of a youth. David the shepherd boy. 
He stands, head erect, calm and confident awaiting the 
Philistine. He fronts the oncoming of the foe. At a glance 
you have read the story. To what Michael Angelo shows 
you, you add what you know. Recognition, memory, knowl- 
edge, facts and ideas mingle with your instant emotion, and 
you turn with a feeling of gratitude for this inborn «£ use 
of selection and discrimination, which affords us the spirit 
of appreciation. 



ARTS and D E CORATIO \ 



279 



mi 



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1 mmw 




THE NEW HOME OF 



THE ANDERSON GALLERIES 

PARK AVENUE &■ FIFTY^NINTH STREET 

NEW YORK 



PAINTINGS, PKINTS, BOOKS, MANUSCRIPTS, 

AUTOGRAPHS, OBJECTS OF ART 

BY WAY OF AUCTION 



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lHlllllllill 



1 



280 



ARTS and DECORATION 



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March, 1919 

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lid, 

ii 




MISS SWIFT 

11 EAST 5STH STREET 
NEW YORK 



Interior Decorations 

furniture, hangings, 
materials, wall and 
floor coverings 

ALSO 

UNIQUE DECORATIVE 
ARTICLES SUITABLE 

IFOR ALL INTEKI©KS 



ite| 



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3T 




DECORATOR 

A T the present time I am holding a particularly rich 
and complete exhibition of Painted Furniture, also 
stocks of Chinz and Net Curtains for country homes. 
I specialize in handling the entire problem of Interior 
Decorations for homes — or will cooperate with you in 
originat.ng decorative effects. 

MRS. GERR1T SMITH 

31 East 48th Street New York City, N. Y. 






m 



March, 1919 



ARTS and D E C O R A T I O N 



281 



THE WENTWORTH-GARDNER HOUSE 

k (Continued front page 264) 

wall is the great dresser, where the proud housewife dis- 
played her pewters and coppers — four long shelves above a 
counter fitted with drawers and cupboards. The simple 
cornice runs completely around the room and gives a most 
pleasing finish to the top of the dresser. In the back of the 
fireplace is the bread oven. A staircase from the room leads 
upward to the second and third floors. 

The most important room on the second floor is the cham- 
ber above the south parlor. Here the paneled wall is en- 
hanced by four Corinthian pilasters on low bases surmounted 
by the full entablature with architrave, cornice, and frieze. 
The fireplace opening and breast are trated with architrave 
moldings, with five-mitered corners and rosettes, the broad 
member of the molding applique with a square fret pattern 
of cut-out pine. The remainder of the wall is paneled sim- 
ply at the left and at the right fitted with the doorway lead- 
ing to the small lobby of the rear chamber. 

This latter room and the second-front chamber have a 
similar treatment with pilasters upon high bases, simple 
cornices, and paneled chimney-breasts. The kitchen cham- 
ber is verv simply paneled without pilasters and with a 
fireplace set in a splayed recess. This paneling, charming in 
its simplicity and innocence of striving for effect, gains by 
contrast with the more elaborate room. 

The whole house exemplifies in its plan and decorative 
treatment the restraint which was one of the fundamental 
characteristics of colonial New England building. What- 
wvt ■ the decoration may lack in imagination is gained in 
the consistency of scale and motif. At first glance the 
scale appears somewhat coarse and appropriate to a larger 
building, but its success lies in the robust and masculine 
quality which distinguishes it without any suggestion of the 
feminine attenuation which at a later period becomes the 
predominant feature of the better colonial building. 

The carving in the house would seem to be the work 
either of a marine carver or a local craftsman who was 
familiar with the work of the marine carvers. The Corin- 
thian capitals, though different in size, are similar in all the 
rooms and show little delicate detail; the garlands on the 
parlor mantel, the keystones on the arch in the hall, the 
rosettes, the stair carvings, and the pendent decorations at 
either side of the window on the landing are applied and 
show an elementary craftsmanship where, starting with a 
flat board, the effect is obtained bv the use of the jig-saw 
and a few carving tools. 

There is an amplitude in the architecture consistent with 
the life of its owner, whose ships from abroad came into 
his own docks at the water front nearby and whose ante- 
cedents and education made him proud of his English 
ancestry as well as his colonial forebears, a double pride 
which is reflected in the choice of English precedent for his 
architecture and the selection for his work of a local archi- 
tect-builder whose popularity is conclusively witnessed in 
other fine houses of the time and place, a suggestion which 
is not without its significance in this present day of the 
glo'nfication of important craftsmanship. 

c. o. c. 




MRS. MUCHMORE 

One Thirty Nine East Nine- 
teenth Street, New York City 

CONSULTING DECORATOR 

Old Chinese Paintings, Silks and 
Porcelain, Furniture, Hangings, 
Wall and Floor Coverings 



The COLONY SHOPS 



GINSBURG &• LEVY 



A N T I Q U E S 




Illustrating a Sec- 
tion of our Eight- 
een! h Century 
Showroom. 



Jn this arrange- 
ment is shown an 
Adam Mantel in 
C a r v e el Marble. 
I'. ighteenth 
liny Portrait. 
French School — 
i Derby Por- 
celains — P air of 
Carved wood 
Sconces by Hep- 
pelwhite — Pair of 
Waterford Candle- 
sticks on Wedge- 
wood bases. 



(~)N the first floor you will find early English and 
Italian pieces, on other floors French eighteenth 
century and Georgian antiques, as well as a repre- 
sentative collection of early American pieces 



397 MADISON AVENUE 



NEW YORK 



282 



ARTS and I) ECO RAT ION 



March, D19 



MAGGS BROTHERS 

,'34 & 35 Conduit Street; New Bond Street 
LONDON ENGLAND 



CAKltY ONE OF THE LARGEST AND 
CHOICEST STOCKS IN ENCI.ANU OF 



FINE AND RARE 

BOOKS, PRINTS 

AND 

AUTOGRAPH S 

Illustrated Catalogues in each department 
regularly issued 

These Catalogues appeal especially to the 
Connoisseur, Collector and Antiquarian 



Customers "desiderata" searched 
for and reported free of charge 



Shipments to America every week 

ITEMS OF RARITY AND INTEREST ALWAYS 
GLADLY PURCHASED 

Established over fifty years 



m 



ran 




Countess of 
Rothes. Mary, 
daughter of Gres- 
ham Lloyd, Esq. ; 
married 1703, 
when she became 
the second wife of 
John, 9th Earl of 
Rothes, who was 
representative peer 
of S c o t 1 a n d in 
1723 and made 
Knight of the 
Thistle 1753. In 
1770 she married 
Bennett Langton 
who was one of 
the original mem- 
bers of the Liter- 
ary Club and a 
friend of Dr. John- 
son and Sir 
Joshua. She sat 
twice to Reynold-, 
first in 1704 and 
again in 1760. She 
died 1785. 




"COUNTESS OF ROTHES" 

By Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792) 

Size of Canvas 30" x 2554" 



1 ME "Old Masters" sold from our col- 
lection are always exchangeable at full pur- 
chase price. 



BhTEhrich (Balleries 

Dealers in "Old Masters" Exclusively 
707 FIFTH AVENUE at 55th Street NEW YORK 








March, 1919 



1 



A R TS and n ECOR A TIO N 



283 



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Sixteenth-Century Umbrian Walnut Table 

Rectangular plain top with apron carved in design of flutings and astragals. Legs are carved with 

acanthus leaves and end in lions' paw feet. 



m$W U tc\fR G 



Q)ecor&tionc 
furniture 



j 




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J{<xngings 
^Antiques 

lOl Park Ave- at 40 * St- . -"Newyork 

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Sfc 











HEIRLOOM (ABINETWOOI ? 



"Good OAK FURNITURE is more nearly 'boy-proof than any othei 
equally fine cabinet wood." 

Its elegance, dignity and artistic adaptability are backed by its sturdy 
resistance to dents and scratches. (Really a quite important point. Don't you think so ? ) 
"There is no finer heirloom than good OAK furniture." There is no more safe and 
enduring investment — none better worth insisting upon. (This is a fact, isn't it?) 



American Oak Mfrs. Assn. 

know about Oak. Ask them any sort 
of question. Address Room 1403. 
14 Main St., Memphis, Tenn. 




/ — ~ 




American Oak Mfrs. Assn. 

know about Oak. Ask them any sort 
of question. Address Room 1403. 

14 Main St., Memphis, Tenn. 



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284 



ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 19H|| 



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Exposition of 
Period Furniture 






The Feffercorn Galleries are now showing one of the most complete 
collection of Period Furniture ever offered in this city. 

Beautiful Italian Renaissance Pieces and especially expressive of their 
period Tapestries, Needlework and Decorative Accessories; also fine 
Architectural Cabinet Work all on view. 



Mr. Feffercorn will be pleased to 
make appointments for consulta- 
tion with out-of-town clients. 



/26an£)/26Y^STZ<5th Street 

NEWWRK CUTTY 



SWUM 



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iimiiiimimmiiiiiiiimiiimiiiiimii miiimmiiiimimiiiinimiiiimiinmimmim 



iiiiimiimiiiiii 

Hill. 



March, 1919 

THE ROMANTIC STORY OF 
WALL-PAPER 



ARTS and DECORATION 



285 






(Continued from page 260) 



These rollers are made of maple, 
and the design is hand-cut upon the 
surface. The printing surfaces are 
then built up with felt and brass to 
give the necessary shading of color. 
In some of the more expensive wall- 
papers, as many as forty rollers have 
been used in making up a single pat- 
tern. And in the printing of wall- 
paper much more care must be exer- 
cised than in ordinary four-color- 
process printing, since the distribu- 
tion of ink and pressure must be un- 
varying throughout "the run." If 
the ink distribution should not be 
perfect then different lengths of 
wall-paper would be of different 
shades, and a room when papered 
would produce a terrifying spectacle. 
It is easy to imagine with what 
anxiety "a run" of expensive wall- 
paper is watched while it is being 
completed. 

As one views an artistically paper- 
ed room noting design and color, it 
is good to hark back through the 
Ages to the original Chinese de- 
signer who laid the foundation for 
one of the world's greatest industries 
and be thankful for the Romance 
that has blended the spirit of the 
Orient with the strength of our own 
northern woods for our enjoyment 
and satisfaction. 



EXHIBITIONS IN THE NEW 
* YORK GALLERIES 

(Continued from page 274) 

medium both in its decorative and 
its illustrative aspects. The exhibi- 
tion this year is held at the Rein- 
hardt Galleries. 

New York is the theme of the ma- 
f jority of these water colors, with a 
few landscapes and seashore sub- 
jects thrown in to show that the 
artist's versatility is not confined to 
the city. "The Little Shop" is a 
color arrangement showing that 
there is beauty outside an art gallery 
looking in, as well as merely inside. 
"Old New York" with its "brown- 
stone front" has quaintness. "Roofs 
and Chimneys" is a solid piece of 
workmanship demonstrating that all 
of the city's "atmosphere" is not 
figurative. "Spuyten Duyvil" is a 
charming example of color, with 
deep blue of foreground verging in- 
to gray sky, relieved by red-roofed 
houses on the way. "Moonlight" 
has the joy of deep, pure color. 



ANTIQUES °' t " *•"»» 



Bedstead, 
Sheraton 

Chairs, Old Oak Chests and other pieces. 
Trade Supplied. All genuine goods. H. 
HOPKIN, 19, 20, 83 Westgate, Grant- 
ham, Lines, England. 

ANTIQUE Welsh Oak Dresser, £18 10s.; Chip- 
pendale Mahogany Bureau Bookcase, £35; Old 
Chipciendale Settee, £12 15s. ; Antique Chest, 
carv.P Gothic front, £14; Fine Antique Jacobean 
Chest of Drawers, £25. Old Chippendale, Shera- 
ton, and Queen Anne Furniture for sale. Mrs. F. 
A. Tighe, 31 Sidney Road. Brixton, London S.W., 
Eng. 



YALE SCHOOL OF THE FINE ARTS 

YALE UNIVERSITY. NEW HAVEN. CONN. SERGEANT KENDALL. Director 

Departments of Drawing and Painting, Sculpture and Architecture 

GLASSES IN COMPOSITION. ANATOMY AND PERSPECTIVE 











FACULTY — Painting — Sergeant 
Kendall. Drawing — Edwin C. Tay- 
lor, G. H. Langzettel, T. Diedrick- 
sen, Jr. Sculpture — Robert G. 
Eberhard. Architecture — Everett 
V. Mecks, Franklin J. Walls, A. 
ECingsley Porter. Composition, 
Perspective — Edwin C. Taylor. 
Anatomy — Raynham Townshend, 
M.D. 

DEGREE— The degree of Bache- 
lor of line Arts (B.F.A.) is 
awarded for advanced work of 
distinction. 

The Winchester Fellowship for 
one year's study of art in Europe, 
the English Scholarship for study 
of art and travel in Europe during 
the summer vacation, and School 
Scholarships are awarded annually. 




Painted from life by member 

of the life-painting class, Yale 

School of Fine Arts 









Illustrated Catalogue: Address G. H. LANGZETTEL, Secretary 



Bronze MemorialTablets 

Designs. Estimates, Illustrated Booklet.Fp.ee 

Jno. Williams. Inc. Bronze Foundry (Est.1875) 
555 West 27 ^Street.New York City 





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jQctwa sen 

fc^CRATOl 

LB 5TATI itCCBLDITID gjg 




InigALUTONw BER K.E,LELir cal i for nia j 



v\'jjk**i m i« mA»Mui 



James F. Drake 



Incorporated 



| BOOKS of RARITY I 

Earl}) EnglisK Literature 
First Editions 
Sporting Books 
Colored Plate Books 
Association Books 

AutograpKs and 
Manuscripts 



Catalogues upon request 

1 Four West Fortieth Street New York 

Jllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 



S MAGAZINE 

- Publishes cash. 
■Jfi**^ J^ ■Lrr— 1 ^ — -"i^HJ art assignments, 
lessons and articles on Car- 
tooning, Designing, Illustrating, 
Lettering, and Chalk- Talking. Crit- 
icises amateurs' work. Full of in- 
teresting and helpful information 
• artists and art studentB. Satisfactory or 
money refunded. 10 cents a copy, $1 a year. 
Send $1 NOW, stamps or bill. 
STUDENTS ART MAGAZINE.Depi 482^ Kalamazoo. Mich. 




W 



□ 




Distributors for U. S. A. 
FAVOR, RUHL & CO. 

NEW YORK CHICAGO 









Washington University 

ST. LOUIS SCHOOL 
of FINE ARTS 

Fully equipped to give 
instruction in Drawing, 
Ceramic-Decoration, Pot- 
tery, Painting, Applied 
Arts, Composition, Mod- 
eling, Bookbinding, Crafts 
Illustration. Interior dec- 
oration. 

For full information and 

free illustrated handbook 

apply to 

E. H. WUERPEL, Director 












i 








45th year. Next term opens 
Sk'mktr Road and Lindell Boulev 


September 23, 1918. 
ard, St. Louis. Mo 





286 



®£&srs l i ^^^^^^L?r^cs^3^^S^JQ -m 



ANPI&NT 




ARTS and DECORATION 



?$> Co 







MODERN 










SHAHRISTAN RUGS 

WOV£N TO SP£(MAL ORDfcR. 
ON 









OUR OWN LOOMS 
-N TH6 ORIGNT 

12 &ST 40TH STR£&T 

XT i A 7 



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3uJSC 

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March, 1919 



ARTS and DECOR A T I O N 



287 



EST. 



1852. 



Oriental Rugs 

UNUSUAL SIZES AND COLORINGS 
EXTREMELY LARGE CARPETS 

JcxsephWildCCo. 

Fifth Ave. at 35th St. • Newark 



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RUGS 




FINE PUNTIQUE R MODERIN 
ORIENTALS • VRST ASSORT- 
MENT • MODERATE PRICES 

SPECIAL DESIGNS S. PLPvirS 
COLORS IN WESTERN RUGS 
OF HIGH QURLITY 

KeNT-CoSTIKYRN 

_ TRADING CO. INC. 

485 FIFTH AVENUE- NEW YORK 

OPPOSITE PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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znizure 



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MADISON AVE., JVST SOVTH3/*\34 T -* 



*- 



JOSEPH P. MCHUGH 

AND SONja^sSUrM^a 

Q "West 42nd Street -New York 
Designers andjAakers of 

Quaint Jurniiure 

Dmporlers of exclusive 

WallPapers SFabrics 



LaPLACE 



ANTIQUE 
SHOP 



Objects of Art, Curios, Rare Old Crystals and 

Sheffield Plate, Period Furniture and Replicas 

242 Fifth Ave. 11 East 48th St. 



near. W. 28th St., N.Y. 

DANIEL ADAMS, 

Mgr. 



near Fifth Ave. 

R. H. KINGSBUKY 

Mgr. 



JAPAN ART STUDIO 



Oriental 
Decorators 

Fine Lacquer 

Work 

Repair of Art 

Objects 



J$fr, 



Valuable Furniture. 

Screen. Porcelain. 

Pottery, Plaster, 

Ivory. Wood, Stone 

Metal, Cloisonne. 

Tapestry. Brocade. 

Etc. 



562 Lexington Ave., Near 50th St. 

Phone. Plaza 4538 NEW YORK CITY 



* 


iA^ASTBttl)5rl£5 




H'l Mil 1 Hi! 

BfU'TBt yi.ir 


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DISTRIBUTING JOBBERS: 

F WEBER ft CO Philadflpbl.. Pm A H ABBOTT ft CO .. Chicaf r, n 1 




JAP-ART BRUSH CO., 154 Numu Street, New York 





CALENDAK of 
EXHIBITIONS 

Arden Studios, 599 Fifth Avenue 
Painting's by John G. Johansen, 

to March 17. 

Ardsley Studios, 110 Columbia 
Heights — Works of art by Fan- 
tin-Latour and Albert ( ilei/es, 
Japanese prints, to March 31. 

Babcock Galleries, 1') East 49th Streel 
— Paintings by Expressionists, to 
March 14. 

Bourgeois Galleries, 668 Fifth A\enuc 
-Paintings and drawings by Jen- 
nings Tofel, to March 10. 

Braus Galleries, 2123 Broadway 
I iarden paintings by Miss Anna 
Winegar, to March 11. 

Cosmopolitan Club, 133 East 40th 
Street — Paintings by Maurice 
Fromkes, to March 15. 

Daniel Galleries, 2 West 47th Street- 
Paintings by Ernest Lawson, to 
March IS. 

Ehrich Galleries, 707 Fifth Avenue — 
Lithographs and etchings by 
Odilon Redon, to March 12. 
Early American portraits, to 
March 6. 

Ferargil Galleries, 24 East 49th Street 
—Paintings by Charles Rosen, 
to March 31. 

Folsom Galleries, 560 Fifth Avenue — 
Paintings by Daniel Garber, 
March 10 to 31. 

Kingore Galleries, 24 East 46th Street 
— Paintings and sculpture by a 
group of artists, to March 15. 

Knoedler Galleries, 556 Fifth Avenue 
— Portraits by Albert Sterner, 
paintings by Louis Kronberg and 
Whistler etchings. 

Levy, John, 14 East 46th Street- 
Portrait drawings on vellum by 
John S. Eland, to March 15. 

Macbeth Galleries, 450 Fifth Avenue 
— Thirty paintings by thirty 
American artists. 

Milch Galleries, 108 West 57th Street 
— Paintings of the sea by William 
Ritschel, to March 15. 

Montross Galleries, 550 Fifth Avenue 
— Paintings by Horatio Walker, 
March 11 to 29. 

National Arts Club, 19 East 19th 
Street — Exhibition of war hous- 
ing, to March 31. 

Ralston Galleries, 567 Fifth Avenue 
— Paintings by Frank De Haven, 
March 3 to 15. 

Reinhardt Galleries, 565 Fifth Avenue 
— Water colors by Wm. Jean 
Beauley, to March' 8. 

Satinover Galleries, 27 West 56th 
Street — Paintings by old masters 
and Art Objects. 

Whitney Studios, 8 West 8th Street- 
Sculpture by Malvina Hoffman, 
and paintings by Arthur Crisp, 
to March 15. 




IRVING fc-CASSON; 
A-H-DAVEN PORT £8 

DESIGNEES AND MAKERS OF 

FINE FURNITURE AND INTERIOR FIN L3H 

DECORATIONS- UPHOLSTERY 

WALL HANGINGJ 



BOSTON 
573-07D DOYLSTON ST- 
OOP LEY SCJJAKJ* ' 



NEW YOR.K. 

GOI riTTH AVCNUE. 



F. N. DOWL1NG 

Furniture and Decoration 

57th Street at Madison Avenue 
NEW YORK 

EXCLUSIVE PERIOD FURNITURE 

IMPORTED MARBLE and WOOD MANTELS 

ELECTRIC FIXTURES 

SILKS — LINENS — TAPESTRIES 



HIGGINS' 



DRAWING INKS 
ETERNAL WRITING INK 
ENGROSSING INK 
TAURINE MUCILAGE 
PHOTO-MOUNTER PASTE 
DRAWING-BOARD PASTE 
LIQUID PASTE 
OFFICE PASTE 
VEGETABLE GLUE, ETC. 

ARE THE FINEST AND BEST INKS 
AND ADHESIVES 

Emancipate yourself from the 
use of corrosive and iil- 
smelling inks and adKetives 
and adopt the Hifgiu Inks 
and Adhesive*. They will be a 
revelation to you, they are so 
aweet, clean and well put up. 

At Dealers Generally 




Chas. M. Higgin»&Co. , Mfrs 
271 Ninth Street, Brooklyn. N. Y. 

Branches: Chicago, London 









1 HEARTH - FIRE " EQUIPMENT 








ror the practical and 
suitable 






1 


FURNISHING 

of the 
FIREPLACE 

Appropriate for Gifts 








Catalog free on request 






Your Architect Should 


Colonial Fireplace Company 


"Everything for the Fireplace" 


4620 W. 12th Street CHICAGO 



ANCIENT and MODERN 

RUGS 

(o^tikVan $ (o> 

Shahristan Rugs Woven to special 
order on our looms in the Orient 

1 2 East 40th Street - New York 



The Tobey Furniture Co. 

Interior Decorations 

Our aim is to assist the client, developing 
his individual ideas in harmonious form. 

Tobey- Made Furniture 

— the original designs of our studios, 
executed by hand in our own shops. 

NEW YORK : Fifth Avenue at Fifty-third Street 
CHICAGO : Wabar.h Avenue and Washington Street 



288 



ARTS and DECORATION 



March, 1919 



CftS 




mmwmtimm 



DEVOE 

Artists' Oil Colors in Tubes 



Are prepared from carefully 
selected pigments — thoroughly in- 
corporated with the purest oil — 
single and double size tubes. Used 
and endorsed by leading artists. 



At the request of a number 
of prominent artists we are 
now putting up a line of 
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ARTS and DECORATION 



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A RTS and DECORATION 



April, 1919 



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ARTS & DECORATION 



VOLUME X 



APRIL, 1919 



NUMBER 6 



CONTENTS 

INTERIOR OF BURGOS CATHEDRAL, SPAIN Frontispiece 

From the Original Drawing by John Vincent 

AMERICA'S ART FUTURE REMAINS WITH OURSELVES 297 

INSPIRATION OF THE CRUCIFIXION By A. M. Graham 299 

GLIMPSES OF BEAUTIFUL GARDENS FROM FAR AND NEAR 302 

DECORATIVE TREASURES FROM ENGLAND, FRANCE AND ITALY 304 

AMERICA'S HEROIC VISITOR— LIEUT. JEAN JULIEN LEMORDANT 305 

EXHIBITIONS IN THE NEW YORK GALLERIES 307 

FREDERICK THEODORE WEBER— PAINTER, SCULPTOR AND ETCHER 308 

ETHEL FRANCES MUNDY— HER WORK 309 

KING MINOS TO MATISSE— GREETING! By George M. Richards 311 

THE HOME OF GEORGE MARSHALL ALLEN, ESQ 314 

SAINT-PORCHAIRE POTTERY IN AMERICA By G. H. McCall 316 

BEAUVAIS-BOUCHER TAPESTRIES— Continued from March, 1919. .By George Leland Hunter 319 

THE HOME OF ARTHUR WHITNEY, ESQ 322 

THE HOME OF ALFRED C. BOSSOM, ESQ 323 

ART AS THE PERSIANS SAW IT By Dorothy Dent 324 



Published Monthly by HEWITT PUBLISHING CORPORATION 

470 FOURTH AVENUE, NEW YORK 

London: 407 Bank Chambers, Chancery Lane 
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York City, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Copyright 1919 by Hewitt Pub. Corp. Registered U. S. Patent Office. 



April, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



295 




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April, 1919 



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Burgos Cathedral, Spain 

Original Drawing by John Vincent 

m 




A R^T 5 J. 
DECOKAlTIOTsl 



Formerly— ART WORLD and ARTSlSr DECORATION 



aui....! 



Volume X 



APRIL, 1919 



Number 6 



,iiiiiii!iiiiiiiiiiiiifliiilijiiiiii 



America s Art Future Depends on Ourselves 

An Appreciation of To-day 



T 



HOUGH I've grown up with three warming pans 
whose ages pass the century mark, I had never seen 
one at work until last winter in France. 'Twas after 
a thumping hard day's 
march and the pan had 
done its task so well that 
as I lay in comfort, 
laughing silently over the 
strangeness of it all, I 
suddenly came to the real- 
ization that we Americans 
'0 do not half appreciate the 
tilings we possess either 
for their own value or the 
pleasure and comfort they 
might give us. 

Many times during the 
year this thought has re- 
turned with ever growing 
conviction. Nor we do not 
sufficiently recognize the 
true worth of our own arts 
and artcrafts. Somehow it 
has come almost to be the 
rule to speak flippantly of 
any effort on the part of 
American artists or crafts- 
men. The same thing ap- 
plies to our musicians and 
our writers. To this day 
Longfellow is given second 
place, almost never read 
by his own people. Poe's 
work is shivered over as 
the product of a drug fiend 
while the exquisite lyrics 
of Sidney Lanier are ut- 
terly unknown to the rank 

and file — yet in England all three are not only appreciated 
Hit widely known and enjoyed. 

Unfortunately the list does not end with those who have 




passed. However conscientious and hard-working the 
artist, musician, singer or craftsman anywhere, he has a 
long, hard and thankless road to travel to success, for to 

put it boldly and inversely, 
success means fame with 
money, for the artist must 
eat and money means the 
capitalization of apprecia- 
tion by the public. 

Whence comes this lack 
of appreciation of Amer- 
ican Arts and Crafts? One 
would be tempted to say 
flatly from ignorance if 
one did not continually 
hear cultured, traveled per- 
sons bewail the lack of this 
or that delightful thing in 
America. 

One hears that the very 
last word has been said 
throughout the world on 
architecture. That in 
America there is only a 
slavish copying of old de- 
signs. Yet foreign archi- 
tects of reputation come to 
visit us especially to study 
what they call the Amer- 
ican styles of architecture 
and grow enthusiastic over 
what they affirm is a 
triumph — the method of 
treating sky - scraping 
buildings in such a manner 
as to cut off their height. 
This is done by including 
some half dozen of the 
lower floors in the base decorations and a number, depend- 
ing on its height, within the roof architecture. This gives 
strength, breaks the long lines of windows and is beautify- 



The Bush Terminal Building, New York, from 40th Street. 



298 



A R TS and DECORATION 



April, 1919 




Photograph loaned by 

American Artistry is Entirely Responsible for this Magnificent 

ing beside. It is purely American. Foreigners hail it as 
such and like it. 

Compare the Woolworth Tower or the Bush Terminal 
Building illustrated here, with the best examples of Gothic 
extant. Structurally there is nothing comparable. They 
differ more from all the old forms than do any two of 
them with each other. Yet Gothic they are and of high 
order and very beautiful. They are in fact the first indi- 
cations of what some day will take its rightful place in 
architecture as American Gothic. 

And that is but one kind. There is that fascinating 
adaptation of the adobe house, the California bungalow. 
I make no brief for architecture further than to mention 
it as a reason for a sympathetic appreciation of American 
art by Americans. These cases are clear. 

Some years ago at the crest of the futurist and cubist 
wave in painting — a sad wail was heard everywhere that 
so far as the United States was concerned everything had 
been said in painting. This was said in the face of the 
long list of our worthy artists who have found world 
fame ! Many wise people affirm that at best there remains 
but to express art feeling in a decorative manner. I do 
not know if this is true or not but I am sure that if a story 
is good it can be told in many entertaining ways, always 
be interesting and often with a new and vital thrill. This 
vital thrill is the thing to look for, to inspire, to espouse, 
and all the while there have been and are artists following 
"their lamp" and reaching after their goal — unnoted by us 
whose privilege, whose duty it has been merely to show 
appreciation. 

Hie same thing is true as to crafts. Few of us realize 
that superb textiles are fabricated in this country. Silks, 
damask, cut velours in colors that vie with the best in beauty 
and durability. It is true that many of these are made up 
after old designs, yet in this art trade there is a marked 
advantage to the modern artist for which full credit must be 
given. The manufacturers foster the spirit of design 



B. Altman & Co. 
Piano. 



wherever they find it by buying all worthy 
designs offered, since worth while motifs 
can be found in nearly all of them and 
frequently a pattern of first value comes 
to hand. This practiced idealism always 
cheers me — because I know that like 
mercy — it blesses both. Certainly it is 
bound to win fame as it has already won 
financial success. 

Carping critics anathematize American 
furniture and the unthinking ones also 
name names and fold their hands prayer- 
fully before other gods. 

Dear reader of my plaint, it is not that I 
do not admire or possess other furniture. 
I do. It is because of these possessions 
and some good home-made ones that I 
raise my voice in appreciation of a craft 
that receives our scant attention. 

If we do not find it, the fault is ours. It 
is made. It is as good as any, for, by, 
common deduction, we have recourse to 
the same forests as the rest of mankind, the same libraries 
on furniture construction, our machinery is the best in 
the world, and our native intelligence is, at least, as good 
as the average. Yes, it is here. Nor is it a forbidden art 
to us now more than in the days of Phyffe, whose designs 
are as charming, distinctive and as valuable to-day as 
those of any of the masters'. 

In the matter of reproduction of antiques American' 
craftsmen do remarkably fine work — and, as will be seen 
in the piano illustrated, their cabinet work is superb. This 
splendid piece is American-made throughout, and compares 
favorably with the best old ones. 

It would seem as though our Art effort lies rather in 
the development of the practical side of the arts and that 
our art future might be in itself a means of a general fur- 
therance of all the arts — crafts — and their kindred 
sciences. For example, while one cannot include the talk- 
ing- machine among the arts, it is not to be gainsaid that 
any one device in the world's history has in so short a time 
been the means of widely disseminating a knowledge of 
an art as has this instrument, which has carried to the 
remotest corners of the earth and developed a taste and an 
appreciation of music that could not have been hoped for 
in many generations through the old means. 

This tidal wave of music appreciation covering the globe, 
emanating from us, has travelled faster by far than did the 
Renaissance through Furope. 

Whatever lies before us in art matters just as certain 
as that the old order of world politics has fallen into the 
melting pot of the great war with the new ones still untried, 
though sure to endure in some worth while form, just that 
certain is it that the glory in art has not passed us by. The 
last word has not been said. If our architects repeat the 
tale in a new and compelling way, so can our painters and 
our artisans. And they will. But there must first be a 
renaissance of appreciation which can come only fromV 
calm consideration of living art in all its phases. 



April, 1919 



ARTS and DECO RAT 1 ( ) \ 



299 



INSPIRATION OF THE CRUCIFIXION 



B£ A. M. GRAHAM 



• 



ON contemplation, our first impulse is to shudder, the 
subject is harsh and terrible, and again it as quickly 
awakens in us a human response, a bond of sym- 
pathy, a sort of happiness in sorrow, which, though it brings 
its pain, bears its message, and satisfies seme longing of the 
heart, will make itself felt in spite of all theories of art and 
religion. 

There is something about the subject as a whole which 
bids us lower our voices and move gently as in the house 
of prayer, there are depths of mystical communion, which 
hold our thoughts and reverence. 

We find ourselves gazing spellbound before this pictured 
tragedy, gazing upon the distress of this Man, a distress so 
profound, so intense that it has set Him apart in the world 
to come, even as His personality had set Him marvelously 
apart in His own day, and so long as the power of imagina- 
tion is left to play upon the mind of man, so long will the 
crucifixion stand out as a symbol of sacrifice. 

The life of Christ began in the Bethlehem manger, and 
culminated on the Cross of Calvary. 

We are told of the incidents which cluster about 
His infancy, His birth, the visits of the Shepherds 
and the Three Wise Men from the East, but of 
the life of the Christ Child, little has been given 
\is upon which our imagination can play or lend 
us a means toward expression. 

Our conclusion is that He grew like other boys, 
was brought up with simple wisdom, modesty, and 
kindness, which were exemplified by His acts in 
later life. He lived in humble poverty and ob- 
scurity as a Galilean peasant, working at the trade 
of a carpenter. About the age of thirty years He 
entered upon His great mission. 

The first year of His ministry was the golden 
year, but this was followed by a period of flight, 
persecution, and months of concealment and peril, 
ending by a crisis of agony and a death of pain. 

Near the place where He was crucified, there 
was a garden, and in the garden a new sepulchre 
hewn out of a rock. There they laid Jesus. 

This is the brief history of His unique life. 
Alas! So great a man to go so soon. 

His simple direct messages have become the 
guiding words of every home. In these He 
touched so tenderly upon the common things of 
life, .yet with power enough to move the universal 
heart of man; endearing them to us forever. 

"This doctrine so mighty, so divine, has gone 
out like a great star, leading the world, a bright 
star shining as humanity's guiding light, above all 
the troubled chaos, bloodshed and war." 
^ Everyone probably has a different thought in 
regard to the appearance of Jesus, and when the 
idealist represented Him, he tried to portray as 



many n\ these different ideas as possible. We, however, 
know nothing except that He was a Jew and probably had 
all the characteristics of the Jewish race. 

The pictures that have been commonly shown of Him in 
the history of the church are undoubtedly outgrowths of 
grossest caricatures, especially those which represent Him 
as emaciated, sad and suffering — the crucifixion excepted. 

The life of Christ, however, until the very last, was not 
a sad life, although His torturous death so vividly pictured 
and constantly before us does leave us ever with this im- 
pression. We must think of Him, then, not as a man 
weighed down with sorrow, but rather as a good man with 
a life of joyousness and gladness and as happy as anyone 
could hope to be, who cherished that wonderous trust of 
God in his heart. 

For a period of sixty years after the death of Christ, 
the idealizing tendency was at work, as it had been, by 
many, even before His crucifixion. 

Suddenly the human Jesus of simple life, the tender 
comforting friend, merged into the King Eternal. All 




The Crucifixion — Van Dyck — Flemish, ]627. 



300 



ARTS and DECORATION 



April, 1919 





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The Crucifixion — Rubens — Flemish, 1613. 

relics of His life dropped into obscurity, and only the mem- 
ories of His divine work were retained. They no longer 
even cared to indicate, to future ages, the location of His 
birth, His transfiguration, His crucifixion, or His grave. 

In this tendency to reshape and misinterpret facts, His 
whole life was recast. Jesus came to be in the thoughts of 
the world, the suffering Messiah, and so the scenes of the 
sacrifice of their ideal dominated the Church and ruled the 
future trend of art. 

Let us glance for a moment at a figure that in almost 
every stage of the world's civilization, since His coming, has 
stood foremost, reverenced and adored, and picture Him, 
through His earthly life, leading up to the fatal night, the 
sorrow of which nothing can ever surpass, and we wonder 
little that this has been a theme to move the pathos and 
spirit of the great masters. 

The crucifixion, that symbol of sacrifice, was the interest 
« > f soul enlargement and expression, and though the most 
distressing subject a painter could select, was also the most 
important in Christian Art. 

People were dependent at that time upon paintings, just 
as we are now upon books, and this means was employed 
to stimulate and awaken the public mind to an interest in 
this theme, for if the appeal is made to the elemental things 
in nature, it is a big step toward the readiness of mankind 
to respond to any work of art that deals with joys and sor- 
rows, or to that which quickly appeals to the passions and 
emotions. Go back in imagination to the time when the 



first crude pictures of "Christ on the Cross" were made. + 
The conditions were rough, cruel, brutal and art likewise 
took on this phase. Gradually struggling to interprel 
throughout the years with ceaseless patience, suiting itself 
to the cravings and emotions of the artist. When lo! 
Symbol gave way to Ideal, and the movement of art trended 
and expressed itself accordingly. This leads us to con- 
sider the different versions of the masters as wholly due 
to the teachings of their times. 

The brief history of the early masters suffices to show- 
that the church and its traditions were the first creative 
powers in art, its usual aim being to portray in the most 
graphic manner the various scenes influencing and sur- 
rounding the life of Christ. The earliest representations 
were of Mosaics in glass or marble, the designs made up of 
well-known Christian symbols. At the Council of Con- 
stantinople, held 692 A. D., it was decided that the lamb, 
formerly used as a symbol of Jesus, should give place to the 
human representative of Christ in Christian art, and from 
this time we may definitely date the pictures of the cruci- 
fixion, although there are a few which critics believe belong 
to the 5th century. 

The artists first pictured Him as a youth, fully clothed, 
standing with open eyes and repose of feature, erect upon 
the cross, but shortly followed this with realistic treatment, 
showing Him with drooping head, contracted muscles and 
agonized face, characterized by Byzantine barbaric splendor. 
The figure hangs upon a jewelled cross, against a back- 
ground of Mosaic or solid gold, assuming an elaboration 
equally proportionate with the elaboration of the Faith. -* 

This school flourished until the thirteenth century. At 
this time the different Italian cities each aspired to produce 
a school of painting, which soon grew into renown. 




The New Crucifixion — Jonas — French, 1919. 



April, 1919 



A RTS and D E COR AT I ON 



301 



4k Giovanne Chimabue ( 1240) achieved a fame which en- 
titled him to be called the "Father of Modern Painting." 
He perceived the ideal, but it was under the masterful hand 
of Giotto, his pupil, that his new theory was illustrated. 
Giotto so improved upon the theme of his master as to con- 
vey some expression of suffering, love and resignation in 
his pictures. 

We pass over the many able artists who each in their 
style and theme stand for much that has been handed to 
us. and hasten to the golden epoch of Da Vinci, Raphael 
and Correggio, not omitting Albrecht Diirer of the German 
School. Velasquez of the Spanish, Rubens and Van Dyck 
of the Flemish, each in turn having given us wonderful ex- 
amples. 

The legendary portrait of Christ became, under the hands 
^i these masters, a man of stately figure, slender, dignified 
in appearance, with a countenance inspiring veneration, and 
their stories are told in glittering reds, azures, greens and 
gold, with much light and mystic illumination. 

They paint Him with dark and glossy hair, falling in 
curls about His shoulders, parted in the middle after the 
manner of the Nazarenes, with a forehead smooth and 
serene : the nose and mouth faultless, and usually with a 
beard of medium length ; His eyes, large and bright and 
of varied color; thus creating a type which has passed al- 
most into that of divinity, and has been continued by most 
painters since that period. 

It is difficult to imagine the crucifixion or the body of 
Christ in such a placid form as they conceive Him. Never 
fc death so utter, never form so prostrate as manifested in 
these early paintings. 

The accompanying illustrations have been chosen from 



among mam- as the most interesting interpretations because 
of their varied artistic expressions. 

Perugino's crucifixion, in Florence, is one of the best of 
the earlier works on this subject that survives. It is dis- 
tinctly characteristic of the painter, and one of the artist's 
greatest conceptions. This fresco represents the scene un- 
der three arches. In the central one is the crucifix with its 
solemn burden, standing forward in the picture, on top of 
the cross is a small inscription board bearing the Latin let- 
ters I. N. R. I., indicating the words of Pilate, and in the 
sky over all are the eclipsed sun and moon. At the foot of 
the cross kneels Mary Magdalene, gazing intently at the 
crucified Christ, her hands folded in the attitude of prayer. 
Her kneeling figure is so still and placid, her beautiful face, 
so full of intense sorrow and pity for the distress and suf- 
fering of the object of her devotion. In the left arch we 
find 1 the figures of the Madonna standing with St. Bernard 
kneeling. He represents the mother as a dignified, stately 
woman, the years have touched her face but lightly, her 
tender nature overwhelmed with grief. In the right arch 
are the figures of St. John, standing, and St. Benedict, 
kneeling. There is no crowd, no wasting of grief, the spec- 
tators, five in number, are more artifically arranged rather 
than as the real mourners at such a tragic scene. 

The figures are draped in garments with little elabora- 
tion of detail, and are painted in the deeper accentuated 
colors of the Umbrian School. Beyond is revealed a grand 
Umbrian landscape in Perugino's warm and transparent 
coloring, so clear and sunny. Its sweeping outline of the 
hills, the single delicate trees, the distant town at the foot 
of which runs a placid stream, and above the blue and 
(Continued on page 330) 




The Crucifixion — Perugino — Italian, 1493. 



M)2 



Tlllllllilllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 



A R TS and 1) ECO RAT [ON 

1 1 1 :-;.;m i !i;, i.! im. in i .■!;;■ ■ 1 1 1 ■ ■ !":'■! : : m : i 'MiiuiMiMinMi hm ■ ;" — '■:■ ' -i ' :i i 'i ! :n : i ■; ! : ill 



April. I'll') 



♦ 





Glimpses of Beautiful 
Gardens 

from 

Far and Near 



HAVE you ever observed how an opera audience 
settles itself comfortably when Mignon begins 
to sing "Knowest Thou That Land?"? It gets 
them, absolutely, for it is instinct with home-longing 
— that vivid memory of gardens full of blooming- 
flowers, humming bees and carolling birds. 

Her memory of her childhood home is of its gar- 
dens and flowers, and tho it is only a story, it car- 
ries convictions to every listening ear, for it is Na- 
ture's forms that the human memory retains longest. 
One remembers the shape of the big tree in the pas- 
ture at home long after the contour of the house 

itself fades, and the flower 
gardens of our lives outlive 
them all. 

This is as it should be — 
and it is up to us to develop 
our gardens, whatever their 
size, so that every nook and 
cranny will be full of inspi- 
ration. 

That we are awakening 
to a full realization of this, 
is evidenced by the charm- 
ing glimpses of gardens pic- 
tured here, the most inter- 
esting of which is the small 
garden of Mr. Myron Hunt, 
of Pasadena, California. In- 
credible as it may seem, this 
garden, with the house, 
covers a plot less than 200 
feet square. Needless to 
say, every inch has been ac- 
counted ; but what is im- 
portant for us to know is that Mr. Hunt choose and 
bought the land because of the splendid old cypress 
trees, seen here, and expressly to use them as a back- 
ground for small gardens. The house surounds it 
on three sides ; the vine-covered pergolas break its 
wall faces in a manner to enhance the open, free feel- 
ings of the garden itself. This garden plan might 
3e followed anywhere with as great success. It is 
at once intimate and suggestive of boundless space. 
Most of all, it bespeaks loving thought and a clear 
perception of balance. Another interesting bit that 
garden lovers should absorb is in the picture, show- 
ing the cherub sentinels, who, embowered in flower- 
ing shrubs, welcome, invite one to enter. These 
figures are lead — reminiscent of the old English gar- 
dens ; they can be had to-day in new metal, quite as 
good-looking. It is a nice idea — this of having gates 
within the garden, old, but always good, when ar- 
ranged with shrubbery backgrounds. This fascinat- 
ing scene is found in the garden of Morton Nichols, 



ic 



. :.: ;''i;i.i . ,:,ir .1;. J-,. ; : ' : ; ; i: 1 : :i:i 11 ,i 1 ..: : 1 .' .1 1 1 : 1 .: 1 .u .1 1 .1 1 1 1 1 1: i i. i 1: i n: in 1111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111111111 1 1111 iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiii iniiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiilliiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiillllllilililiiiii. 



April, 1919 



A R T S and DECORA T T O N 



303 

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHi 



Esq., Greenwich. Conn. The walled garden illustrated 
here is the child of necessity — as it is built to protect the 
delicate flower friends of the owner, Mrs. Robert C. 
Hill, of East Hampton, From the chilling sea winds tha 
Frequently sweep the extreme end of Long Island even 
in midsummer. Its chief appeal is its extreme simplicity 
oi treatment. 

Simplicity speaks, too, in the brick and wall treat 
ment of the splendid old tree in the garden of Mrs. 
Cameron Rogers in Pasadena, California. It is — the 
effect of a house in the garden yet is better. Here 
breakfast and tea are served to the enjoyment of a 
ourselves included. May the idea become rapidly wide- 
spread ! 

The rock-garden hit pictured here speaks for itself 
the reminiscent for me, as there is a country garden 1 
know, covering less than two acres and combining in its 
little space three distinct features which might be worked 
out anywhere. This arrangement covers a smooth and 
gently declining hillside on which the house was built, a 
short stretch of flat land, not more than fifty feet in 
width, and a little ridge of Connecticut rocks backec 
by spruce. 

Ordinarily, the flat would have been turned into a 
formal garden with more or less 
disaster: but here, the house 
being Dutch Colonial and the 
owner a wise woman, the formal 
gardens were laid out on the 
three terraces below the house, 
and the flat left to plainsward. 
So far, very good, but the best 
of all is to come, for it is in 
combining the formal with the 
informal that we humans go on 
the rocks, and the rocks in this 
case are very real. We all know 
the unwisdom of clipping grass 
around rocks naturally placed. 
But how do otherwise? — that is 
the question. In this instance 
it was solved by turning the 
little gully that was the natural 
drain in wet weather into a 
cement-lined stream, widened, 
dammed at intervals and fed by 
a water-pipe concealed beneath 
a rock at Nature's starting- 
point — the basin following the natural 
windings of the drain until it reached its 
ultimate goal — the brook just outside the 
little domain. And, further, to prepare one 
mentally for the transition from clipped 
hedges, smooth sward, to rocks ; from for- 
mality to informality of treatment, low, 
rough shrubs were planted along the stream 
on the lawn side, while a rustic bridge was 
thrown across. Here began the rock-garden 
in truth. Not a stone was moved. Only a 
few flat ones laid as an approach to the 
bridge. No pretense to regulate planting — 
just a few seeds dropped here and there 
where color was wanted, and those of field 
flowers having strong hues. It is charm- 
ing, and we hope to enjoy it many years. 




||!ll||||||l!ll!lll!!lll!!U!l!lll!!IUII!!l!!lll!llill!!!llll!ll!!!lll Illllllllllllllllllllllllllillllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll Ill Illllllllllilllllillllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIUIIIIIIIIIIIIIUIIIIIIIIIIUi llll!lllllllllllillllll!ll!IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII|||||||||i 



304 



; mi in || lllllllllllllllllll Ilillll Illillllllllll IlllllllilllllllllW 



A RT'S and I) E CO RATION April, 1919 

niiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiii it iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiini nmimmm 11 iininiiiiii % 







From France comes this 
lovely Eighteenth-Century 
Secretaire. There is un- 
usual grace and dignity in 
its floriated marquetry pan- 
els and the nice distribu- 
tion of the metal decora- 
tions. 

Young in years but rich 
in beauty is this European 
reproduction of a French 
Commode that was in the 
Brussels Muse u m — t h e 
carving is excellent and the 
brass handles superbly 
worked out to the last 
detail. 



DECORATIVE TREASURES 

from England, France 

and Italy 



One seldom finds such 
perfect grace, propor- 
tion and finish as in the 
English ancient.. Observe 
the width of seat, the 
unusual splat back, fine 
top carving and cabriole 
legs. 







•yt^m^ L 








There is a magnificence in this 
Italian desk that one feels only 
in furniture that has architec- 
tural design. Because of their 
use in columnar effect the mul- 
tiple carved figures framing the 
plain faces are rich without op- 
pressing. 




From England too 
comes this splendid 
Chippendale chair which 
is one of a set of six, 
rare enough to find them 
a place in a museum. 
Note the exquisite legs, 
feet and delicately inter- 
laced back. 

Note — These articles 
may be found by ad- 
dressing Art Service Bu- 
reau of this Magazine. 




mill 



April, 1919 



I ♦ 



A R TS and DECORA T [ON 

AMERICA'S HEROIC VISITOK 

Lieutenant Jean Julian Lemordant 
THE WAR-BLINDED ARTIST 



305 



HE heard the groans, the death-rattle oi the dying, the 
voices of the wounded who called to him. lie 
dragged himself in their direction and asked them 
questions: "Why does the night last so long?" They an- 
swered it was broad daylight. Then he understood. "I 
had thought of everything — of death, of the most horrible 
wounds, but not of that!" and after a silence, "But as long 
as that too was necessary!" 
Of such stuff is our honored 
guest, Lieut. Jean J. Lemor- 
dant — "sea-fire" by charac- 
ter as well as by name. 

Coining as he has to re- 
ceive the Howland prize, 
conferred on him last year 
by Yale University, while the 
war is being borne home so 



crushinsrlv 



the 



upon us by 
return of our own wounded, 
it is difficult to discuss the 
work of this young artist 
apart from his personality. 
• And it gives all art lovers 



_reat satisfaction that we 
are enabled, through Yale 
University, to at once honor 
a great artist artd a great 
hero. This second award of 
the Henry E. Howland '54 
Prize should also be given to 
one of our Allies — this first 
having been conferred post- 
humously on Rupert Brooke 
— adds to our pleasure. All 
the more so as this award 
is intended for the "citizen 
of any country in recogni- 
tion of some achievement of marked distinction in the field 
of literature, fine arts or the science of government" — and 
"an important factor in the selection shall be the idealistic 
element in the recipient's work." 

This latter phrase is the key to the man as well as to his 
work. That he saw the glory in the common things about 
him is paramount in his canvases, in the story of his short 
life, -which, fortunately for us, is not ended — rather, just 
begun! The idealism burns almost fiercely. Seldom is it 
given to a man to live in three ways for his fellowmen. 
Lemordant has accomplished two of these so gloriously that 
we look forward eagerly to his future, whatever it may be, 
wherever it leads us. Before the war Lemordant was a 
^reat artist. Our sympathies are captured at once on seeing 
his landscapes and sea-faring people in their heavy clothes, 




following their business of life, pictured against the ele- 
ments in their varying moods, or pursuing their simple 
pleasures in a manner so natural and naive that our hearts 
are tugged at through pure joy. 

Joy — that is it. He feels it, and gives it to us at every 
turn, in every stroke of the brush. I lis Breton country- 
side rejoices in its work beside the wide-sweeping ocean, 

i >n the rocks, the sands, in 
storms, under brilliant skies 
— all magnificently alive and 
pulsating, yet keyed to a 
naturalness that one recog- 
nizes at once as correct. 
Never does one lose his 
idealism, his understanding 
of the very working of the 
souls of his people. It seems 
right that this great gentle- 
man who so well understands 
his people should have had 
his first opportunity to work 
out his decorative ideas 
among them. 'Twas in the 
little old Hotel de l'Epee, in 
the quaint town of Quimper, 
well known to the Doughboy 
during the past two years, 
that he saw this chance. 
Here in the dining-room, 
some 60 feet long by 30 feet 
wide and 15 feet high, after 
two years' labor, he finished 
five exquisite panels dealing 
with the beloved Breton 
country and sea, which estab- 
lished him securely. 

His next decorative ven- 
ture was the ceiling of the Municipal Theatre of Rennes, 
where all Brittany is woven into a garland of dance. It is 
said that he had intended to bring the dancing human chain 
down the curtain to the stage floor — the sketch having 
been finished when the war intervened. 

The work speaks for itself, but what needs to be told is 
his remarks on his theme: "I found my subject in the re- 
gion itself. We are cloyed with Apollo and the Muses. I 
was in Amorica and it was to Amorica I looked for inspira- 
tion. Why should the decorator strain after noble motif? 
Just take life and concretize it in its movements. It will 
mount of itself to style." 

Born in 1877, at St. Malo, the old Breton port famed in 
history and quaint romance and brought close to American 
hearts as the summer rest-camp and playground of our sol- 



.306 



A UTS and I) ECO R AT fON 



April, 1919 



diers, lie studied fust at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Rennes, 
going later to Paris to the studio of Bonnat, winning the 
Chevonard prize in the Paris Beaux Arts. 

Dividing his time between Paris and Brittany, lie exhib- 
ited in all the salons with increasing fame until the fateful 
4th of August, 1914, when with the same burning spirit he 
volunteered instantly, changing from the reserve to active 
service. At ( harleroi he was badly enough wounded to be 
sent to an hospital, but he refused to go. He was made a 
Sous-Lieutenant on the battlefield. Wounded again on the 
Marne he refused to quit his post. Through all these ago- 
nizing days in Champagne he was again wounded in Artois. 
This time, after his thighs and back had been plowed with 
shell splinters, his right arm almost useless, he was struck 
again in the leg, his knee smashed and his joint made stiff. 
Yet when the attack before Arras began, in order to walk, 
he had to have his leg in splints made by bayonet scabbards, 
and in this condition he attacked the German trench! 

At this moment of glory he was struck in the forehead by 
a German bullet — he fell — and then the question, why is 
the night so long! 

Five days he laid among dead and dying, yet still he had 
the strength to drag himself to his knees to comfort a 
little Breton and help him die. 

Then began his interminable journey from German hos- 
pital to hospital. A prisoner, his wounds badly attended, 
he twice tries to escape. He was ordered, after a third at- 
tempt, to a reprisal camp where he suffered all the horrors 
of war. His eyes had been put back into place and he began 
to see a little, to draw in large characters. Hope loomed 
large. Serene and calm as ever, he thought first of his fel- 
low-humans and used to amuse them and himself with lec- 



tures on Art. On the day before the one set for his removal* 
to the reprisal camp, while he was giving one of his talks on 
Art in the dingy, dusky quarters, referring from time to 
time to a large charactered chart, came his great hiatus. A 
halo danced before him, obscuring everything. By a terrific 
effort of will he mustered his emotions and improvised the 
remainder of his address. The audience, alive to the fact 
that something had happened, rushed forward at the end of 
the lecture, to be stunned at the new tragedy that had befallen 
civilization. 

His blindness was so classified that he was sent to Swit- 
zerland for a time before finally being returned to his be- 
loved France. He awaited the moment of crossing the 
frontier in a kind of ecstacy. Writes his friend, Charles le 
Goffic :. "He hoped for a miracle, but expected one only from 
himself, from the power of his own will. He asked the Red 
Cross nurses, who had charge of him, to tell him the moment 
the train crossed the line. He zvould see it — France — at 
least something belonging to it, no matter what — a hedge, 
a tuft of grass, a pebble. They took him to the door of the 
compartment and there he exerted all his strength, all his 
power. The frontier was left behind — the 'fiat lux' had 
not come to pass." 

Weary months of agony and days of glorious victory have 
intervened since then, and now this blind soldier-painter has 
come to us somewhat recovered physically, dauntless as ever 
in facing life, believing as strongly as ever in it — in his fel- 
lowmen and in himself. Already assuming the tremendous 
new role thrust so brutally upon him with the high courage 
he has always shown, wringing, through memory, the last 
drop of joy in experience for himself, and carrying to us * 
message so instinct with love, power and heroism as to in- 
spire us to the very heights of feeling. 



k 




****** 




The Oyster Beds — Lemordant. Photographs by Courtesy Yale University and Gimpel & Wildenstein. 



( 



April, I'M') 



A R TS ami D E CORATIO i\ 



30? 



♦ 



EXHIBITIONS IN THE NEW YORK 

GALLERIES 



GEORGE BELLOWS is both dramatist and painter, 
uniting the qualities of both in Ins pictures. And 
just as he loves the big punch in his drama, so does 
he love to employ both pure color and deep color in writing 
it. If the fact be added that Mr. Bellows is a master in the 
harmonious arrangement of these colors, that he makes 
them all sing together without a false note in his high 
octaves, we have a pretty good basis for considering his 
art as an abstraction, if such a thing can be done with an 
art that is so intense and personal. 

The exhibition of Mr. Bellows' recent work, in the main 
gallery at Knoedler's, affords the public a better oppor- 
tunity to know him than it ever has had in the hitherto 
meagre displays of his paintings here and there. The 
artist has been especially prolific in the last few months, 
perhaps under the urge of the spirit that is now felt every- 
where, and has turned out pictures that will undoubtedly 
come to be considered as his masterpieces. 

The greatest work in the display is "The Return of the 
Useless," a dramatic composition involving the entrain- 
nient of the Belgian exiles in Germany preparatory to their 
repatriation, as provided by the armistice. Through the 
door of a box car ma)' be seen pitiful figures, while on 
the ground in front lies a youth whom a German soldier 
has felled and who is still menaced by the Hun's rifle. 
The center of the picture, and the real subject around 
which the drama turns, is the figure of a young woman, 
tense in her defiance, standing in the doorway of the car — 
her attitude and whole appearance screeching malediction. 

Mr. Bellows has written this drama of "The Return of 
the Useless" in crimsons, purples, blues and greens. The 
central note is the deep red of a spot on the side of the 
car near the door, which passes on into the blue of the girl's 
skirt, thence to the yellow of the pine boxes beneath the 
doorway. Overhead is a deep and menacing sky, forming 
a canopy for the whole picture. 

Two other large war canvases in the exhibition are "The 
Murder of Edith Cavell" and "The Massacre at Dinant," 
both of which will undoubtedly live forever in the docu- 
mention of the Great War. 

The rich resonance of Mr. Bellows' color, aside from 
its dramatic uses, may be studied in a new work which he 
calls "The Studio," a picture made great by the manifest 
joy which the artist took in painting it. It presents his 
own studio on Christmas night, with his wife and two 
little girls as companions. Mr. Bellows himself is there, 
but he compromised with his dislike for a "self-portrait" 
by so placing himself that only his contour, and not his 
face, is seen. The composition makes a most pleasing 
genre picture aside from its fine color harmony. 

"Portrait of Ann" is a real flesh and blood presenta- 
tion of a little girl. It has spontaneity and charm, and an 
exquisite color scheme expressed in a key high enough to 
give it ringing vitality. "The Globe Trotter" is another 



line portrait, in which the artist has conveyed even without 
the words of the title that here is an alert old man who 
has seen many interesting things. "Harbor at Monhegan" 
is one ol" Mr. Bellows' marine subjects, too few of which 
are seen. 



In nearly every artist who has given an exhibition this 
season ma)' be seen changes wrought by the quickening 
spirit of the times. The exhibition of fourteen recent 
paintings by Horatio Walker at the Montross Gallery was 
no exception, despite the fact that this artist's fame already 
rests on a secure foundation and conservatism is naturally 
to be expected of him. It is not that Mr. Walker has 
adopted any new style of subject or of technique, for there 
is nothing to shock his old admirers, but rather that he has 
used color more freely than he ever did before — deeper 
and with more translucent purity — the result being that 
new admirers have joined the old ones. 

The depth and resonance of color shown in "Dea Gratias" 
mark this new mastery in Mr. Walker's art. Indeed, the 
color and drama of this picture remind one a little of 
George Bellows, although the subject matter never would. 
It is a nocturne; a Canadian peasant and his wife stand 
bareheaded in a road, before a wayside image, while above 
them rides the moon, spectrally seen through drifting 
clouds. Behind them, seen dimly, a white horse and cart 
form part of the picture. The dimness and shadow of the 
main subject, on the ground, and the contrast with sil- 
houetted, silver-edged clouds in the sky above, give a 
dramatic value that holds the visitor for a long time. 

Bright with light and color, illustrating the new influence 
that has come over Mr. Walker in portraying his French- 
Canadian habitant subjects, is "The Golden Dew — Woman 
Milking," which is a lyric of the simple, every-day life of 
the people the artist loves so well. "A Pastoral — Sow and 
Pigs" is lightsome and joyous with glorious daylight. 

One painting shows Mr. Walker in a classical mood — 
"Hippocrene," illustrating a fable of ancient Greece. The 
winged steed Pegasus, whom Minerva tamed and presented 
to the Muses, has risen into the air from the top of Mt. 
Helicon, and the fabled fountain has sprung from the earth, 
while astonished satyrs gaze upward at him and timid 
nymphs hide behind trees. 

This Pegasus, leaving the earth, and causing a fountain 
to flow, is symbolical of the reawakening of art, and maybe 
Mr. Walker had this in mind. 



When Mrs. H. P. W'hitney set aside the front part of her 
studio building at 8 West Eighth Street as a gallery for 
public exhibitions, she did so in order to give the initial 
push to young painters and sculptors whose work, in her 

(Continued on page 310) 



308 



ARTS and DECORATION 



April, l'H") 



FKEDEKICK THEODOKE WEBEK 



Painter, Sculptor, Etcher 



SINCE time began, the wanderer's return to his native 
land has found a place in song or story. He in- 
trigues imagination by his very presence. This is 
as true to-day. And if he brings us something, ah, then! 

Frederick Theodore Weber, wanderer, has brought us 
much, for he has been accredited by the French Salon as 
painter, sculptor and etcher, his work having been ex- 
hibited there in all three forms at the same time. 

Painter, sculptor, etcher, is a good deal to say for a man 
in his early thirties. Usually years pile on years before 
an artist is so reputed, and it gives us considerable satis- 
faction to claim this fellow countryman who hails from 
South Carolina and has come to live in New York after 
ten years in France. 

Born in Columbia, S. C, Mr. Weber spent much of his 
youth abroad, owing to his father's business interests there. 
Scandinavia, Finland, in particular; Germany, Holland, 
England, and France are known to him in a way that 
few Americans can know them. 
It is but natural that, knowing 
many people and many tongues, 
he should have retained some for- 
eign language; yet he is essentially 
American in appearance as well 
as in thought. 

Best of all — notwithstanding his 
long absence from his native land — 
he believes in and is enthusiastic 
about our Art future. I use the 
word enthusiastic advisedly, as he 





is quiet and self-contained. To quote him: "I had been 
told by Americans abroad that there was no general ap- 
preciation of Art here; so imagine my surprise to see the 
crowds before the windows of the Fifth avenue art shops. 
One does not see that on the Rue Lafitte. People stop to 
look at paintings only because they are interested. Then, 
too, in my studio, I find that even people who have had 
little or no training will choose at once the best work. 
Given such taste and such wide interest, something great 
is bound to • come forth in American Art." 

Studying under Ferdinand Humbert and Jean Paul 
Laurens, he passed his Beaux Arts examination in 1910, 
winning the Prix Talrich in anatomy. In sculpture, he had 
Raoul Verlet as master. 

He exhibited in the Salon first as an etcher, then as 
painter, and finally, in 1914, added sculpture to his list 
of works there. 

Sympathy is the key-note of this artist. One feels it in 

everything he has done — above all 
technique of pencil, brush and mal- 
let. It is Gallic sympathy, tender 
and whimsical, coupled with a just 
sense of proportion, which makes 
for success in every line of endeav- 
or. He sees things as they are — 
finds inspiration in them, and gives 
us all these feelings in his work, 
whatever the medium. Examples 
of Weber's work are on exhibition 
now at the Ehrich Galleries. 









Margaret Tiers, Daughter 
of Mr. & Mrs. Cor- 
nelius Tiers. 



Bobby Bliss, Son of 
Mr. & Mrs. Cornelius 
N. Bliss, Jr., on left. 



Frederick de Peyster, 

Son of Mr. & Mrs. 

Frederick Ashton de 

Peyster, on right. 




***! 



■ 

• I4< & 



< 



April, 1919 



A K TS and O ECO R A T TON 



309 



* 




Ethel Frances 
Mundy 

HEK WOKK 



Edward Robertson, Jr. 



VISITORS at the recent ex- 
hibition of Ethel Frances 
Mundy's miniatures in wax 
at the Ackerman Gallery would 
hardly have guessed that the slen- 
der, brown-haired young woman, 
modestly keeping in the background, 
was the author of that charming 
exhibit and the rediscoverer of this 
fascinating art. Yet it was she, and 

tthe story of her student life is that of every art student up 
to a certain point. Born in Syracuse, N. Y., she studied 
in Rochester, Boston and New York, before going abroad, 
where she worked in various places. Like every artist who 
has visited the European museums, Miss Mundy was en- 
amored of the quaint wax portraits to be seen in the gal- 
leries, especially in the Kensington Museum, and wondered 
much at them. But unlike the others, she set to work to 
discover how they were done, with the happiest results. 

If one attends strictly to what Miss Mundy says, it 
wasn't much of a job; yet, considering her modest bearing 
and the fineness of her modelling, not to mention color, 
etc., one feels that, well — that she is far too modest. Par- 
ticularly when one considers that in prosecuting this deli- 
cate work she employs only the ordinary orange stick, 
adjunct of the manicure table, and one delicate steel tool 
beside! Simple enough the story runs, but it doesn't tell 
of the long search for the proper material to "set" the wax 
■ — they will not melt under normal conditions — nor the 
difficulties overcome to find colors that would not fade. 

Imagine the travail of soul an artist must suffer in learn- 
ing that one's pet miniature languishes and grows pale in 
sea "air, usually considered tonic. This is one of the cli- 
matic troubles Miss Mundy met and overcame, but not 
until she had found pigments that had stood the forty-year 
test. 

If one desired to be critical — and the charm of these 
dainty portraits at once disarms criticism — it must be said 

^that in comparison with the museum pieces the old ones 
suffer, since Miss Mundy's portrayals have a vitality and 





Virginia Murray Dangler. 



James Humphrey Hoyt, II. 



life the antiques lack. Not only are 
they alive, but they are caught, as 
tho by the movie camera, in the act 
of living — a feeling none of the old 
ones have. Yet there is neither un- 
rest nor stiffness felt in any of the 
many poses exhibited. This is due, 
to some extent, to the fact that she 
refrains from using much color in 
the clothing, preserving the rich- 
ness of the deep blue background thereby. Yet when color 
is necessary in vestments it is used judiciously and with 
good taste. 

Essentially a portrayer of children, as the carefully de- 
tailed clothing reveals, Miss Mundy has equal success with 
her miniatures of the grown-ups. Curiously enough, of 
these her best work is of sitters who have passed the prime 
of life; and the best of it all is she recognizes this herself, 
which is our guarantee for better and even more interest- 
ing work in the future. 

As will be noted in the reproductions, the artist pos- 
sesses ability in modelling in keeping with her understand- 
ing of character. All three of these children show markedly 
different characteristics of temperaments in their poses, as 
well as in their faces, the two boys having the greatest 
difference, yet both are thoroughly masculine — a trait the 
usual miniaturist frequently fails to record, to the never- 
ending disgust of male sitter and his male relatives ! 

There is in the portrait of the Laughing Boy (Edward 
Robertson, Jr.) a steadiness of pose that one fully expects 
of so finely a modelled head, whose halo of curls but em- 
phasizes its strength. On the other hand, the thick-bobbed 
hair of the girl-sitter does exactly the same thing. 

Of an exhibition of thirty-two miniatures, including an 
old portrait of Joachim Bonaparte, these three are the best. 
Miss Mundy adds interest to her work by designing 
special frames for her portraits, w ith cases of exquisitely 
tooled leather, on which are wrought the name of the sitter 
and her own device. Altogether, it is happy work, this 
gentle art of Miss Mundy's, for which we give thanks. 



310 



ARTS and DECORATION 



April, 1919 



EXHIBITIONS IN NEW YORK GALLERIES 

(Continued from page 307) 

opinion, entitled them to public recognition. The public, 
in turn, lias had much for which to thank Mrs. Whitney. 
It has enjoyed many meritorious and stimulating art dis- 
plays in cosy surroundings. 

Two young women sculptors have just made their bow 
at Mrs. Whitney's studio— Miss Grace Mott Johnson and 
Miss Florence G. Lucius. The former's specialty is ani- 
mals, the latter's figures. The ten specimens of Miss John- 
son's work are thoroughly enjoyable. There is humor and 
sympathy in them, and one does not have to be at all "high- 
brow" while considering their merits. They form a plea- 
surable interlude in a serious world. 

There is "Fred," an enigmatical goat, who looks amiable 
enough to pet, but, withal, serious enough to butt. There 
is "Greyhound Eating," his long head at one side right on 
the ground, dog-and-bone fashion. Then there are three 
lacteal subjects. One shows a lamb, on his knees, enjoying 
his luncheon, while his mother crouches down to give him 
the opportunity. "Mare and Foal" and "Cow and Calf" 
carry the same subject into other sections of the animal 
kingdom. "Ox" is a very sedate brother of man and, 
like his biped kinsman, hungry. 

Miss Lucius' sculpture falls under the definition of "mod- 
ern," inasmuch as she takes liberties with the human form 
in order to achieve a desired result. "Draped Figure" has 
an Egyptian motive. "Indian Mother" is a 100 per cent. 
American work of art. "Bronze Figure," with alliterative 
contours, has merit and mass. 



Beauty, sunshine, joy! The old world, after the last 
tragic five years, needs all of them it can get, and will 
eagerly thank such artists as Lillian Genth for their part 
to provide them. 

Miss Genth loves the woods — the birches, the elms and 
the maples. She also loves to depict human flesh, warm 
and glowing in the sunshine. Therefore, when she poses a 
favorite model among the branches, the leaves shimmering 
and the sunshine filtering through in patches, a picture re- 
sults which the beholder knows the artist delighted to paint. 
He senses the artist's enthusiasm as well as her singing 
color, and there is — beauty, sunshine, joy ! 

In her exhibition of thirty-two works at the Milch Gal- 
leries, perhaps the most typical as well as the most delightful 
subject is the one she calls "The Oriole," which presents 
a charming fancy, a bird of the forest, saucily and unafraid, 
making the acquaintance of the young woman who, nude 
and nymphlike, returns the admiration. "This is the home 
of my own pretty self!" the oriole seems to say, from her 
twig nearby. "I like your home and you too !" is the reply 
in the young woman's smile. 

"Golden Dreams" is another vision of beauty, a nude 
reclining in the sunshine, a sylvan glade stretching beyond 
her. "The Bather" reveals another nude, ensnared in 



dickering sunshine and dancing leaves, the glowing, youth- Q 
fill flesh conveying a sense of warmth and vitality. 

Of all the trees of the forest Miss Genth seems to love 
the birch the best, and a group of them is the real subject 
of "Children of Nature" in spite of the title, for the two 
figures are merely notes completing the forest harmony. In 
"Reflections," a pearl grey subject, fine as a gem, birches 
overhang a cool shadowing pool, in which a lone figure 
relieves the solitude. 

However, it seems that Miss Genth has reproached herself 
for too much lightsomeness, for she has painted a serious, 
allegorical work, "Beyond Life's Vale of Tears," and has 
enthroned it in the place of honor in the exhibition. A 
solitary figure is seated on a huge rock, with his eyes fixed 
on the distance, while up its side other figures toil, totter- 
ing, failing. The visitor, with sobered feelings, stays long 
before this picture, paying his tribute, as the artist did, to 
that which is not all beauty, sunshine and joy. 



Guy C. Wiggins is another painter who, like Miss Genth, 
has been identified by the public with a certain easily recog- 
nized subject. Heretofore when anyone has thought of Mr. 
Wiggins he has immediately visualized Fifth Avenue, or 
Madison Square, or Broadway, in a snowstorm or other bit 
of atmospheric envelopment. And now Mr. Wiggins has 
deserted the city for the country and has found a revela- 
tion in the change. By far the best work that he has ever 
shown forms an exhibition in the Howard Young Galleries. 

One painting in particular deserves the highest praise." 
It is "The Silvery Trail," a winter impression, and it is 
without doubt one of the best pictures of the year. Com- 
parisons are not relished by artists, but to say that "The 
Silvery Trail" is Twachtmanescjue may be atoned for by 
adding that it merely reminds one of the great American 
impressionist by its refinement of color, which is as super- 
lative as that of the master himself. The subject of the 
picture is a hilltop, with a road faintly traced in the snow, 
flanked by slender trees marshalled in the distance in a 
sparse wood, softly revealed in the purplish gray haze. 

"Earliest Spring" is still another revelation in Mr. Wig- 
gins' art. Most painters, when they attempt to show 
"Spring's awakening,' achieve an utterly obvious result — 
something trite and without imagination. Everybody 
knows that in the Spring the landscape begins to turn 
green and the trees to show budded color. But Mr. Wig- 
gins' "Earliest Spring" is still sere in the garments of 
winter, and he has suggested rather than portrayed the first 
faint, warm flush over the wood and roadside. 

"Morning Light" has a crisp, incisive quality, with its 
spare bit of forest, sharp and distinct, suggesting such a 
winter day as makes the blood tingle. "Broadway Bliz- 
zard" and "Madison Square" are atmospheric New York 
subjects in the style with which the public is familiar. 



Daniel Garber. veteran Philadelphia painter, has shown*- 
New York ten of his latest works at the Folsom Galleries. 



■VRTS and I) E CO R A T ION 







311 




KING MINOS TO MATISSE— GREETING! 



By GEORGE M. RICHARDS 



IN the year 2000 Before Christ, on the Island of Crete, 
there flourished a complete civilization. Many a year 
. was yet to vanish beyond the Pillars of Hercules before 
Homer smote his lyre. Not yet had the beauteous Helen 
fired the Argive chieftains to set sail for cloud-capped 
llion. The Pharaohs to be sure were indefatigably piling 
huge monoliths upon each other, and chiseling their empty 
histories thereon, so that we may say in Egypt stirred first 
the chrysalis of art. But in Crete, the living butterfly 
spread her wings for maiden flight. 

This civilization of King Minos was undoubtedly com- 
plete. For proof to the doubter we present the Lady 
carrying a Casket whose portrait adorned some palace wall 
of Tiryns. The style of skirt, the shape of slender waist- 
line, the calm poise of the figure, all proclaim the civilized 
woman, easily recognizable by the devotee of modern 
fashion. And yet this portrait is a product of decadence, 
an imitation by barbarous Greeks at their north of some 
Cretan masterpiece. 

No race of men, unless freed from the constant terror 
of natural forces and beasts of prey, four-legged and 
human, by the guardianship of a settled and orderly society, 
has yet found time to produce a distinct artistic advance 
such as marks the Cretan remains. The wonderful group 
of the Cow and her Young, seen on the following page, 
from Knossos, can hardly be surpassed in aesthetic quality 
by any later period — with due respect to the Sculpture So- 
ciety — or in exquisiteness of technique. 

With the advent of marauding Greeks from the North, 

passed the Golden Age. There had been a quality of abun- 

mmt life, a youthful exuberance in experiment among the 

Cretan artists perhaps never again attained as a common 



spirit by the artists of any race. Beside their work the per- 
fection of Attica is sculptured ice. The power and dignity 
of Egypt obviously, but the product of a people tyrannized 
over by king and priests, living in constant dread of the 
Judgment of Osiris. 

We know the daily life of the dweller by the Nile, of 
the Athenian freeman, owner of slaves, and can be thankful 
that our imagination is left free to build in Crete a primeval 
paradise for the artist, thence a paradise for the common 
man. 

Given such perfection of environment, an approximate 
perfection of product might be looked for. There have been 
many speculations, scientific and otherwise, as to the reason 
for the limitations in delineative powers of the primitive 
artist. We wonder why he did not draw and model as 
we do, why he ignored the laws of perspective, played hob 
with the human anatomy, and showed a sublime indiffer- 
ence to chiaroscuro. His eyes were like ours, probably 
better, (for we have yet to find a statue of Pallas Athene 
with spectacles pushed up on her helmet) ; his hand was 
as firm and responsive to the technical will. It has been 
suggested that the character of his material was the limiting- 
element, but his material with the exception of a few un- 
necessary pigments was identical with ours or could easily 
have been made so. Perhaps, some say, the inhibition of 
religious formula was the cause. True enough, in Egypt. 
certainly not in Crete — for we may fairly judge the validity 
of such priestly restraint by the wideness of range in the 
artist's field. Indeed it would be difficult to find more 
unsacerdotal subjects than the fresco of a cat hunting a 
pheasant from Hagi Triada or the carefree circus poster, 
shown at top of page 313, from Knossos. 



312 



A R TS and DECORATION 



April, 1919 



The artistic archeologist, granted there be such an animal, 
will notice, indeed has noticed, that the primitive draughts- 
man is satisfied to render objects by outline instead of by 
mass except as mass may have a decorative value, that he 
naturally draws the face and limbs both of men and animals 
in profile, rarely in front view, never in three-quarters. 
The problems of perspective are a matter of total indiffer- 
ence to him, and generally the matter of setting and back- 
ground, enormously important to the modern artist, is only 
of value when the elements he selects are absolutely in- 
evitable to the telling of his story. 

Possibly, as Professor Loewy maintains in his Natural 
Forms in Early Greek Art, the question is entirely one of 
the' imaginative vision. Try to recall the face and figure 
of a friend or of some well-known animal. If you are not 
a school-trained professional, you will see him in full-face 
or profile and if you attempt to draw his likeness, will 
find difficulty in doing it from any other angle. In all 
probability the primitive artist did not feel the necessity 
of a model. Plis imaginative concept preoccupied him 
from beginning to end of his labors. 

It is of interest in this connection that primitive sculpture 
excepting the relief, presents its figures in three planes 
only with perhaps a rounding of corners and a quite cheer- 
ful disregard of the character of the subject's back. 

The drawings of a child not too precocious or studio- 
ridden, if compared with those of our pre-classic artist, 
show a similar inability to conceive the subject in any 
attitude other than that most easily remembered. No child 
in his natural mind would ever attempt to draw directly 
from nature. The modern conventional artist, who con- 
siders himself a culmination of the centuries, is a product 
of elaborate school training, based on the ideal of accurate 
and photographic copying of natural forms. If by chance 
some inward vision project itself through the academic 
crust of this habitual thought, there remains but one refuge 
for him — the model and the attempt to fit his original con- 
ception into the form which he actually sees before him. 
As the tree of philosophy is overshadowed nowadays, and 
choked by the quick growth of economic theory and prag- 
matic science, so is a poetic thought often strangled by the 
tyranny of mechanically accurate drawing of light and 
shade, of atmosphere and a thousand and one tricks of a 
pathetic realism. 





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The primitive artist, like the child, appears to have gone 
on his way rejoicing, free from scholastic habit and from 
the incubus of knowledge. 

The progress of the realistic idea is responsible also for 
the invention of the easel picture. To the benighted an- 
cient a picture was not a thing in itself, a precious and 
painstaking imitation of nature, to be cut out, surrounded 
by a gilt fence and hung indiscriminately upon a chance wall. 

From the beginning his concept was adapted to a definite 
use, either to form part of the actual surface of a certain 
wall space, of a vase or pottery form, or of a textile. 
Sculpture also was seldom produced for its own sake. 
Either it had an architectural value or a religious or political 
symbolism. Gradually we are beginning to recognize the 
good taste of this simple-minded and wise point of view. 

The men of the bronze age had minds as lucid and clever^ ' 
as ours. If we strip ourselves of scientific prepossession, 
it is difficult to believe that they could not have produced 
thoroughly realistic painting and sculpture, had they thought 
that their message would be clearer or its aesthetic value 
greater. The famous Head of a Bull from Knossos is an 
exception in masterly realism which is proof of this con- 
tention. 

Perhaps they knew that the essential value of a work of 
art lies in its spiritual significance — in its perfect selection 
of purely necessary elements and its adaptation to a definite 
usefulness. They argued and philosophized about spirit and 
matter with as far-reaching a vision and as keen a subtlety 
as any of their successors. Doubtless the controversial 
field of art was also threshed out as thoroughly and these 
very arguments passed back and forth over the honey of 
Hymettus and the wine-cups in the palace of King Minos. 

We can use our brains no better than Socrates and Plato 
— perhaps, indeed, we are no better artists than Phideas 
and Appelles, to say nothing of their predecessors. 

There can be no doubt that the continual struggle of the 
Archaic Greek artist, as of all artists, consciously or not, 
was toward the goal of accurate representation, but it is 
very doubtful if his progress w T as marked by an equal ad- 
vance in taste or in the essential beauty of his work. As 
for the message of a picture or statue, unquestionably the 
crudest and most primitive drawing carried it to the con- 
temporary beholder just as forcefully and with as much 
aesthetic satisfaction as in the days of Michel Angelo an<> 
Rembrandt. 






April, 1919 



A I 



v r s 



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1 I) E COR A TIO X 



313 



» 



In our own time we have come freshly in contact with 
a primitive art — that is, primitive from the realist's view- 
point — and have been obliged to take off our hats to it, 
to alter our palettes and our theories of design. The most 
exquisite of Japanese prints does not surpass in balance of 
composition, in simplicity of presentation or delicacy of 
drawing, such a vase painting as the Return of Hephaistos 
to Olympus, from an oinochoe of the fifth century before 
Christ. 

The exquisite technique of Greek vase-painting has 
formed the subject o\ many learned works and will inspire 
many more before our more sophisticated designers are 
able to excel it. In this period the Greek vase-painter had 
mastered his art, but we can without hesitation challenge 
a comparison of his most cultivated work with that of the 
unknown Cretan who conceived and executed the master- 
piece of the Minoan Circus. It is true that the details and 
proportions of the figures are more accurate in the former, 
but are they more beautiful, more full of vitality or more 
satisfactorilv disposed on the surface to be filled? 

The classical vase-paintings of the Creeks may be divided 
into three styles, progressing from barbarism to perfection 
and thence to decadence from the academist's viewpoint — 
all equally exquisite from the decorative artist's and pos- 
sibly descending in the scale of interest for the plain human 
being. As well as by the manner of drawing, these styles 
may be distinguished by their technical treatment. 

In the first archaic style, a dark color was used upon 
the natural clay as a background. The outlines of the 
design were incised with a sharp point and filled in with 
black. Other colors were also used — red if the clay-back- 
ground were light in tone, white and purple if the color 
of the vase was dark red. Sometimes the body of the 
vase was covered with a white slip upon which the black 
figures silhouetted strongly. 

As the Attic vase-industry became more prosperous, and 
began its export trade to surrounding nations, the design- 
ers' technique underwent a change in the direction of ease 




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of execution. The former scheme was reversed — the back- 
ground painted black, and the figures left to appear in the 
red clay. Less color was used and more delicacy and pre- 
cision in rendering. The human figure was much more 
accurately drawn and an innovation in the use of the three- 
quarters view gave a spice of adventure to the Hellenic 
artist. The painting of the Old Man with a Dog belongs 
to this period, the fifth century JB. C. 

With the overthrow of Athens as a political power came 
the gradual decline of Greek vase-painting. It is marked 
by the reintroduction of many colors and a general floridity 
of style. Painting on a white ground was also popular 
with solid tints of various kinds used for garments and 
other details. The exquisiteness and rather feminine deli- 
cacy of drawing is marked. One has a feeling that the 
designer of this period was not working to express his own 
visions but to please the luxurious Macedonian who had 
become his political suzerain. Yet the perfection of ar- 
rangement and composition seem to show that some stan- 
dard had been attained which even lack of vitality could 
not rob of its charm. 

For the past two or three winters the Hambidge theory 
of the Whirling Square has been gaining an increasing- 
number of adherents in various art centers. It is a theory 
of absolute perfection in design based on the geometric 
ratios of natural forms and the adaptability of these ratios 
and proportions to every conceivable kind of artistic ex- 
pression. As the Roman Church has established a hier- 
archy and dogma of religion deriving its authority from 
St. Peter, so Mr. Hambidge seems to prove an artistic 
hierarchy and dogma derived from the Greeks of classic 
times. He goes so far as to claim an infallibility for the 
best period of Greek art — that is the discovery or develop- 
ment into perfection of intricate rules of proportion and 
composition which are quite as absolute in the aesthetic 
domain as the Ten Commandments in the moral. Indeed 
they are more so since they are based on Mathematics 
the Ultimate Deity of Science. 

Now whether or no a race of artists shall be produced, 
who, guided by the rediscovered touchstones of static and 
dynamic symmetry, shall surpass us immeasurably in ease 
and perfection of technique, there is a charm in the vital 
fallibility of the Guild of the Minotaur which cannot be 
attained by rule of thumb or even made easier of attain- 
ment thereby. It is the charm of Youth — the Youth of 
the World. 

{Continued on page 334) 



.U4 



ARTS and DECO RATION 



April, l'M9 




Outside the house vistas have been preserved and 
where necessary created. That this decorative phase 
is most important is evidenced by the work of all the 
great landscapists of Europe. 








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The Home of 

George Marshall Allen 

Charles I. Berg, Architect 

IF eyes are the windows of the soul, certainly the 
windows of this house speak as plainly of its feel- 
ing. Observing" them in all their forms shown 
here, the sunlit carven stone grill is perhaps the most 
interesting of all pictorially, tho one is torn in such a 
decision by the exact beauty of the stained glass one 
and quaint charm of those seen in the upper left-hand 
picture. ♦ 

Throughout, architecturally, it is a house to marvel 
over. The roof, the gable ends, the chimneys and 
their grouping. And after all one's eyes return to the 
rough beams and plaster work that so closely stimu- 
lates the ancient, and the able manner in which the 
eave faces have been treated. This simulation of age 
is marvelously expressed in the unevenness of the roof. 
How much better this is, and how much more in keep- 
ing with the spirit of the whole than would be a clear- 
cut smooth roof. 

Equally satisfying is the courageous and entirely 
proper use of the several types of furnishings employed 



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April, 1919 



A R T S and DECORATION 



315 




At Convent 

New Jersey 



within where, as will be seen here, a formal Georgian 
dining-room is closely associated with a magnificent 
early English great hall, a method that throws both 
into exquisite relief. We Americans have thought in 
decorative periods somewhat to our hurt, forgetting 
that in those countries where the period types we copy 
originated, they were mixed rather freely, not slav- 
ishly followed throughout. 
f This feeling may be noted also in the different floors 
that appear here. The flagging of the entrance hall 
ci mtinues the architectural idea as one enters. The 
wide board floo+", in keeping with the great hall, pre- 
pares one for the carpets that are used in the more 
formal apartments. The same wise choice is noticed 
in the lighting fixtures which keep their places most 
modestly. Unfortunately for the reader, the simple 
but beautiful carvings that appear in the arches and 
elsewhere have been lost in reproduction. Restraint 
in its use adds to its beaut) 7 and throws into higher 
relief the decorative accessories. 





English types of architecture seem to adapt them- 
selves to American landscape with as much facility as 
do we ourselves to their feeling — the latter being due 
doubtless to our inherent Anglo-Saxon predilections. 




316 



ARTS and DECO RAT i . <> N 



April, 1919 



SAINT-PORCHAIRE POTTERY IN AMERICA 



By G. II. McCALL 



THE history of ceramics records through its lengthy 
pages the work of more than one vanished figure, 
but no chapter is enshrouded with such tantalizing 
mystery as that which deals with the earliest of French 
faience, known during the last thirty years as the 
Faience of Saint-Porchaire. For upwards of seventy years 
various well-known and lesser archaeologists have busied 
themselves with the ever-baffling occupation of theorizing 
as to the origin of this most beautiful and distinct class 
of earthenware. The mosaic of conjectures has been so 
frequently pieced together that the results have, each in 
their turn, established with a semblance of certainty, either 
the birthplace of the ware, the originator's name, or both 
conjointly. Each succeeding theory has had its day, the 
last always the cause of its predecessor toppling to the 
ground, and destroying all confidence in previous testi- 
monies. The most recent theory, however, has stood the 
test of three decades, and not having been proved to the 
contrary, it may now be safely accredited, since a reason- 
able provisional period has elapsed, although there are still 
many adherents to the older term of Henri Deux Ware, 
which satisfies both popular imagination and sentiment. 
Several have been its names, but probably none will find 
more supporters than the two above mentioned, whatever 
fresh discoveries may yet be made in regard to its origin. 
For a time the ware was known as Oiron Faience, and 
this denomination stood its ground with considerable sup- 
port, owing to a series of conjectures which, in themselves 
so incontestable at the time, justified the term. At an- 
other time the examples, as a whole, were considered to 
be limited to a table service specially fashioned for 
Henri II. himself, and enjoyed for a while the term de- 
noting it — the Service dc Henri Deux. The Ware of 
Diana of Poitiers helped to extend the nomenclature, as 
did also the Faience a Nicllure. 

The names of three or four painstaking individuals stand 



out in the course of archaeological research, to whom must 
be given due appreciation for their enthusiasm and patience 
in the endeavor to unravel the mystery surrounding the 
origin of this faience. These are Andre 1'ottier, who was 
the first to call attention to the ware in 1839; the De- 
langes, father and son, who issued, in 1861, the first illus- 
trated monograph upon all the then known examples; 
Benjamin Fillon, the indefatigable theorist, who proclaimed 
it as having been inspired by Helene d'Hangest, and carried 
out by her librarian and potter, in her chateau at Oiron; 
and finally Edmond Bonnaffe, who brushed aside all ex- 
isting conjectures with the result of his researches, giving 
the palm to an unknown potter in the village of Saint- 
Porchaire. Briefly, Bonnaffe's discovery was supported 
by substantiating documents, and though they failed to 
name the master, the evidence is clear enough as to the 
locality, besides bringing forward the individual names of 
some of the unknown master's patrons, chief among them 
having been Anne de Montmorency, Grand Constable of 
France. 

The greater part of these little monuments in miniature, 
now amounting to about eighty examples, have been found 
in Touraine, Anjou, or Poitou, or, to be more precise, in 
the neighborhood of Tours, Saumur and Thouars, but the 
question yet to be solved, as indicated above, is the name *. 
of the potter. Could the archives but rescue this secret 
from oblivion there would undoubtedly be revealed a very 
interesting and artistic personality, perhaps one whose life 
had been surrounded by brilliant and courtly favors, equal 
to those of his contemporary Cellini, and, let us hope, free 
from the long and heartless privations which enveloped the 
life of Bernard Palissy, who followed so soon, in a different 
measure, the mysterious potter of Saint-Porchaire. 

The atelier was in activity for about thirty years, prob- 
ably between 1525 and 1555, without the production ever 
being considerable. These delicate potteries, of little use 





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Saltcellar in the Collection of Mr. 
J. Pierpont Morgan, New York. 



Saltcellar in the Collection of Mr. 
Joseph Widener, Philadelphia. 




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Saltcellar in the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, New York. 



April, 1919 



\ R TS and D E COR A TIG N 



317 



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Ciborium in the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, New York. 



Stoup for Holy Water in the Metro- 
politan Museum of Ait, New York. 




Ewer in llic Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, New York. 



in the daily life (except the saltcellars and altar-pieces, to be 
mentioned later), had never been, as far as is known, put 
into commerce. These are the decorative fantasies of an 
independent artist, working in his own leisurely manner, 
and exclusively for a small number of patrons close to the 
conrt of France, who probably presented them to the 
noblemen of their day for the embellishment of their 
dressers and cabinets. There is no record that the court 
itself patronized the worthy potter. The royal accounts 
of Francois I. and Henri II. are still preserved, and no 
command, purchase, or payment of these faiences is re- 
corded in favor of these princes. Often an example bear- 
ing the royal cipher bears also the emblem of one of lower 
degree. This contention, then, minimizes 
vthe reason for applying the name of 
Henri II. to the ware — it would be just 
as correct to credit the patronage to Fran- 
qois I. seeing that his emblem also appears 
on one example (this example, by the way, 
is in the collection of Mr. J. Pierpont 
Morgan, New York). 

Vaguely designated works of art sel- 
dom attract the attention they deserve, 
because of the difficulty to make them the 
object of discourse. In the case of this 
delicate pottery, however, we have before 
us the achievement of an unknown genius, 
whose work alone reveals his creative 
talent. It is much to lie regretted that 
the fastidious creator of this faience lias 
left us no trace of his identity. Whether 
this arose from a commendable spirit of 
modesty, or whether the worker in clay 
alone had not an ecpial dignity of a Cellini, 
is doubtful. Still, for decorative effect 
his ware attained a degree of perfection 
which has never been surpassed in origin- 
ality. The influence of the Renaissance 
aroused a certain passion with which men 
sought to make beautiful things in the 
most minor provinces of art. The same 




subtle passion was the unconscious cause of a tiny clay 
bowl developing, in the hands of its maker, the significance 
of a sculptnred frieze, establishing at the same time its 
importance as a human document, and the record of an 
effort, the ideal and conception of which is not easy to 
translate into the verbal idiom of to-day. 

Unlike the Renaissance pottery of Italy, which was sub- 
stituted for the rich gold and silver vessels of princes 
ruined by the German and Spanish invasions, the work of 
the French potter kept a parallel existence with that of 
the goldsmith. The French were fortunate enough to 
retain their works of orfevrcrie, though warfare had re- 
duced their country in material magnificence time and 
again. Therefore sixteenth century French 
pottery is not so abundant as Italian, but 
it has the quality of the French soil, a per- 
sonal note, an accent which is entirely 
native and without foreign influence, ex- 
cept perhaps in some of its forms. The 
Italian was a painter of faience, the 
Frenchman a potter as well as a sculptor. 



Ciborium Cover, Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, New York. 



With regard to the work of the master 
of Saint-Porchaire, his little models, simple 
or complicated, are singularly distin- 
guished. His clay, of an extreme finesse, 
remains uniformly white, and takes under 
its thin and transparent glaze, a creamy 
tint ; the ornaments imprinted in the paste 
vary from a dark brown to a carnation red, 
with here and there some discreet touches 
of enamel. Upon this very soft and ele- 
gant ground, the master disposed colo- 
nettes, pilasters, caryatides, entire figures, 
batracians, and masks. These little sub- 
jects, sometimes alone, sometimes linked 
one with the other, the milky paste, the in- 
crusted ornamentations, in the manner of 
niello, without considerable care in the way 
they were made to unite, give to the pot- 
tery of Saint-Porchaire an original charm, 
with a great amount of fantasy, grace and 

unseen emotion inspired alike the humblest and the loftiest distinction; a fact recognized at first sight. When we con- 

#effort, and, though it did not create equal importance in sider these faiences in their ensemble, we easily distinguish 

each, the same quality of value accrued in the result. This a certain difference of style which indicates different 




Interior of Above Cover. 



318 



ARTS and DECORATION 



April, 1919 



periods. Like all products of the human intelligence the 
fabrication followed a gradual and logical progress. It is 
possible, in fact, to divide the productions into three dis- 
tinct periods, although the division is not so evident as to 
separate the details of workmanship entirely; indications 
arc recognized of the same tools having been used through- 
out the whole assembly. 

The first period, which corresponds to about the first 
quarter of the sixteenth century, and contemporaneous with 
Francois I., preserves still the characters of the middle 
ages, sober and majestic in style, with severe and archaic 
outlines, perhaps inspired by the types in use during the 
fifteenth century, and still having an oriental influence. 
The prototypes of this period in America are the cone- 
shaped ewer and the shallow cup and cover in the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, New York. The former is a truly 
remarkable specimen of early Renaissance earthenware. 
The decoration of this piece has been carried out with 
astounding patience, equal to the united work of any en- 
graver and goldsmith, and it remains a splendid example 
of primitive skill in the manipulation of minute potter's 
tools. The shape itself is unique, and the little figure of 
the Virgin and Child, which decorates the spout, indicates 
its function in church ritual. No similar piece has yet 
been handed down to us ; there are, however, allied ex- 
amples in the Louvre and the Petit Palais, Paris, in the 
Hermitage, Petrograd, and in the Rothschild collections, 
but each are distinct in shape and treatment. The shallow 
cup, mentioned above, is one of four known examples, 
and is similar to those in the Cluny Museum, the Her- 
mitage, and the Victoria and Albert Museum in London; 
the Cluny cup is the only one which has had the good 
fortune to retain its cover. Although the proportions and 
size are the same, the cup and cover in the Metropolitan 
Museum do not belong together; the inlays are of different 
tint and the pieces were originally in different collections. 
These cups, although some of them have no eccleciastical 
indications upon them, were probably used as ciboria, and 
accompanied the chalice in the ritual; and being of a shal- 
low form were, therefore, not intended for drinking pur- 
poses. A coat of arms on the interior of the cup in the 



Metropolitan Museum allows us to !i\ the date of theseA 
specimens at about the year 1528. 

The second period came upon the scene in a smiling 
manner with a certain pomp and eclat, and the products 
of the mysterious craftsmen became happier and more 
monumental in character. Except for a free use of some 
of the motives incrusted in the clay, the decorations lie- 
came more sculptural and architectonic. Of this period 
there are five examples in America, — the most remarkable 
and important bowl in the Metropolitan Museum, as well 
as a saltcellar in the same vitrine; another saltcellar in the 
collection of Mr. Joseph Widener, at Philadelphia, and 
two others in Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan's collection in New 
York. One of the most interesting examples among the 
entire ensemble of Saint-Porchaire faiences is the quaint 
shallow vessel in the Metropolitan Museum. It is unlike 
any other known piece, and though possessing certain 
niello decorations ' of the first period, it is essentially a 
product of the second, or more flamboyant period. Archae- 
ologists and amateurs have long busied themselves as to the 
intended utility of this vessel, and many have been the 
names applied to it; such as a "dish warmer," a "mortar." 
a "saltcellar," a "vessel for a floating light," besides a few 
others equally incongruous. Although the decoration is 
not essentially ecclesiastic, the little cherubs around the 
frieze give it an air of religious purpose, and practically 
acclaim its usefulness in the manner intended. It has the 
undoubted appearance of a stoup, or benitier, to contain 
holy-water, the pillars being raised above the margin to 
prevent the sprinkler or asperge, from rolling off when i 
placed across the vessel. This altar-font has a peculiar 
beauty of its own, and of a design unique in the history 
of ceramics. 

The whole of the saltcellars, eighteen in number, scat- 
tered throughout the various collections in Europe and 
America, belong to this second period, and each has similar 
characteristics which allies it to the other. Some have 
little human figures standing or sitting at the angles or 
facades of the exteriors, as in the one in the Metropolitan 
Museum, and in Mr. Morgan's examples; and in a few 
(Continued on page 337) 





Saltcellar in the Collection of Mr. 
./. Pierpont Morgan, New York 



Cibarium in the Metropolitan 

Museum of Art, New York. 




Ewer in. the Collection of Mr. Henry 
C. Frick, New York. 






April, 1919 



A R T S and I) E C O R A T I ( ) N 



319 



» 



BEAUVAIS^BOUCHEFk TAPESTRIES 

By GEORGE LI 'I WD HUNTER 

Pari II, following Part I that was printed in the March number of Arts and Decoration 
Note : — Owing to limited space available, it has been impossible to illustrate all the series as was originally planned. -Editor 



A masked hall gave her the 



JEANNE D'ETIOLES was a personage important nol 
only in the life of Louis XV, but also in the artistic 
career of Boucher, and in the artistic development of 
France. Born plain Jeanne Poisson (Jane Fish) during 
her father's banishment for loose handling of Government 
money, she was brought up luxuriously and given a fashion- 
able education at the expense of her mother's friend, Lenor- 
mant de Tournehem, who crowned his paternal beneficence 
by marrying her to his nephew, Lenormant d'Etioles, and 
giving her half his fortune as dowry. Soon the beautiful 
and brilliant young bride gathered around her a notable 
circle of the wits and artists of Paris, among them Voltaire 
and Boucher, and began to plan to satisfy an ambition that 
had been hers since childhoo< 
opportunity. She 
dropped her hand- 
kerchief and the 
King picked it up. 
When she begged 
for protection 
from her hus- 
band's vengeance, 
| the King promised 
that her husband 
should be banished, 
and that she should 
be formally ac- 
knowledged as the 
Favored One. 

On September 
14, 1745, Madame 
d'Etoiles was pre- 
sented to the Court 
and to the Queen, 
and at the age of 
twenty-three given 
the title of Mar- 
quise de Pompadour. Forthwith "Uncle" Lenormant de 
Tournehem was appointed Director General of Build- 
ings, Gardens, Arts, and Factories of the King, and be- 
came a powerful element in the advancement of Boucher's 
interests. It took Pompadour only three years to become 
the most powerful person in France, and for sixteen years 
she made and unmade ministers, and disposed of offices, 
honors, titles, and pensions at will. Under her direction, 
affairs of state were discussed and arranged, and in her 
boudoirs ambassadors and generals transacted their busi- 
ness. Only through her favor would the prizes of the 
Church, the Army, and the Magistracy he obtained. 
Boucher gave up his position as decorator of the Opera 
in order to work for her in the celebrated theatre in her 
private apartments. Over and over again he painted her 




"The Peep Show" on the right and "The (Juaek Doctor" on the left. 

Xos. 1 and 5 (woven as one) of the Italian set of 14 tapestries designed by Boucher and woven at Beauvais. 



portrait. Especially characteristic is the Rothschild one, 
done in 1756. Here she poses as an artist distracted from 
her art by affairs of state. At her feet are portfolios, 
rolls of music, a crayon-hold containing red chalk, and a 
-raxing tool. On the rosewood bureau beside her chaise- 
longue are inkbottle and pen, a ministerial portfolio, and 
a forgotten and neglected flower. The lace on her robe 
is said to have been painted by Roslin. 

Boucher also painted for Pompadour, in order to help 
her keep the King entertained — the spicy pictures later 
became part of the Wallace collection. In 1751 Lenor- 
mant de Tournehem died, and a youth of twenty-five, 
Pompadour's brother, Abel Poisson de Vandieres (later 
created Marquis de Marigny), succeeded him as Director 

of Buildings. One 
of his first acts 
was to get for 
Boucher the pen- 
sion of a thousand 
livres a year left 
vacant by the 
death of De Troy, 
director of the 
Academy of 
France at Rome. 
Not long after, 
Pompadour's 
brother also se- 
cured for Boucher 
the studio and 
apartments at the 
Louvre left vacant 
by the death of 
Coypel. The year 
after Pompadour's 
death the same in- 



fluence brought to 
Boucher, in his sixty-second year, the long-coveted appoint- 
ment of First Painter to the King, left vacant by the death 
of Van Loo. Boucher held this appointment only five 
years. He died May 30, 1770. 

Returning to the story of Psyche tapestries that were 
started on the looms at Beauvais in 1741, the year of Pom- 
padour's marriage at the age of twenty, to M. d'Etoiles, 
and four years before her conquest of the King, I would 
emphasize the fact that while the story is one likely to 
have been pleasing to Pompadour, the Psyche designs are 
a monument to the beauty of form, not of Pompadour, 
whom Boucher had not yet met, but of Marie Jeanne, the 
dainty wife of Boucher, who not only painted and etched, 
but also posed for her lord and master. The pastel por- 
trait of her at the age of twenty, by Latour, shown at the 



320 



A R TS and DECO R AT ION 



April, 1919 




"Vulcan and Venus." 

One of "The Loves of the Gods." No. 33. 

Salon in 1737, portrays a blonde with tender blue eyes and 
roguish smile, neck befrilled, as was then the mode, wear- 
ing a white satin dress, cut low, and playing with a closed 
fan, held in pretty fingers that peep out of mittens of 
white lace. At the age of forty-five, she still held her 
own, as is evidenced by the portrait Roslin painted of her, 
which persuaded even the cynic Diderot to admit that she 
was "always beautiful." Her importance in the Psyche 
tapestries is indicated by the advice Bachaumont gave 
Boucher when the latter received the commission to illus- 
trate the famous fable: "Read and read again the Psyche 
of Lafontaine, and above all things study well Madame 
Boucher." 

The Psyche tapestries show that Boucher followed the 
advice. The form of Madame Boucher 
is generously revealed, and the story fol- 
lowed is not the ancient narrative of 
Apuleius, dating from the second century 
A. D., but the vastly enriched version, with 
poetical advertisements, which Lafontaine 
composed for his lifelong friend and pa- 
troness, the Duchess of Bouillon, one of 
the nieces of Cardinal Mazarin, at Cha- 
teau-Thierry, where Lafontaine was born 
and where, more recently, American sol- 
diers fought to some effect! 

Anciently in Greece, writes Lafontaine, 
there was a king with three marriageable 
daughters, all beautiful, but most beauti- 
ful of all, Psyche the youngest. Indeed, 
she was so beautiful as to arouse the 
jealousy even of Venus, the goddess of 
Love, who complained bitterly to her son 
Cupid. Presently the two sisters of 
Psyche married, but because of the en- 
chantment of Venus, no suitor sought the 
hand of Psyche. Her parents, in distress, 
questioned the oracle, who responded : 



"The Husband that destiny reserves for your daughter is ^ 
a cruel monster who lacerates hearts, destroys families, 
feeds on sighs, bathes in tears. ... He is a poisoner and 
an incendiary, a tyrant who loads young and old with 
chains. Let Psyche be given unto him; let her try to 
please him. Such is the decree ot Fate, of Love, and of 
the gods. Conduct her to a rock on top of a mountain, 
where her monstrous husband is waiting. Celebrate her 
departure with funereal pomp, since she must die for her 
sisters and for you." 

What the oracle urged was done, and Psyche was duly 
abandoned in a desolate and terrible part of the mountains, 
inhabited by dragons, hydras, and other terrible beasts. 
Fainting with fear, she suddenly felt herself raised gently 
by a god whom she learned to be Zephyr, and conveyed to 
a wonderful palace, where she was welcomed by a troop 
of lovely maidens, who complimented her without end, 
but failed to answer clearly her questions as to the owner 
of the splendid estate. 

This is the part of the story illustrated by Beauvais- 
Boucher tapestry No. 15, "Psyche Arrives at Cupid's 
Palace." In the middle of the scene flies Zephyr, a beau- 
tiful youth with butterfly wings, ushering into a Louis 
XV palace Psyche, beautiful but timid. On the floor a 
savonnerie carpet, loosely laid in large folds. On the right 
and on the left welcoming maidens with flowers and music, 
and on the extreme left an altar of Love, richly garlanded, 
with Cupids flying above. 

Having shown Psyche through the magnificently fur- 
nished halls and apartments of the palace, the maidens 4 
finally ushered her into a spacious bathroom and started 
to assist her to disrobe. At first she made some resistance, 
but finally let them have their way, and all the arts of the 
boudoir were employed to render her body fresh and 
fragrant and more beautiful. 




"Psyche Displays Her Treasures to Her Sisters." 
One of the Psyche set of five designed by Boucher and woven at Beauvais. No. 19. 



April, 1919 



A RTS and D E'G'O K A TION 



321 



9 After the bath, Psyche was attired 'by the maidens in 
wedding garments, and adorned with a wreath of dia- 
monds and precious stones. Joyful, indeed, was Psyche 
to see herself so smart and to survey herself in the mirrors 
that lined the room. This is the part of the story. 

Boucher has chosen to transfer the scene to out of 
doors. Backgrounded by a classic fountain and pool, 
and 1)}' a terrace with classic marble steps and balus- 
trade and vase, which are themselves backgrounded by 
woods and sky. sits Psyche, innocent of the fact that 
her maidens have not yet clothed her in the wonder- 
ful wedding' garments which are to replace those that 
have been removed. In the Foreground, a bowl and 
pitcher in solid plate, artfully placed. Altogether, one of 
Boucher's best efforts. In an adjoining room stood a table 
served with ambrosia of every variety, and with divine 
nectar for beverage, lint Psyche ate little. After the meal, 
music of lute and voice was heard without instrument or 
singer being visible. Of the songs the one that pleased 
Psyche most began: "All the universe is obedient to Love. 
Beautiful Psyche, submit your soul to him. Without Love 
all these exquisite objects, these gilded frames, woods, gar- 
dens, and fountains, have a charm that soon fatigues. Love 
is of your hearts the happiness supreme. Love, only love, 
for naught else counts.'' 

The next morning the only thing about Psyche's wed- 
ding night that troubled her was that her husband had left 
before daylight, warning her that she must never try to 
see him either by the light of day or by lamplight. Never- 
theless, the honeymoon passed agreeably and rapidly, until 
Psyche began to miss her sisters and long to see them 
again. Against his will, her husband had them brought 
bv Zephyr, god of the softest breeze that blows. Psyche's 
joy was supreme? She kissed her sisters a thousand times, 
and her caresses were returned as warmly as their jealous 
natures permitted. It was bad enough for her to have a 
palace, each chamber of which was worth ten kingdoms 
such as their husbands had: but to be a goddess! It was 
too much ! And she the youngest of all ! 

Eagerly Psyche hastened to show them her treasures 
her dresses first, bureaus and cabinets and closets in end- 
less succession, all crowded with the most precious and most 
delicate materials fashioned into robes by fairies with 
more than mortal skill. And then vases and bowls of gold 
and silver, chased in finest relief, and bracelets, and rings, 
and collars, and jewels, and pearls, and diamonds in ropes 
and bands — and so on, until her sisters sighed while smil- 
ing and secretly hated Psyche for what she had as well as 
for what she was. 

This is the part of the story illustrated by Beauvais- 
Boucher tapestry No. 19, page 320, "Psyche Displays her 
Treasures to her Sisters." The background is a Louis 
XV palace, with columns and pilasters and arches, while 
Psyche on a bench that stands on a platform, on the upper 
step of which is signed "F. Bouche," displays her treasures 
to her two sisters on the left. They almost equal her in 
— beauty, and are also lightly clad. The furnishings are luxuri- 
ous to a degree possible only for a great decorator, such 
as Boucher was. 




"Chinese Toilet." 
One of the Chinese set. No. 25. 

On a subsequent visit, Psyche's sisters questioned her 
closely about her husband, and finally compelled her to 
admit that she had never seen him. The rest was easy. 
They reminded her of the oracle and insisted that her hus- 
band was the dreadful monster meant, shunning the light 
because of his ugliness. Ultimately he would destroy her, 
and her only hope of escape was to slay him while he slept. 
So Psyche took knife and lamp, with intent to do her 
sisters' bidding, but no sooner did she see the divine beauty 
of her sleeping husband than she thrilled with love for him 
and — but, alas, a drop of hot oil from her lamp fell on his 
shoulder, burning and awakening him. Forthwith he re- 
proached her disobedience and flew away. This part of 
the story is illustrated by Beauvais-Boucher tapestry No. 
16, pictured in part one, "Psyche Abandoned by Cupid." 
Again, a scene transferred by Boucher from inside to out- 
side. Beside a mountain pool lie Psyche and her maidens : 
Psyche with hand upraised appeals in vain to Cupid, whose 
childish figure rapidly recedes heavenward. 

Deserted and disconsolate, Psyche sets forth in search 
of her husband, finally arriving at the home of an aged 
fisherman, whom Boucher transforms into a basketmaker. 
The patriarch, who has two youthful granddaughters, re- 
ceives Psyche kindly ; and when she has told her story, treats 
her as a goddess. This part of the story illustrated by Beau- 
vais-Boucher tapestry No. 18, pictured in part one, "Psyche 
at the Basket Maker's." On the left, the grandfather 
gently assisting the always lightly clad Psyche across the 
mountain stream that separates them from the equally 
lightly clad granddaughters with their baskets and withes. 
Especially rich and effective are the woods and vegeta- 
tion of this tapestry. Like most modern love stories, the 
ancient one of Cupid and Psyche has a happy ending, and 
Venus finally smiles upon her grandchild, Pleasure. 

The only Beauvais-Boucher set of Psyche tapestries in 
the United States is owned by Mrs. Alexander Hamilton 
Rice. 



322 



^lllll 



A RTS and D ECORATION 

lillllllll Ill!llllil!lll!llllll!llll!l!lll!!llllllllllllll!lllllllllll!l!lllll!!llillll!!l II IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII Illllllllllllllllllllll 



April, 1919 



A Sincere 
Atmosphere of 
Colonial Times 



hi the Home of 
IRTHUR WHITNEY, ESQ. 
Bemardsville, N. J. 
Lord & Hewlett, . Irchitects 




SERENELY 
situated on a 
gentle rise of 
ground, embowered 
by fine old trees, the 
house of Mr. Ar- 
thur Whitney at 
Bemardsville, N. J., 
gives forth an at- 
mosphere of peace 
and quiet, desirable 
above all else in a 
h o m e, emanating 
from love and a gen- 
tle appreciation of 
life and nature. 

Sincerity is expressed everywhere 
and the true following out of the 
early American decorative idea has 
gained rather than lost the feeling 
of comfort and intimacy that is the 
spirit of home. The generous fire- 
place, with wide windows, the open 
corner cabinet, the large uncovered 
floor spaces, all offer hospitality. 
The wall papers and chintzes are 
gay without being flamboyant, while 
the few necessary modern pieces of 
furniture have taken their places 
most agreeably. 

Altogether this house is a lesson 
in gentle home atmosphere. 



t 



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April, 1919 



ARTS and D E COR A T [ON 



323 



M l|[ HinmiiHiiiiimiiii iiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiniiimiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiini iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii! nnni ,,.,,,,, r r- ^ —-',-,'.. : : : - : "i:'r, 



Skill in the 

Harmonizing of 

Art with Comfort 



The Home of 

ALFRED C. BOSSOM 

Nezv York City 





T 



HEY are so full 
of intimate charm 
and feeling that it 
is hard to believe that 
these pictures are of 
rooms in a New York 
apartment. While looking 
at them one has the sen- 
sation of being in the 
room. This effect is due 
to the wise selection and 
combination of different 
kinds of furnishings. 

The fine old Welsh 
dresser loses much of its 
austerity by close asso- 
ciation with the Italian 
furniture and lamps. 
Combination of different 
kinds and periods are as 
correct as they are beauti- 
ful if one chooses pieces having 
similar lines. 

Another view of the same 
dining-room shows a further ad- 
mixture — Spanish and English, 
with a modern portrait that in no 
manner seems out of place. This 
home has an atmosphere that is 
home — all the while remaining 1 
the epitome of good taste. 



324 



A RT S and DECOR AT ION 



April. 1919 



ART AS THE PERSIANS SAW IT 



By DOROTHY DENT 



IN order to fully appreciate any art we should approach 
it in a mood harmonious to the spirit of the people 

and period of life during which it developed. Thus it 
would seem that Persian art may best he enjoyed and 
understood by bringing to it a joyous, youthful, spring- 
time mood. As Omar himself suggests: 

"Come, fill the cup and in the fire of spring 
Your winter garment of repentance fling!" 

The "fire of spring" is pictured again and again most 
graciously in the numerous Persian pastorals of the 
miniature painters, whose work constitutes, in my 
opinion, the most characteristic of all the varied 
branches of Persian art expression. 

Whether we study the metal work, the lustre 
ware, the carpets and embroideries, the wrought 
ivory, the miniatures or the carved and inlaid 
wooden articles of this beauty-worshipping 
people, we are impressed by the infinite pains 
taken to secure the greatest possible delicacy 
and refinement of forms and colors. The 
charm deepens as we examine the details 
of lines and patterns. 

We occasionally see now, in antique 
shops, some of the gay tiles which 
were formerly used in the orna- 
mentation of walls and domes of 
mosques, gateways, caravanseries, 
important buildings and tomb- 
stones marking the graves of 
saints. Being used so exten- 
sively, they were made in nu- 
merous patterns of much vari- 
ety: geometrical designs, scenes of garden and court 
festivities, and intricate interlacements of flowering vines 
with narrow bands passing over and around them. Some 
of the tiles were several feet in length and were further 
enriched by the addition of borders of Arabic characters, 
usually texts from the Koran. The charming iridescent 
glaze was obtained by mixing a proportion of gold with 
the tinted glaze before baking. The Persian love of variety 
is again shown in the unique shapes of the tiles. We 
might suppose that they were always made square, or ob- 
long like bricks, that they might be easily fitted together, 
but it is refreshing to find octagonal, triangular and star- 
shapes among them. 

The dim, subtle beauty of the metal work is very rest- 
ful after seeing many rich colors. It has the double charm 
of being exquisite in form and proportion and of having 
delicate designs engraved upon it. Gracefully interlacing 
ribbons form medallions, in which are groups of dancers, 
acrobats, lovers, huntsmen and animals Pitchers, water- 
basins, jars and boxes were ornamented in this way, as 
well as implements of war. The sets of armor of dama- 




Garden Scene — Adapted from a 
Museum — By Dor 



scened steel, with inlay of gold and silver, are justly 
famous. So, too, are the exquisitely delicate rugs and 
carpets, which need no comment in so short an article, as 
this branch of Persia's great contribution to art has become 
quite generally appreciated. 

Wonderful embroidered shawls and wall hangings, re- 
quiring many years to complete, show patterns of hunters, 
animals in combat, plants, birds in blossoming trees, and 
flower, arabesques of the most enchanting kind, similar 
to those used in the weaving of floor coverings. 

There are fewer examples of wood carving and 
wood mosaic, but they have a closely related charm, 
and also bespeak the patience of the Persian crafts- 
men. As with the western craftsmen, geometrical 
designs were the most favored for inlaid work. 
The fortunate circumstance of a continued 
national existence has greatly facilitated the 
development and progress of art among the 
Persians. The characteristic and distinct 
style of the art has changed but little in 
hundreds of years, contact with other 
nations having but slightly influenced it. 
Its roots lie deep in the national char- 
acter. So widely diffused is artistic 4 
feeling that the craftsmen, often 
simple peasants, design as well as 
execute the most elaborate motifs 
in textiles, metals and other ma- 
terials. Modern fabrics compare 
not unfavorably with the most 
ancient specimens, as also some 
kinds of metal work. 
The re-awakening of Nature in the spring months and the 
swelling of the sap-fed buds ever wakes a responsive thrill 
in human hearts, giving them renewed buoyancy. And it is 
at this season that Persian miniature art — a whole fairy 
world in itself — will have its greatest influence upon us. It 
is a phase of painting too little known and one that offers 
many joys to the student. 

Preserved within the covers of priceless books are all the 
lavish, sun-gilt hues of former springs. All the splendor 
of Oriental court life is spread before us as we examine the 
delicate pages painted so many centuries ago. It would 
seem that life in Persia must have been one long day-dream 
among flowering trees and bushes, set to the music of laugh- 
ing brooks and the songs of most decorative and sociable 
birds; one long feast, at which wines and fruits and deli- 
cate sweets were served, and partaken of to the accompani- 
ment of gentle melody from stringed instruments played by 
graceful young musicians. 

In this dreamland of leisure it seems impossible for 
any element to interrupt the happy spell. We sense thd£ 
absolute tranquility of the East in their calm charm, which 



Miniature in the Boston 
olhy Dent. 



ARTS and DECORATION 



325 



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IN every business institution and 
in every factory in every club 
and in every lodge, in every 
store and in every church,there 
should be some visible record of 
those who foughtof those who 
suffered, of those who died 
for humanity and freedom. 

<7he &brliam Oompanu will gladla 
furnish prices, and Invites correspond- 
ence where advice is desired on 
the subject of~designs. 

A Portfolio of 
Gorham Honor Rolls 

free on request 

THE GORHAM COMPANY 

FIFTH AVENUE AT THIRTY-SIXTH STREET 

NEW YORK, 






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A R 



S and DECOR A TIO X 



April, 191! 




cr (9Ae Living Room 
ofrAe Courviiy House 

CERHAPS no other room permits such 
adequate expression of a predilection 
for harmonious surroundings as does 
the Living Room of the modern country house. 

tf|T The inviting sense of comfort, the spirit 
Til of hospitality — withal, the decorative 
distinction, which should characterize this 
important room may be realized quite readily 
by recourse to this interesting establishment 
— and without the objection of prohibitive 
cost. Here, indeed, are reproductions and 
hand-wrought facsimiles of which the master- 
makers of Early English, French and Italian 
Furniture might well be proud. 

tfjj A visit to these twelve Galleries will 

J reveal a wealth of suggestion not alone 

for the Living Room, but for the dignified 

Hall and Dining Room, the garden-bordered 

Breakfast Room and the 

daintily arranged Chamber 

and Boudoir. 



De luxe prints of 
charming interiors 
gratis upon request 

furniture 

decorative ©bjects 
©dental IRnos 




Grand Rapids furniture Company 



INCORPORATED 



34-36 West 32 n -2 Street 
New~Ybrk City 








A Princess Reclining by a River — By Shah Quli Naqqash, a 
Pupil of Mirak, 

Copied from the antique. Borders by Dorothy Dent. 

rests and soothes our hurried spirits and lures us back into 
luxurious fancies of things we have longed to enjoy to the 
full — fancies which music and poetry often warm to a 
momentary glow. 

There are scenes of war and of the chase as well as of 
quiet garden pleasures ; scenes in palaces and in temples, 
illustrating anecdotes and amusing episodes. Some of the 
pictures combine life outdoors and in, — the artists having 
taken quaint liberties with architecture and perspective, 
to let us see around corners! Of the pools of fountains 
we are shown a bird's-eye view. The lack of any attempt 
at foreshortening is a peculiarity, — and to many, a charm,-» 
of much of the early art of both the near and far East! 

When we are transported to a park or garden, we are 
shown every detail of its beauty. The lawn is sprinkled 
with innumerable flowering plants. Larger ones spring 
from crevices in the rocks, and the rocks are themselves 
alive with faces in outline, such as children delight to dis- 
cover in nature. Slender maidens gather fruit from mirac- 
ulous trees or sit dreamily beside streams and await their 
lovers. Their long, gaily patterned garments, looped up 
to reveal yet richer linings, make striking and graceful sil- 
houettes. The clouds are unlike any of our known world, 
having taken on fairylike forms which seem truly frolic- 
some. They are skillfull)' made to curl into suggestive 
ornamental shapes, and even to excel Chinese conventional 
clouds in their acrobatics! The flowers are allowed to 
grow only where they will be most decorative, which surely 
is their purpose in life as well as in art. Some give the 
appearance of growing just as happily upside down ! — 
owing to the quaint perspective. 

The hunting scenes, bold in action, show the same care- 
ful detail and consciousness of the purely decorative pur- 
pose of the art — an idea ever present in the artist's mind. 
How superbly the horses, lions, tigers, camels and gazelles 
were depicted ! The nature and characteristic movements 
of each animal were knowingly studied and memorized, and 
then adapted to a slightly conventional treatment. How 
delicately the horses lift their dainty feet! They seem 
aware of themselves and of their lordly riders. The Cjtf>st 
minute patterning occurs on the saddles and trappings of 
(Continued on page 328) 



April, 1919 



A R TS and DECORA f IO X 



327 



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Superiority IS Economy 

'Economy" meets a harder test in furniture-buying 
than in almost any other act that may serve as a gauge of indi- 
vidual judgment. 

This is because you can make "furniture" out of more 
things than intelligent economy (which also includes artistic dis- 
crimination) ever heard of. But — that superiority IS economy 
there can be no doubt. Of course, one of the several tests of true 
economy in furniture-buying is "artistic livability" — the quality 
which begets endearment that grows with the years. And, equally 
of course, another trait must be "endurance without change ex- 
cept for the better." (This is "the heirloom quality" possessed 
by few indeed of all the furniture candidates for that rare honor.) 

In furniture there is little to be said; little is necessary; 
almost everybody of real discrimination — including almost every- 
one who inherits a knowledge of the prides of his ancestors — enjoys 
the love of American Walnut. (And the abuses of design to which 
this noble wood was at one period subjected only enhance our 
present delight at discovering that Furniture Art has not lost its 
most superlative medium — there is a surprising abundance of 
American Walnut left for us and for our posterity.) 

The brochure, de luxe, on American Walnut is being prepared for your library table. 
On your request it will come, when ready, with our compliments. Will you place 
vour name on the list for one of the First Edition? Drop us a card. Thank you. 

American Walnut Manufacturers' Association 

Room 402, 115 Broadway, New York City 



. •55 . 




| I 



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328 



A RTS and I) ECO R A T I ON 



April, 1<)19 



The Highest Glass Talking 
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When your friends see the Sonora trade-mark 
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A magnificent line of upright and period 

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Prices $50 to $1000 

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279 Broadway 50 Broadway (Standard Arcade) 

TORONTO: Ryrie Building 

Sonora Semi-Permanent Silvered Needles replace steel needles, pre- 
serve phonograph records, play 50 to 100 times and are more con- 
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'acobean 
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f odef 



the horses and on the robes of the hunters. The silver and 
gold armor is covered with an indescribably fine traceru 
of black or brown lines. Tents and summer pavilions of 
the princes are also most beautifully patterned over their 
entire surface, with arabesques requiring a magnifying 
glass to fully appreciate. The walls of the tiled palaces 
resemble heavy brocade or colored mosaic. 

The inviting luxury of the interior court scenes presents 
a picture richer than the pastorals. All Eastern art is the 
result of an impulse given by the ruling monarch and is 
truly court art; this explains why the utmost skill of the 
finest draughtsmen and colorists was lavished on these 
records of royal festivity. Near the centre of the compo- 
sition, on a platform, is placed the golden throne, with its 
gracefully curved and pointed back seen against a window 
overlooking the garden, or against some contrasting tapes- 
try on the wall. Embroidered pillows and draperies are 
arranged upon it, setting off to advantage the figures of 
the King and Queen, whose ceremonial robes are usually 
black with gold motifs. Directly in front of the plat- 
form is a set of three or four steps, as rich as the throne 
itself. A throng of servants, bearing gleaming platters 
of goodly viands, strange cylindrical lanterns, candles and 
incense, approaches the royal couple. Seated musicians 
play upon long graceful lutes, harps and tambourines. 
Fountains toss their delicate silver spray into the perfumed 
air, dancers display grace of limbs and draperies, while 
others seem to be happily entertained in watching the spec- 
tacle with the King and Queen. 

All is seen at the moment when refined pleasure is at its 
height: the sweets are always about to be eaten, the cup qf^ 
wine is just being offered by the slender young Prince to 
the slender young Princess. All is delicate in idea as well 
as in execution. These pages are a never-failing source of 
enchantment, and glow like a chest full of jewels and 
wrought gold. Their clear notes of amber, jade-green, 
coral and lapis-lazuli linger in the memory for some time 
after the book has been closed. 

In the illustrations for the Shah Nameh (the national 
epic of the Persians) and in some of the other elaborate 
pictured narratives, every conceivable activity within the 
palace and garden is shown in a single page! From the 
distance approaches a gay party of huntsmen carrying 
their bows and arrows and game, several of them having 
falcons on their gloved wrists. From high windows and 
trellised balconies peer the court ladies, watching the 
sportive scene in the park below. Occasionally one holds a 
wee baby in her arms. Some watch from the roof, though 
the frail palace seems to totter with their weight ! The 
structures are generally so open that the sun appears to 
beam on every part, though no shadows are cast in this 
strange, impossible world. The exterior and interior walls 
are equally ornamented, and the many gracefully arched 
doorways and windows are always accented with panelling 
of more pronounced richness. Hardly any portion of color 
is left unpatterned, yet so well are the masses placed, one 
against another, that no sense of confusion is felt. A 
thoroughly practiced hand and a patiently developed artis- 
tic perception are* required to avoid chaos in such a hjji- 
ardous undertaking. 

{Continued on page 336) 



April, 1919 



ARTS and DECO R AT ION 



l!!llllll!llll!lll!lll!!ll!!ll!!lllll!llllil!ll!lll!!ll!l!!!llll!lllllllll!llllllllllll 



329 

IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 



« 




What kind of man are you 
when the excitement's over? 



Because our country is good to 
live in, it was worth fighting for. 
Because it was worth righting 
for, it is worth lending to. Don't 
be a deserter. Lend! 

Uncle Sam made preparations 
for a big campaign this Spring. 
It was the very vastness of those 
preparations that made the Ger- 
mans squeal. They didn't like the 
taste of their medicine. Now the 
bills of Victory have to be paid. 



? E *> 



It takes a higher, finer patriotism 
to pay when all the excitement 
is over. But that's the sort 
that bears the stamp "Made in 
U. S. A." The American soldier 
showed it. You didn't find him 
whining. Show it as he did. 

Dig deep into your pocketbook, 
deep into your future earnings. 
Help our country keep its word 
at home as it kept it abroad. 
Lend! 



Mictorv Liberty Loan 



<oW 



The Clean-up 
Button 



Space contributed by 

ARTS and DECORATION 



Prepared by American Association of Advertising Agencies cooperating with the United States Treasury Department 



/:llli!lllil!!l!ll!U!H 



330 



A R TS and DECOR A TIO N 



April, l'M9 



r^n CHINA AND CLASS s^pj 




COPELAND CHINA WITH COBALT 
BLUE AND GOLD DECORATION 
WEBB ENGLISH ROCK CRYSTAL 



FOUNDED 1887 



9 811 EAST 37 T -*STREET 

NEW YORK CITY 



!wi CHINA AND GLASS iwi 



A GUILD FOR THE REPRODUCTION OF ANCIENT AND THE 
DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN ART OBJECTS, CONDUCIVE 
TO HARMONY, EXPRESSED THROUGH ILLUMINATION 
AND ORNAMENTATION FOR. INTERIORS AND EXTEFUOKS 




Mirror $125.00 
Book ends 34.00 



Rose Bowl $ 40.00 
Table 140.00 



Kantack, Heath 6r Warman. Inc. 

489 FIFTH AVENUE NEW YORK 



INSPIRATION OF THE CRUCIFIXION 

(Continued from page 301 ) 



Illllll 



amber sky flecked with little floating clouds. Ii all larks 
tlif forceful portrayal of the tragic scene, hut the meril ol 
the work is great and surprisingly so when the period of 
its execution is taken into consideration. 

Rubens' painting of the crucifixion ( 1613 I, now in Ant 
werp, is one of the most powerful portrayals of this sub- 
ject. I allude to the intellectual side of this interpretation, 
tor there is running through it a spirit, a life, which has 
given it a place foremost among the greatest paintings. 

Tn this, there is a suggestion of the terrible, a frightful 
overawing which engrosses our thoughts and strikes our 
spark of sympathy. The eye is involuntarily drawn to his 
massive • figure as the central weight of the composition. 
He represents Christ in the nude, not partially and feebly, 
but of correct proportions, a man of strength and human 
power; thus emphasizing the importance of His personality, 
as acted in the drama of His race, and vividly suggesting 
the pathos, the horror and suffering of His last hour. 

Cold and storm are felt in shivering combination. The 
crucifixion looms, half hidden by mist and conflagration, 
large and distant against the sky, in the dimness of that 
frightful night, as history has pictured it to us. The thieves 
Dismas and Gestos hang beside Him. and are almost hidden 
by the storm. The figure of Mary stands before her son, 
with arms raised in appealing agony and distress. Mary 
Magdalene kneels, clinging to the cross, the picture of hu- 
miliation. 

The message of this masterly work is found in the dolfl * 
ful mystery of the lurking atmosphere, the effect and treat- 
ment, which magnetizes the spectator into feeling himself 
to be one of the witnesses of the dreadful scene. And this 
great subject coming by way of the great old master Peru- 
gino, gathered perfection as it travelled and emanated in 
this magnificent representation of the Flemish school. 

It is important that we mention Van Dvck's picture of 
"Christ on the Cross." Tn this we see nothing of the sur- 
rounding landscape, the multitude, the sorrowing intimate 
group, only this solitary figure of Jesus nailed to the cross, 
standing in relief against the dark and troubled heavens. 
Here his art has reached a higher sphere in that his figure 
stands apart and is not used as a mere pointer to the effect 
intended, but is of itself an essential figure, an idealized 
visualization of Christ in perfect resignation. The body 
is slender and delicately modelled, yet firm and supple as in 
the fullness of manhood, it is nude, save for a small strip 
of cloth knotted about the loins, the ragged ends fall at the 
side. His handsome face, brilliantly illumined, shows signs 
of suffering and torture, and the upturned eyes look plead- 
ingly heavenward. The atmospheric influence is felt rep- 
resenting the moment when the storm clouds are gathering 
over the face of the sun. The main light in the picture 
evidently comes from some source far off, and blends hap- 
pily with the darker tones in the background. Of all the 
portrayals of the crucifixion (done by the different mas- 
ters) showing the solitary figure of Christ, this is easily 
the most wonderful. Rubens painted one (1612) strillP" 
ingly the same, but that of Van Dyck's is superior to 
(Continued on page 332") 






\pril, 1919 



• • 



A R TS and 1) ECO R A TIO X 

iiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiuiiiiM iiiiiiiiiiiiiii 



331 




Antique Spanish 
Chest of Drawers 

Length 39" 
Height 30i/ 2 " 
Depth 17;," 



fwiutcx 



inc- 



Q)ecomtion 



If 




C J{&ngings 
furniture " ^Anticjites 

lOl Park Ave • oA 40 * St- ■ -"NewJ/brk 



,■;.;, ; : ii;ui: i;i.' ; !.i! i..i i : i:;: i;:;.i, i. i ,.!, n;i..i ;. i.'j i;., ,. ,.;. i . ; ! , ,. . imiiiiiii i::i!!iii;ii!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiiiii!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiH 



MAGGS BROTHERS 

34 & 35 Conduit Street; New Bond Street 
LONDON ENGLAND 



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FINE AND RARE 

BOOKS, PRINTS 

AND 

AUTOGRAPHS 

Illustrated Catalogues in each department 
regularly issued 

These Catalogues appeal especially to the 
Connoisseur, Collector and Antiquarian 



Customers "desiderata" searched 
for and reported free of charge 



Shipments to America every week 

ITEMS OF RARITY AND INTEREST ALWAYS 
GLADLY PURCHASED 



Established over fifty years 




TETE-A-TETE (illustrated above). An exclusive Minuet creation. 
Complete in natural willovj, or stained, with cushions of plain poplin 
or figured cretonne, at $47. 50. The Ten Wagon is $22.00. Express 
prepaid 100 miles; freight 500; samples of upholstery gladly sent. 



Modern Willow 

Minuet Willow is a modern 
wicker furniture for the mod- 
ern interior. Skillfully woven 
of fine French willow, it 
finds a ready place in the best 
type of country residences, smart 
city ^ apartments and clubs. An 
infinite variety of decorative schemes 
are suggested by the ultra modern 
tints and the rich, luxurious cre- 
tonnes. 

You are invited to inspect the new 
Minuet designs for Spring and 
Summer. Shipments can be made 
immediately, or deferred, at your 
convenience. Illustrated Catalogue 
on request. 



tfflpa 



&t3o 



Manufacturers of High 
Grade Willow Furniture 

365 Lexington Ave. 

J'.etween 40th and 41st Sts. 

NEW YORK CITY 



332 



ARTS and DECORATION 



April, 1919 



I 



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Countess of 
Rothes. Mary, 
daughter of Gres- 
ham Lloyd, Esq. ; 
married 170.% 
when she became 
the second wife of 
John, 9th Karl of 
Rothes, who was 
representative peer 
of S c o t 1 a n d in 
1723 and made 
Knight oi the 
Thistle 1753. In 
1770 she married 
Bennett Langton 
who was one of 
the original mem- 
bers of the Liter- 
ary Club and a 
friend of Dr. John- 
son and Sir 
Joshua. She sat 
twice to Reynolds, 
first in 1704 and 
again in 1700. She 
died 1785. 




"COUNTESS OF ROTHES" 

By Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792) 

Size of Canvas 30" x 25H" 



1 HE "Old Masters" sold from our col- 
lection are always exchangeable at full pur- 
chase price. 



BhTEhrtch (Batteries 

Dealers in "Old Masters" Exclusively 
707 FIFTH AVENUE at 55th Street NEW YORK 




SUN-BURST CLOCK IN CARVED WOOD 
30 INCH DIAMETER 



ANTIQUES AND REPRODUCTIONS 
FURNISHINGS AND INTERIORS 



% 3F. «fub*r $c (In. 

(jtytrieett last Jffnrttetlj §>trrrt 

Npui fork (Etiy 



Rubens in delicacy of feeling and refinement, while it is 
lacking in muscular energy and force. « 

As we look at this modern illustration, drawn by Jonai 
each one must decide for himself what moment in this 
drama is therein illustrated. Here is tragedy, not triumph, 
tragedy beyond forgiveness, impossible to believe. We 
feel that the artist is gifted with an extraordinary vision, 
and a still rarer ability to portray what he actually saw 
and dreamed in his flight of imagination. It teems and 
thrills with suggestion of thought, connecting so closely 
the crucifixion of our Lord with the death and sacrifice 
of our noble men. 

The picture overruns with profuse detail, but lacks at- 
mosphere and shadow. The titanic figure of the bird, in the 
foreground, entangled in the twisted barbed wire, with out- 
stretched wings, shows off in strong contrast the rigid body 
of the soldier, and above this rises the cross with the figure 
of Christ. Out of the misty background comes tramping 
the innumerable host, even as the people ran in crowds to 
behold Christ's humiliation, as He hung upon the cross, 
and from among this multitude there will come those to 
administer and lay him gently in his sepulchre. 

Now, at the end, knowing better than any of you bow- 
utterly inadequate is our power to attempt to criticise the 
great interpretations given us by these masters, may we 
hope by chance to have at least awakened ■ your interest in 
this great theme for expression, and furthered your belief 
that God must have endowed men with a miraculous power 
to have produced these magnificent pictures for us to 
venerate. 



t 



The Past is Inseparable from the Present 



It was then as now, tyranny against man's liberty. Never 
in the world's history has the great sacrifice of Christ's life 
and His crucifixion stood out as since, and during this war 
men, not one man, have gone forth singing their way to 
glory in the path of the cross. It is not one mother at the 
tragic scene weeping to-day, but a million mothers giving 
and surrendering all they held most dear, fighting and en- 
during their sorrow in the anguish of silence. And as the 
little wooden crosses in Europe to-day stand out against the 
horizon, in the glory of the setting sun, they are symbols 
of a modern Calvary. 

All this agony and suffering came because a demon by 
whom no civilization was ever touched without feeling his 
blight, had begun at one end to destroy a little land, Serbia. 

In agony its cry resounded throughout the world, and 
the world responded to its appeal. The Allied army went 
forth fighting as one against the enemy. They went forth 
on this crusade with unity of thought, hearts throbbing, 
marching to the tune of death for humanity, thrilled with 
the passion of patriotism. 

Now that the tumult and bloodshed is over and every- 
thing is hushed and still, we cannot escape the human pathos 
of it, nor withhold our vision from the scars. As far as 
the eye can see, we behold the barren landscape, outlined in 
its twisted frame of barbed wire, passing on its path of 
torture across this devastated land. It haunts us witf^its 
resemblance to the thorns which pierced the brow of our 
(Continued on page 334) 



il, 1919 

I 






ARTS and DECORATION 



333 




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McGIBBON & CO. I 



3 West 37th Street 



Handy to Fifth Ave. 




Summer Furnishings 

WILLOW FURNITURE— Most desirable Models in Nat- 
ural, Stained or Enamel finish. 

Awnings — Best Awning Stripes and Stenciled Duck. 

SLIP COVERS— Imported Prints, Linen, Cretonnes, Dim- 
ities. 

Window Shades — Imported Scotch Holland and Domestic 
Painted Shading. 

Reupholstering of Furniture — Abundant variety of mate- 
rials from which to select covering. Expert workmen at 
your service and satisfaction assured. 

Lace Curtains Carefully Cleaned — At moderate prices. 
:*£tored free for the summer if desired. 

Oriental and Domestic Rugs and Carpets cleaned, repaired 
and stored. 

iiiiiiiiiiiiwitiiin mi! 




The chief charm of a 
Player Piano is in the 
simplicity of design. 



' I 'HE Kranich & Bach Player Grand Piano 
* has no clumsy mechanism to mar its 
graceful lines. It produces all the loveliness 
of tone possible to hand playing. 
These are the motives that impel the selection 

of the 1gbANICH-&BACH 

jl||g7 J /a#er GRAND 
famous throughout the world in actual musical quality. 
r KRANICH & BACH _ , 

Convenient Catalogue 

Terms of 235 East 23rd Street Sent on 

Payment. t\EW YORK CITY Request. 



334 



A RT'S and I) K CO RATIO N 



April, 1' 



The COLONY SHOPS 



GINSBURG £r LEVY 



ANTIQUES 




Partial view of our Qallery 
of original English and 
American Eighteenth - Century 
Antiques 



MAHOGANY S.deboard of 
the Sheraton Period — pair of 
Hepplewhite Inlaid Knife 
Boxes — early Georgian Mahogany 
Corner Cabinet — Mahogany Chip' 
pendale Urn Stand— Old Silver and 
Lowestoft China 



397 MADISON AVENUE 



NEW YORK 




MRS. MUCHMORE 

CONSULTING DECORATOR 
ONE THIRTY NINE EAST NINE- 
TEENTH STREET, NEW YORK CITY 
OLD CHINESE PAINTINGS, SILKS 
ANDPORCELAIN,FURNITURE,HANC- 
INGS, WALL AND FLOOR COVERINGS 






suffering Saviour. Here and there the dense mass 
crosses in unbroken rows tear your heart until you relrife 
ber that crosses, after all, are only symbols, that they sta 
for something grander and nobler. Beholding this see 
of mystery so silent, so remote, one realizes that their bei 
dead matters so little after all ; it is rather the reason f 
their death, since they have reached a glorious freedom 
the realization of their ideal. The curtain of darkness fal 
We lift our eyes and behold God has placed them one I 
one in his heavenly sphere, to shine as golden stars lightii 
the pathway for humanity. 

Almost cruciform in shape, the bare trees rear themseh 
above the dead. Beyond the rolling hills, the sombre ve 
leys, sorrowfully still, are emptied of their architectur 
treasures. Nothing is left but broken walls, and our em 
tions awaken to the call from the valleys of desolation whe 
death has lurked and bravery has triumphed, and we pn 
that out of this turmoil and chaos there will arise a tie 
inspiration for humanity, knowing it will flourish if give 
the sunshine of the people's understanding and delight. 



KING MINOS TO MATISSE— GREETING' 

(Continued from page 313) 

And what shall we do now, that the Bow of Apollo 
broken and the Pipes of Pan are silenced, save in the dee 
fastnesses of Greenwich Village? 

I suppose that the only refuge left for those of us wh 
are addicted to the worship of the Golden Calf of Realisn 
the Will-o'-the-Wisp of the Plein-airist, and the stark God 
dess of Accuracy is to poke fun at our aesthetic anc« >mti 
That is the immemorial refuge of old age — the sage an< 
cynical platitude on the silliness of young things. Wha 
indeed can be funnier than the result of your three-year 
old's struggles to depict herself leading a big dog with . 
muzzle, a chain and a blanket on his back? You fold i 
up, carelessly, put it in your pocket and show it to you 
grown-up friends who also laugh lightly. 

Now why is that big dog's portrait a funny one? It i 
not so. much that his head is far too small with his ey<; 
situated well behind his ear, that his legs are of unequa 1 
length and his tail not in the proper place for that of ; 
dignified canine. We should pass without a comment o 
a smile a carefully finished portrait of a blue-ribboneci 
bench-kind with inaccuracies not so pronounced but jus 
as inaccurate. Is it not rather our schooling in the realistic 
photographic tradition which blinds us to the spirit of tht 
work which is there and the delightful qualities it may have 
of line and decoration? 

It is difficult to look at the Tiryns Lady with a Casket 
and suppress a chuckle. If your child had made that draw- 
ing it would have been done with the most intense serious- 
ness of purpose. The eye forsooth in full view is placed 1 
upon a profile head. That is funny, is it not? It was not) 
funny to the Mycenean. To him an eye was an eye, and; 
was a far more expressive one if all of it could be seen; 
than if only a part. And he painted that roguish eye upon 
the mourner in a funeral cortege. 

The eternal foolish smile upon the face of his f%Vired: 
contemporaries, even when in the act of being thrust 
(Continued on page 336) 






(April. 1919 



ARTS and DEC O R A T I O N 



335 



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336 ARTS and DECORATION A P ril . 1919 

ART AS THE PERSIANS SAW IT KING MINOS TO MATISSE— GREETING!^ 

(Continued from page 328) 



(Continued from page 334) 







Persian Prince — By Sultan Muhammad. 
Copied from the antique. Borders by Dorothy Dent. 



It can well be imagined that such rich paintings would 
not appear to advantage if mounted on a white paper. The 
contrast would be too sharp. The need of a distinctive 
setting developed a charming method of border decora- 
tion. A pattern usually in dull gold outline was painted 
upon a mat of the tint best suited to the complete harmony; 
sometimes a geometrical pattern, but more often a fabu- 
lous scene. Where no design was used, the severity of the 
plain color was relieved by flecking it with gold. Some- 
times the picture encroaches upon the mat in a peculiar and 
characteristic manner; a war-banner extends above the top 
border line, a horseman rides out of the scene to right or 
left, or a temple dome projects into the upper margin. 
There seems to be no reason for this quaint practice except 
that of mere whim on the part of the artist. 

A few words about the technique may be of interest : 
"Tracing from the master's work was practiced for several 
years until the eye and hand of the pupil became quite 
accustomed to the work. By this practice the details and 
minutiae of the various figures became graven on his brain. 
The masters made the first sketch with a brush dipped in 
water only, which left on the paper, when dry, a waterline 
impression which served as a guide. Afterwards the out- 
lines were drawn with ink, and then the colors were 
laid on." 

Persian art, rich as it is in decorative values, color, in 
imagination and poetic feeling, offers to artists and art 
lovers alike an unlimited field for study as well as pure and 
endless enjoyment. 



tb rough by the lance of an enemy — that was not a smile 
to him. 

The Rhyton of the fifth century B. C. with an excellent 
example of the smile and the additional improvement of 
cross-eyes, undoubtedly presented to Brygos, who is reputed 
to have made it, the portrait of a beautiful and serious 
woman, not at all fit for the insane ward. And if we could 
rid ourselves of the naturalistic prepossession, we also 
could see the beauty of the vase, now obscured to us. 

This is not an argument for the revival of these idiosyn- 
crasies of an age — the Romans tried it with a result such 
as we see in the Marble Head of Athena and the com- 
parison speaks for itself although the later work is an ex- 
ample of extreme cleverness. I should like to propound 
to the reader a question on which I cannot make up my 
mind — how the archaic Greek with his abounding vigor, 
his natural and spontaneous mode of life and his keen wit, 
was able to keep his art so thoroughly disinfected from a 
conscious humor. Was it because like a modern child he 
approached his task with such an intense sincerity — that his 
calling had a touch of mysticism or religion to him? Per- 
haps he began his work in the same spirit as that of a con- 
templating contributor to an Academy Exhibition — to 
whom a joke would be lese majeste. Like most logical 
explanations it is difficult of belief. Your ancient had a 
human nature like unto our own, but the Cretan who 
painted the Minoan Circus may have been blessed withf a 
sense of humor indistinguishable from his normal life- 
attitude, not, as with us, a separate and suppressed mood. 
It is not easy, however, to credit the serious intention of 
Hegesiboulos. According to the catalogued description 
of his work of art, it represents an Old Man going for a 
Walk with his Dog. Would it not pass for a likeness of 
some archaic Shylock come trading from Sidon, with his 
pet porker at his side? 

Then there is that Return of Hephaistos, with Dionysos 
and Hephaistos both drunk and riding on a donkey. Do 
you suppose that this Prohibitionist's Parable could be 
looked at solemnly by a small Athenian boy? And yet 
Vulcan and Bacchus were both dwellers on Olympus. Could 
one publicly take their names in vain without going in 
deadly fear of a special thunderstorm? 

At any rate the advanced Greek artist, more skilled in 
naturalism, perhaps subconsciously feeling the incom- 
patibility of humor with the detailed perfection of his 
masterpieces, turned to the intentionally humorous. There 
can be no doubt of this. The figure which we reproduce, 
a bronze statuette of the Hellenistic Period, is distinctly 
labeled — "Grotesque." Perhaps it was inspired by some 
court jester of the Great Alexander but it falls as far short 
of touching a modern risibility as would a sad little de- 
formed fool of King Arthur's court. 

The glory of Attica had indeed departed. 

It is a dangerous thing to point a moral — the discovery 
may be made too late that the point is at the -wrong enTi. 
I believe, however, that if you will take the pains to spend 



April, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



337 






f.few hours in the serious study of what our Metropolitan 
luseum has to offer in its collection of archaic work and 
will thereupon visit one or two exhibitions of modernist 
Art, you will be overcome both by incredulity and sym- 
pathy. 

It is easy to understand how the spirit of the really 
modern artist, who feels the stirring oi great natural forces 
throughout the world of man, must lean eagerly to embrace 
the expressions of quiet power, of a calm sense of freedom 
from trick and habit, of abounding vitality and unafraid 
simplicity which are the dominant message of the archaic 
artist. 

"Here," he cried, "is my Golden Text! Let me, like a 
child, like the men of the World's Childhood, express my- 
self untrammeled by the labors of my academic forebears!" 
and he proceeds to try to express himself just as academic- 
ally as do they. Surely he falls into the same pit of tradi- 
tion. His teachers perhaps had labored long to discover 
just how Titian ground his colors, how Michel Angelo 
handled his mallet and Holbein his pencil, and had done 
their best to imitate them — unashamed. But on every hand 
the Modernist now assails us with the technique of Old 
Cathay. The chisel-strokes of the masters of Praxiteles 
and the scratches of that stone-age artist who decorated 
the French cave. 

All that is missed is the intention, of the primitive artist 
which was to do the very best he could, using all the 
knowledge at his disposal, gathered painfully by centuries 
of his predecessors, content indeed if he could add to it 



his mite of personal feeling, his iota of technical improve- 
ment. 

America is as fresh a field for the achievement of the 
race as were the plains of Attica when the first barbarian 
Greeks descended upon them. And in the history of the 
race as a whole, but a day of time separates us from them. 
Surely we can. as they did, calmly and intelligently separate 
the wheat of tradition from the chaff, and like the dough- 
boy going forward over the top discard all but the essentials 
ol our equipment, and with a ^\uv sense of humor, tell the 
future digger among our ruins how our eves looked bravely 
and sincerely for the thread of the beauty of life amid the 
Minoan Labyrinth of its daily problems. 



SAINT-PORCHAIRE POTTERY IN AMERICA 

(Continued from page 318) 

instances similar figures have been introduced into the in- 
terior of the structure, and can be seen through the windows 
or portals represented thereon; such pieces are in the pos- 
session of Mr. Widener and Mr. Morgan. The other salt- 
cellar in the latter gentleman's collection is a perfect little 
monument with mullioned windows, and redundant with 
details found on several of the larger pieces of this period; 
the little terminal figures at the angles, and the little puffy 
cherubs applied her and there, make it especially remin- 
iscent of the fine candlestick in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, London, and the saltcellar in the collection of 








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338 



ARTS and DECORATION 



YALE 


SCHOOL 


OF 


THE 


FINE 


ARTS 


YALB UNIVERSITY, NEW HAVEN. CONN. 






SERGEANT KENDALL. Director 


Depar 


tments of Drawing and Painting, Sculpture 


and Architecture 




GLASSES IN COMPOSITION, ANATOMY AND PERSPECTIVE 













FACULTY — Painting — Sergeant 
Kendall. Drawing — Edwin C. Tay- 
lor, G. H. Langzettel, T. Diedrick- 
sen, Jr. Sculpture — Robert G. 
Eberhard. Architecture- — Everett 
V. Meeks, Franklin J. Walls, A. 
Kingsley Porter. Composition, 
Perspective — Edwin C. Taylor. 
Anatomy — Raynham Townshend, 
M.D. 

DEGREE— The degree of Bache- 
lor of Fine Arts (B.F.A.) is 
awarded for advanced work of 
distinction. 

The Winchester Fellowship for 
one year's study of art in Europe, 
the English Scholarship for study 
of art and travel in Europe during 
the summer vacation, and School 
Scholarships are awarded annually. 




Painted from life by member 

of the life-painting class, Yale 

School of Fine Arts 









Illustrated Catalogue: Address G. H. LANGZETTEL, Secretary 



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April, 1919 

I'rince Czartoryski at Krakow, ex- 
cept that the little moresque towers 
on each fagade constitute the orig- 
inality of this exceptional piece. 

The third period, and contempo- 
rary with Henri II., displays a cer- 
tain departure from the general 
designs of its predecessors, and the 
niello ornamentation becomes more 
arabesque in treatment. The mas- 
ter appears to have abandoned the 
architectonic forms and sought to 
imitate fine pieces of goldsmith's 
work then in fashion, especially in 
the aiguieres and biberons. Of this 
period there are three in America : 
the beautiful little ewer in the col- 
lection of Mr. Henry C. Frick, New 
York, once forming a part of the 
famous Hope heirlooms, the shal- 
low cup, or ciborium, and the cover 
in the Metropolitan Museum. Mr. 
Frick's ewer is oviform in shape, 
and very similar in general style 
and design to the larger ewers in 
the Rothschild collections. Its va- 
rious interlaced ornaments are iden- 
tical in pattern also with the cele- 
brated covered cup in the Louvre; 
it is distinguished, however, in ad- 
dition, by several small applique 
figures of lizards, frogs, sirens, etc., 
which seem to climb about its body. 
Upon its surface, just below the 
trilobed spout, is a quaint heart- 
shaped device, displaying animals 
and snakes, probably of heraldic 
significance, the meaning of which 
is unknown. The ciborium and 
cover in the Metropolitan Museum 
are similarly decorated with this 
intricate yet graceful, endless rib- 
bon-pattern to be seen on the ewt^, 
belonging to Mr. Frick. The I ftp 
itself is in perfect condition, and, 
like the saltcellar of the second 
period in the same Museum, and 
one in Mr. Morgan's collection, car- 
ries a suggestion of ro) r al favor. In 
the centre of the interior is a shield 
encircled with the collar of the 
Order of St. Michael, surmounted 
with a royal crown, and bearing 
those interlaced C's, or crescents, 
the favorite badge of Henry II. , ana 
supposedly adopted by him out of 
compliment to his celebrated mis- 
tress, Diana of Poitiers, created 
Duchess of Valentinois, or, when 
construed as a double entendre, 
as the initials of Henri's queen, 
Catherine de Medicis. The cover, 
above mentioned, does not belong 
to the cup, but is covered with 
the self-same ribbon-like interlace- 
ments, and is surmounted by a tiny 
seated infant, which is probably a 
modern addition. 

In conclusion, it may be added, 
the eleven examples of Saint-Por- 
chaire faience which have reached 
this side of the Atlantic have, each 
in their turn, been unconscious wit- 
nesses of their remarkable rise in 
the realm of intrinsic rarities, cou- 
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il, 1919 



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RTS & DECORATION 

while continuing to be the fore- 
most American authority on 
art — has broadened its editorial 
interest to include — 

ARCHITECTURE, 

BUILDING, INTERIOR 

DECORATION 

FURNITURE 

Each department is profusely 
illustrated and skilfully texted 
by those who know their sub- 
jects. Arts & Decoration 
emphasizes the fact that indi- 
viduality and not lavish expen- 
diture is what creates the more 
desirable in home surroundings. 

We maintain a Decorative Ser- 
vice Department, which is at 
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A RTS and DECO R A TI:0 N 

CALENDAK of 
EXHIBITIONS 



Arlington Art Galleries, 274 Madison Ave. 
— Works by American artists, through 

April. 

Arden Gallery, 599 Fifth Ave. -Small sculp- 
tures by Frances Grimes and I. aura 
Gardin Fraser, with painted panels and 
brocades, to April 7. 

Babcock Galleries, 1 ( ) Easl 49th St. Eighth 
annual exhibition of paintings by Wil- 
liam R. Leigh, to April 7. 

Bourgeois Gallery, 668 Fifth Ave. Modern 
paintings, through April. 

Century Association, 7 W. 43d St. Medal- 
lie art, to April 5th. 

Demotte of Paris, 8 E. 57th St. Exhibition 
of French Art of the Middle Ages, 
through April. 

Ehrich Gallery, 707 Fifth Ave. — Monotypes 
by prominent American artists, includ- 
ing Sterner, Higgins, Prendergasl, 
Sloan and Pach, to April 5th. 

Folsom Gallery, 560 Fifth Ave. — Paintings 
by Daniel Garber, to April 5th. 

Independent Artists, Waldorf-Astoria Ho- 
tel — Third annual exhibition. 

Kennedy & Co., 613 Fifth Ave. — Fine prints, 
ancient and modern, through April. 

Knoedlcr Galleries, 556 Fifth Ave. — Paint- 
ings by George Bellows, through April. 
Direction of Mrs. Albert Sterner, 
"Paintings of the South of France," 
by Jerome Blum, to April 9th. The 
latest work of Rene Lalique, of Paris, 
glass, etc., to April 12th. 

Kraiishaar Art Galleries, 260 Fifth Ave. — 
Paintings by Guarino, April 7th to 21st. 

Levy, John, 14 East 46th St. — Ten paintings 
by George Inness, through April. 

Macbeth Galleries, 450 Fifth Ave. —Group 
exhibition by American artists, through 
April. 

Milch Galleries, 108 W. 57th St.— Paintings 
by Lillian Genth, to April 5th. 

National Academy of Design, Fine Art Gal- 
leries, 215 W. 57th St.— Ninety- fourth 
annual exhibition, to April 27th. 

Metropolitan Museum. Central Park at 82d 
St.., E— Open daily from 10 A. M. to 
5 P. M. ; Saturdays, until 10 P. M. ; 
Sundays, 1 P. M. to 5 P. M. Admis- 
sion, Monday and Friday, 25c, free 
other days. 

Montross Gallery, 550 Fifth Ave. — Paint- 
ings by Horatio Walker, to April 5th. 

New York Public Library Print Gallery 
(Room 321) — The War Zone in 
Graphic Art, including etchings and 
other prints, depicting eastern France 
and Belgium from the seventeenth to 
the nineteenth centuries. Memorial ex- 
hibitions of etchings by J. C. Nicoll and 
wood engravings by Elbridge Kingsley. ■ 
War lithographs by Brangwyn, Bone, 
Pennell and Copley. Print Gallery 
(Room 321), War Zone in Graphic Art. 
Stuart Gallery (Room 316), Master 
Ornamentalists. 

The Penguin, 8 East 15th St. — Annual ex- 
hibition, April 7th to April 28th. 

Pratt Institute, Ryerson St., Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Wood engravings by Rudolph 
Ruzicka, to April 5th. 

Satinovcr Galleries, 27 West 56th St. — 
Paintings by old masters and art 
objects. 

Whitney Studio, 8 West 8th St.— Sculpture 
by Florence G. Lucius and Grace Mott 
Johnson. 

Young, Howard Galleries, 620 Fifth Ave. — 
Exhibition of paintings by Guy C. Wig- 
gins, through April. 



339 



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Branches: Chicago, London 




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ARTS and DECORATION 



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Authoritative Examples of Period Furniture, Tapestries, Needle- 
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Mr. FefFercorn will be pleased to 
make appointments for consulta^ 
tion with out- of' town clients. 



/26 a)\B '/2JEast 2<3th Street 

NEWYOBgK CATTY 



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Corner of kitchen in ihe New York residence of 
Mrs. Alben Herier covered with Nairn Linoleum, 



WHEN planning the floor coverings for the kitchen or 
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you will find it particularly easy to select the exact tone of pat- 
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UCH an interior with its French 
^ casement windows overlooking 
a vista of formal gardens, suggests 
one of those delightful homes de- 
signed by the Brothers Adam and 
so often a harmonious setting for 
the delicately graceful furniture of 
the late Louis Seize time. 

At the Hampton Shops you will 
find such furniture of distinction as 
this. The oval table with its dec- 
orated frieze, the oval-backed, caned 
chairs in ribbon-and-reed carving, 
and the low, bow-fronted commode, 
all in subdued tones of parchment 
and green, give to this room an en- 
during charm which can be attained 
with such discriminating knowledge 
of subtle details, as the Hampton 
Decorators make of avail to you. 



T> 



A RTS and J) ECO RAT ION 



May, 1919 



■n 




ARTS & DECORATION 



VOLUME XI 



MAT, 1919 



NUMBER 1 



CONTENTS 

THE PARTHENON Frontispiece 

THE EFFECT OF WAR UPON ARCHITECTURE By John Wallace Gillies 7 

CONSIDER YOUR TREES HOW THEY GROW AND APPRECIATE THEM 10 

THE PRIDE OF CIVILIZATION By G. H. McCall 12 

JOYCE KILMER'S DECORATION 13 

HOUSES AND PLANS 14 

"HERE'S FLOWERS FOR YOU" By Amy L. Barrington 16 

WAR MEMORIALS 18 

DO THE AWNINGS BELONG TO YOUR HOUSE? 20 

ECHOES OF THE LEMORDANT EXHIBITION 22 

RAYMOND HOLLAND, PAINTER OF PORTRAITS, WAR AND MARSHES 23 

A GROUP OF FINE INTERIORS 24 

BEAUVAIS-BOUCHER TAPESTRIES (Continued from April, 1919).. By George Leland Hunter 28 

THE COUNTRY HOME OF F. P. KING, ESQ 30 

ART IN THE THEATRE 32 

THE NEW YORK SHOPS HOLD THESE FOR YOU 34 

EXHIBITIONS IN THE NEW YORK GALLERIES By Peyton Boswell 35 



Published Monthly by HEWITT PUBLISHING CORPORATION 

470 FOURTH AVENUE, NEW YORK 

London: 407 Bank Chambers, Chancery Lane 

Subscription $4.00 a year in the United States, Colonies and Mexico. $4.50 in Canada. $5.00 in Foreign 

Countries. Single copies 35 cents. Entered as Second Class Matter May 27, 1918, at the Post Office at New 

York City, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Copyright 1919 by Hewitt Pub. Corp. Registered U. S. Patent Office. 



ARTS and DECORATION 










Facsimiles of late XVII Century 
English Court Cupboard and Chair. 



Early English FvuniIvi^e 
and Objects of Art 
Antiqve Tapestries 
Hand¥^ovghtI{epi{odvcTions 
—Decorations- 
Floor Coverings 



WtJ. sloane 

FIFTH AVE &47tk ST. 
NEW YORK CITY 



A R 'PS and D ECO R AT [ON 



May, 1"1') 



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THE PARTHENON 
Seen through the Propylaea 



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A ICT S J. 

D E C O BATTI O 7s[ 



Formerly— ART WORLD and ARTS £r DECORATION 



,,, . |,i- : .,,..- ;• 



Volume XI 

m 



MAY, 1919 



Number 1 



THE EFFECT OF WAR UPON ARCHITECTURE 

There Have Been Two Great Influences in Architecture, War and 
Religion, and the Former is Dealt With in These Paragraphs 

By JOHN WALLACE GILLIES 



WHAT happened in the yesterdays must have its 
effect upon the to-morrows; in the past history of 
architecture is written the reflection of the future. 
Since the most potent and 
tangible mirror of the past 
is its architecture and allied 
arts, and what remains of 
the old that was made or 
written, and since we can 
f-carcely trace history be- 
yond architecture, it is pro- 
posed to give a brief resume 
of the architecture that has 
gone by, with a few com- 
ments on its probaljie effect 
upon that of to-morrow. If 
the average man should real- 
ize how architecture is the 
visible and material history 
of the great romance of our 
world's civilization through 
the ages, he would be far 
more interested in it and in 
the fact that the architecture 
of to-day is but the story of 
our own life, how we live 
and what we are doing, to 
leave our traces for those 
who come later to see, and 
to learn from, when all 
written words have failed to 
tell the story. One can write 
anything, and many differ- 
ent men can write about die 
same things in so many dif- 
ferent' ways that the reader 
who cannot see for himself 
is only confused, but the 
>tructures which remain tell 
only the truth, for they are 
the reflection of our own lives. Are they simple, chaste, 
oi pure design, and executed thoroughly ? Then we are a 
^iple, direct-thinking people, who may become a powerful 
nation some day. Are they overdecorated, voluptuous and 




Abbevill 



of impure design? Then we are a vainglorious, luxury- 
loving people, who will not long survive as a nation. That 
is the undisguised story that our architecture will tell 

about us. 

It is a simple matter to 
mi argue from "past perform- 

ances," as one might say in 
the language of the day, to 
show that what has gone be- 
fore cannot so suddenly alter 
its course without having its 
effect upon what comes to- 
morrow. 

The first architecture of 
which we have any authentic 
record is that of the ancient 
empire in Egypt, 5000 to 
3000 B. C, an age which 
produced the pyramids, the 
Sphinx, many obelisks, and 
sundry other structures, all 
in the nature of tombs, tem- 
ples and monuments. Its 
main characteristic at this 
time was vigor, but later, 
under the first Theban mon- 
archy, 3000 to 2100 B. C, 
architecture naturally under- 
went an aesthetic improve- 
ment without losing any of 
its character. At the latter 
date, the Hyksos invasion 
(the incursions of the Shep- 
herd kings) interrupted all 
art progress, and nothing 
was accomplished until about 
1600 B. C, when national 
life was resumed in Egypt 
under the second Theban 
monarchy, which continued 
This was the great period in Egyp- 
finest structures were built 



until about 1000 B. C. 
tian history, and their 
this time. 

Erom 1000 to 300 B. C„ Egypt declined during what is 



during 



8 



ARTS and D ECO R AT I ( ) \ 



May, 1919 




Amicus Cathedral 



called the Saitic period, 
and we have the ending 
of their architecture, 
produced principally by 
the conquests of the 
Persians. 

It is now necessary 
to go back a little in 
order to get the course 
of events; and from 
2250 to 1250 B. C. the 
Chaldeans in Asia Mi- 
nor were working out a style of architecture in clay, which 
if nothing else was original. Their structures were poor, 
however, and of no great importance except that it was 
the first known use of brick and tiling in building. The 
Assyrians and Babylonians, from 1250 to 538 B. C, carried 
this type of structure further, but accomplished nothing of 
lasting effect. At the latter date, the Persians overran 
Asia Minor and we have a new era of life in Architecture. 
They also conquered Egypt and, taking the best of the 
Egyptian architecture, with that of the Assyrians, they 
produced some really splendid temples. 

Paralleling these times, from 500 B.C. to 300 B.C., the 
Greeks were developing an architecture far superior, and 
about 300, when Alexander conquered this country, the 
Greek forms quickly supplanted the comparatively gaudy 
ideas of the Persians. With the Greeks began the era of 
civilization in Europe, and as they are of our own race, with 
the same thoughts and tendencies, so it is fairly probable 
that their experience is one that we might well consider in 
arriving at our own probabilities. 

The first real Greek architecture, after what is called the 
Heroic age, began with the Archaic Period, 650 to 500 B.C. 
The Doric order was used exclusively and its design, while 
always beautiful, was characterized by its vigor and power 
first of all. From 500 to 460 B.C. endured what is called 
the Transitional period, during which architecture under- 
went a general refinement of design and an improvement in 
execution, without loss in vigor. During the latter part of 
the period, Greece was persistently invaded by the Persians 
who had conquered Assyria and Egypt, and who controlled 
nearly all the eastern Mediterranean Sea countries. Al- 
though not so great a nation in numbers, the Greeks suc- 
cessfully resisted the Persians, and as a result national 
enthusiasm became so great that some form of expression 
must necessarily follow, and we have the Periclean age, 
460 to 400 B. C, during which there was a tremendous 
movement in all the arts and in literature. This period was 
the high point in Greek architecture, the finest of their 
buildings being erected in this time, among them the Parthe- 
non, called the most faultless in design and execution of 
any building known to man. This was the magnificent age 
which produced Phidias, Ictinus, and other great artists. 
The very nature of these successful wars of defense was 
such that the people were thankful at the repulse of the 
great peril, which might easily have overcome their country, 
and the keynote of their expression, even in architecture, 
was seen in the chastity of design and superb quality of 
execution. It was clean, honest, the most beautiful to be 
seen in any age; the expression of a people grateful that 
they had escaped a great peril, and yet strong with the 
sensation of having beaten it down. 

A reaction necessarily followed such splendid activity, 
and during the Alexandrian, sometimes called the Florid, 
period in Greek architecture, there was a general slowing 
down in all efforts. Incidentally, during this period, Greece 
endured several disastrous wars which sapped her vitality 
to such an extent that other efforts could not be made. 



During the latter part of this century, 400 to 300 B.C.J 
Alexander mack 1 his conquests, and the national spirit was 
so strengthened by the enthusiasm of these victories that a 
new impetus was given to all expressions of art, and many 
great monuments were the result of this added elation. 
But we now find a different note in their architecture. A 
conqueror is now the builder, and the expression of conquesl 
must show. One would imagine from this that we might 
expect to find an added virility in design, but it was not so. 
The conquerors had seen enough of hardships and would 
have an architecture which expressed quite the opposite; 
it must be ostentatious. Simplicity was abandoned for 
rich ornament and elaborate designs. Splendor replaced 
artistic perfection. The country was rich, it was arrogant; 
it had conquered. 

This could not last long, and from 300 to 100 B. C, we 
have a decadent period during which the design of their 
buildings were weak and lacking in essential qualities. 
Greek art was fading, and also Greek national spirit. With 
the Roman Conquest, about 200 B. C, ended real Greek 
architecture, although its influence will never cease. 

So there we have the experience of the Greeks. Their 
architecture began strong and virile before other things, 
developed in beauty gradually, lost power gradually, and, 
lacking in power, there was an attempt to replace by a 
high degree of ornate decoration the missing quality. Thus 
the architecture underwent a florid period and died, at least 
so far as Greece was concerned. It seems that we need not 
read Greek history to know about the national life of the 
Greeks, its architecture tells the story so completely. 

The road of civilization then led to Rome, and from 
there, we shall see, it was the great gift of the Romans to 
distribute it through their conquests to all western Europe. 
While the Greeks gave to the world the perfect forms in all 
arts, it rested' with the Romans to apply them to our ever» f 
day practical life. The Romans were essentially a race of 
engineers and builders, and where the Greeks built for 
sheer beauty, the Romans constructed because they needed 
the building for a purpose; and yet, they did not forget 
beauty, although they standardized it, and turned it out in 
quantity ; arranging their architectural designs in such a 
way that ordinary labor could turn it out quickly. 

With the Roman conquest of Greece, and the absorption 
of Greek ideas began the first real architecture in Rome. 
Previous to this time, the Etruscan forms of architecture 
were the only ones which were possessed, and since the 
Etruscans were essentially a race of engineers and builders, 
their forms were crude and generally lacking in aesthetic 
qualities. This practical instinct of the engineer, however, 
enabled the Romans to apply the Greek forms in such a 
way that they might be more useful. Whereas the prin- 
cipal structures of the Greeks were temples and theatres, 
the Romans used architec- 
ture to effect and built 
arches, amphitheatres, vil- 
las, baths, basilicas and 
temples. 

Again we find a nation 
rich from conquests and 
of a mind for rich forms 
in architecture. Splendor 
was the key-note of their 
architecture. During the 
reign of Augustus, 27 
B. C. to 14 A. D., Roman 
architecture reached its 
height in design, and dur- 
ing these years is found 
the successful combination Saint Sulpice 




May, 1919 



A RTS and 1) E CO K AT [ON 



• 



of Greek refinement with Roman elegance. With succes- 
sive Emperors, Roman architecture increased in richness 
and decoration to a high degree. In the latter part of the 
first century were built the Arch of Titus, the Colosseum, 
and many great Roman structures, and during the second 
century there was great activity. During the third and 
fourth centuries there was a noticeable decline in design 
ami purity, probably due to the fact that the removal of 
the capitol from Rome to Byzantium, the name at that 
time being changed to Constantinople, brought about an 
Oriental influence which affected design, but principally 
because the Western Empire deteriorated in every way. 
During these years the Goths gradually overran Rome, in- 
creasing their ravages until its final fall, 476 A.D. These 
were Teutons. 

Constantine had' recognized Christianity at Byzantium 
328 A.D. and, aside from war, this was to be the principal 
influence in architecture and in the life of the world for 
many centuries. Oriental influence upon the architecture 
of the Eastern Capitol was such that, although its structure 
was Roman, the decoration was distinctly Oriental, and we 
have the Byzantine style, the principal structure being the 
great Hagia Sophia at Constantinople, built 532 A.D., 
under Justinian, and which stands in good condition to-day. 
This is commonly called St. Sophia, but that is incorrect, 
since it was not dedicated to a saint, the name Hagia Sophia 
meaning Divine Wisdom. The Turks have changed the 
pronunciation to Aya Sofia, and it is now a Moslem church. 
After the fall of Rome we have the Dark Ages, a period 
well named, when barbarism triumphed over all civilization 
except that of Byzantium. It is an illustration of what we 
might have suffered had the Germans won in our own time. 
For five hundred years there was no progress to speak 
of, and it follows that there was no activity in the arts. 
f In the East alone there was a continuance of normal life, 
'and Byzantium prospered while Rome fell, although the 
Byzantine architecture, strangely picturesque, was oriental 
in detail, and not destined to have any great influence upon 
later times. It is curious to note that Hagia Sophia, prob- 
ably the first gre"at Christian church, is now in the hands 
of the Moslems. 

However, it rested with the Romans of Byzantium to 
be the caretakers of our civilization, and they did not 
abuse the trust. The Romans of the East were more trust- 
worthy in this respect than the Romans of the West. The 
influence of Byzantium was spread over Ravenna, Venice 
and Rome during these latter centuries of the dark ages, 
which might be indicated 500 — 1000 A.D., and from this 
seed to see later the great Revival of the mediaeval times. 

During the eighth century the Mohammedans overran 
Spain and entered France, being defeated by Charles Mar- 

tel at Tours, 732 A.D. 
The\' were forced back 
into Spain again, but 
were not ejected from 
Spain until many centu- 
ries later. The French 
also successfully resisted 
the Huns, a Tartar tribe, 
and not Teutons as sup- 
posed, during the ninth 
century. It seems to have 
been the fate of France 
to have thrust upon her 
the task of successfully 
resisting pagan invasions. 
During the Dark Ages, 
which were practically one 
Detail Abbeville succession of wars, there 







was no progress in the 
arts. It rested with 
Byzantium to carry the 
thread of civilization 
and with the monas- 
teries, which were 
more or less respected 
in spite of the pagan 
character of the wars. 
But during this time 
the Christianization 
and civilization of the 











I minis Cathedral 



Celts and Germanic tribes was going 



on, until with the 

beginning of the tenth century we find some visible signs 
of social order. 

The architectural activity of the Mediaeval Ages began 
at Rome, Ravenna and Venice, and was principally eccle- 
siastical. At first, naturally, it was crude, monastic in form, 
and gradually blossomed into Romanesque, of which S. 
Bartholomew's Church in New York is an example. The 
meeting of classic and Byzantine influences was effected, 
and in this style we find a curious mixture of styles as a 
result, which later culminated in the great Gothic architec- 
ture of France, England, Spain and the Rhenish provinces. 
This style has been referred to as round-arched Gothic, and 
was the real beginning of it. Gothic was essentially struc- 
tural, as compared with the aesthetic consideration of the 
Greeks. The style gradually spread over France and de- 
veloped into the pointed arch so characteristically Gothic, 
the first attempts in this construction being made in Nor- 
mandy from 1050-1100. For the first time in our civiliza- 
tion, the roof was built entirely of stone, which resulted in 
a fire-proof structure. 

In 1066, the conquest of England by William of Nor- 
mandy brought architecture into that country, and the con- 
struction of many monasteries and two great cathedrals 
rapidly followed, Durham and Norwich, 1096-1133. The 
English style was more picturesque and less refined than 
that of France, a characteristic that was always to remain 
with the English. 

The twelfth century marked the ascendancy of the 
church, the relative functions of the church and the state be- 
ing settled during the period. Social order followed the rise 
of the Papal influence, and the result upon civilization was 
very gratifying. The wars of the crusades, though not 
successful, added greatly to spiritual impulse, which seemed 
to profit by sacrifice, and resulted in added impetus to the 
building of Christian edifices. 

In France, a feverish activity in ecclesiastical structure 
began. Notre Dame, 1163-1200; Chartres, 1194-1240; 
Rheims, 1212-1242; Amiens, 1220-1288, the largest of the 
time, and the lovely Sainte Chapelle at Paris, 1242-47, all 
being built. The French progressed almost too rapidly and 
their Gothic interest diminished only too soon, the end of 
the thirteenth century seeing the last of the best of it. It 
finally went through a flamboyant period and ended with 
the Valois period, which began in 1483. Tow 7 ard the end, 
they vied with each other in their attempts to get spindly 
proportions and ornate construction, which ended in the 
collapse of the cathedral at Beauvais in 1284. It was later 
rebuilt in more stable proportions. 

The Gothic style is mentioned rather at length, as the 
cathedrals are the greatest triumphs in all architecture, and 
necessarily in all art, as architecture is the greatest of all 
arts, and most of them depend upon it. 

The Gothic impulse did not end so quickly in England. 
The English were slower and more methodical, more con- 
servative in their ways, their best efforts lasting well to the 
end of the fourteenth century. (Continued on page 38) 



10 



A R TS and 1) E COR A TIO X 



Ma 



I'll 1 ' 




The house of Mr. Truman Newberry at Grossc Point, Michigan, is 
seen below embowered in trees. 



Consider Your Trees 

How They Grow 
and Appreciate Them 

IN the dim past when certain men evolved the art axiom 
that the curved line was the line of beauty, some one 

discovered that trees had perfect proportions and balance 
of design. Doubtless long before that they had sensed their 
beauty and realized their usefulness. It appears, however, 
that human beings are slow to appreciate Nature's prodigal 
friendliness and for that reason centuries passed before 
man took unto himself the tree for decorative purposes as 
he had done with certain species for economic reasons. In 
fact, not until the Renaissance do we find clear indication 
in the western world of any such uses of this priceless boon. 

It is needless to mention the gardens of Italy where 
stately cypresses stand sentinel over ages of culture, nor 
speak of the Park at Vaux whose beauty so incensed Louis 
le Grand that he commissioned Le Notre to design the gar- 
dens of Versailles which to this day have never been sur- 
passed in magnificence or perfection of detailed design and 
the chief conception of his plan was the forest. Whether 
he so intended them to be, they are to-day the glory of 
Versailles and, through their natural dignty, warm the icy 
splendour of the palace. 

In England, whence we derive our main impulses of home 




May, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



11 



making, there has always been a keen appreciation and a 
sedulous eare of trees in decorative uses as well as in park 
and forest preserves. 

One of the first post-war precautions of that country lias 
been to replace the vast inroads on her forests and lawns. 
Indeed, the English know the value of trees as do perhaps 
no other people — nor do any apparently get such personal 
enjoyment from them. The Englishman's lawn tree is in 
very fact his vine and fig- tree. 

This is as it should be and the sooner we, as a people, 
likewise become closely associated with trees, the better for 
our homes, our national art spirit and for ourselves. 

That their decorative value is becoming appreciated here 
is evident in the illustrations appearing in these pages. It 
will be perceived that some of them have been placed by 
design to perform a certain role of beauty, while others, 
like those around the home of Mr. Truman Newberry, 
lower left, at Grosse Point, Michigan, are of Nature's own 
planting, having been carefully preserved by the architect 
to embellish his plans. 

There was a time, fortunately past, when builders de- 
liberately felled trees about the house site. This type of 
builder was followed by one that crammed as many shrubs 
into the lawn space as possible. The one is as bad as the 
other. There is only one rule to follow and that is, the site 
having been chosen, to save all the trees possible for use in 
the landscape plan, eliminating only those that obstruct de- 
sired vistas and open spaces, and it would be wise to con- 
sider most carefully the whole estate before even this is 
done for frequently transplanting adds to the beauty of both 
sites and, "only God can make a tree." 




These three views of the home of Mr. Edward Coykendal of Kingston, 
N. Y ., show trees at their best. 




12 



A R T S and 1 > E COR A T I O N 



May, I'M 1 ; 



THE PKIDE OF CIVILIZATION 

A Plea for a National Style in Decoration and Craftsmanship 

By G. H. McCALL 



THERE are few inquiries more interesting than one 
into the character and tendencies of an epoch, as 
ascertained by the reflection in its craftsmanship. 
Such an investigation, if referring to modern times and 
extended beyond a single country, must necessarily be in- 
complete on account of the enormous mass of material, 
which defies any exhibition of the prevailing artistic tenden- 
cies. To make even a cursory survey of existing artistic 
movements in these days of paint, plaster and veneer is a 
stupendous undertaking, and the process realized in the in- 
dustrial part of them is such that divers matters, at the 
disposition of the craftsman alone, give one the feeling of 
general perturbation. There are nations who have had the 
advantage of precedence in education in the principles and 
practice of the arts. The experience of France, Italy, as 
well as England, shows that art is a national asset of enor- 
mous value, both directly and indirectly. Yet the effort to 
increase the value of that asset could have had no perma- 
nent effect unless it was consistently backed up by an edu- 
cated public taste. It would be Utopian to expect that any 
young nation could become artistic in the short space of a 
century or so, nevertheless a sound and systematic pro- 
gramme for putting good and bad art before the public, 
with the prominence they respectively merit, might effect 
a considerable improvement in its powers of discrimination. 
Textbook knowledge is not enough by itself. The eye needs 
that training by the examination of examples of the finest 
work, contrasted with those that are immature and deca- 
dent. However, there are men of high ability, who, rec- 
ognizing the necessity of shouldering the wheel, are resolved 
to follow up the course in such a way that we have no right 
to look despairingly on the future, rather to rely with a 
reasonable faith on its fertility. The future offers the most 
extraordinary possibilities, and no one can tell what genius 
is latent in the human mind. It is nevertheless a matter of 
growth ; there is comfort in this thought, however, because 
"not Heaven itself upon the past has power," and for that 
reason any attempt to further artistic appreciation must be 
with the knowledge that the appreciation of its elements 
generally acts as a prelude to a development of a taste in 
other directions. 

In the matter of American decorative habitations there 
is a hopeful and welcome movement taking place in our 
midst, but at the present moment its condition has the 
effect of having been swept over the land like a tornado, 
with its merciless tangle of trappings for temples, mosques, 
chapels, pagodas, huts, tents and caverns, strewn about in 
a riot of confusion, without a suggestion of being in any 
way national. In the wake of the wind the country has 
become dotted with Gothic castles, Italian villas, Moorish 
alcazars, provincial farmhouses, chalets, cottages and 
casinos, with a semblance of the severe dungeons of the 
middle ages rubbing their gaunt walls against elegant 
French chateaus and English manors — an indiscriminate 
mixture of classic art, free art, of all styles and fantasies. 
In the midst of it all there is a mixture of impertinent 
travesties, of bizarre types becoming confounded with more 
bizarre periods ; cults have risen with their fetiches, blobs 
of color are bespattered here and there, and grotesque names 
have arrived, such as quinzieme, sclzihne and dix-huitieme, 



as though the poor French were responsible for that part 
of the middle. Verily there is a mixture of all styles; a 
copy of almost everything, in the extraordinary tricks of 
which is the barest reminiscence of pure form. The ma- 
chine and the mold have loosened upon the earth a lack of 
sobriety in certain forms of decoration, and it is not too 
much to say that pure composition has been sacrificed to 
the meddler with any handy material. When the children of 
a distant generation occupy themselves in a retrospective 
study to our doings in regard to decoration they will recog- 
nize the rut into which the age has fallen, and so deeply 
that they may well be amazed as to the manner in which 
we have by them extricated ourselves. Journals and mag- 
azines are overladen with the same meaningless symphonies 
and vibrations relating to this nuance of grey and pink 
color scheme, or that attempt at blending the stale and the 
commonplace, so much so that these children will look upon 
the doings of their ancestors with dismay. In viewing 
this present chaotic state one looks back in despair to the 
time when decoration signified embellishment, either in 
aiding nature's work or the works of man, when effects 
more or less happy were produced, varying with the then 
prevailing state of civilization, and in accordance with pure 
style and taste ; when decoration, more than any other form 
of art, was subject to the eternal laws of harmony, when 
its conditions were to characterize absolute or relative^, l 
beauty. 

The heritage of a national style is the pride of some 
older civilization, in fact most countries are significant in 
their own predilections in which they excel, and great 
periods have come and gone, leaving their magnificent and 
indissoluble traces behind, giving evidences of their origin- 
ative power, the influences of which will last forever. The 
history of some countries is recorded in their furniture 
alone, and their craftsmen have possessed that perfection 
in the employment of their calling as though they had ex- 
plored all the veins of antiquity, renewing and transforming 
the types with a prodigious fecundity while they adapted 
their genius to the exigencies of each century. Throughout 
it all war and the hard struggle for existence urged along 
all men's efforts, and the hands which were to unconsciously 
guide the looms or shape the ductile metal into forms of 
beauty in after years, then grasped the sword, or were hard 
and horny with the roughest work of a slavish existence. 
Yet out of those dark ages the brightest jewels of any casket 
sprang up with dazzling beauty, and there has been left be- 
hind a land thickly studded with cathedrals, churches, man- 
sions, castles, the grandeur and picturesqueness of which 
impress the soul to this very day, and will have never-ceas- 
ing influence. They were the result of the efforts made by 
kings, governments, cities and individuals to develop and 
spread among the nations a love for the arts and a high 
capacity for applying them. Succeeding generations have 
left their mark, and often much of the charm depends on 
such changes, their pleasant variety adding a human inter- 
est and a sense of historic continuity altogether agreeable 
and sympathetic. 

Socrates declared that beauty was founded upon fitnes^ 
and fitness was utility. It was the sacredness of these i& 
ings that made ancient Greek (Continued on page 37) 



May, l'HO 



A RTS and I) E COR A TTON 



13 



* 



JOYCE KILMER'S DECOKATION 



The French Government has Conferred on Him 
Posthumously the Croix de Guerre with the Palm 



THK posthumous decoration of Joyce Kilmer by the 
French government with the Croix de Guerre with 
the palm brings crowding to our minds a wealth of 
tender memories of this poet, soldier, lovable boy. The 
citation reads as follows : 

Sergeant Joyce Kilmer 

Regimental Intelligence Section 

165/// Infantry. American Expeditionary Force 

"Trained in the duties of a shock battalion, he gave evi- 
dence of great activity and bra-eery in the accomplishment 
of his work of rcconnoitering. On July 9, 1918, ivhen his 
battalion had been obliged to make a flank movement, he 
:eas of great assistance to his commander in assembling the 
details of the manoeuvre. The adjutant of his battalion 
having been killed. lie replaced him in a remarkable man- 
ner. On July 30th. 1918, he -Teas killed by a bullet while 
carrying forward an attack at the side of his colonel." 

( Order No. 12438 D, December 21st, 1918) 

General Headquarters 
Delivered by the Marshal of France 

Commander-in-Chief of the Armies of the East 

Who of us who knew they both would have dreamed 
*e short years ago that the earthly voices of Rupert 
Brooke and Joyce Kilmer would to-day be stilled ! It seems 
to me that this "Buddie" of mine must surely be in Grand, 
that tiny village in the Vosges, where we spent Christmas 
1917 together, and where I saw him last. 

Though the French told us 'twas a mild winter, it seemed 
a crimping cold day that found me standing with Captain 
Mangan and Father Duffy in the Place of that sleepy town 
early in December, 1917. Soldiers were moving to and 
fro on their duties, and suddenly I was aware that a soldier 
in a marching squad had winked at me! It was Joyce, but 
I didn't realize it until he had passed. I asked Father 
Duffy, who seemed to know everybody by name, if Joyce 
was really there. "Do you know- Joyce too?" He re- 
turned, "Why, certainly, he is here. He billets right around 
the corner, and likely he is there now. Let's go around and 
find him." And around we went. Needless to say, it was 
a happy visit, for we talked of many things other than 
cabbages and kings, yet I doubt if at that time we let many 
opportunities slip to remark on kings ! 

Then began our friendship. I had known him for years 
though the acquaintance was slight. However, with Rupert 
Brooke and Vachel Lindsay as mutual friends and the war 
as a common immediate bond, our friendship was cemented. 

Time is not counted by days and nights by men at war. 
I cannot recall exact dates, but the sun on the day before 
Christmas swung in a leaden sky that promised deeper 
snow and more cold. 

In the late afternoon of that dull day I dropped in on 
Father Duffy as he was finishing confessions and found 
Joyce there busily arranging the music program for the 
midnight, mass. Assembling it from memory, and the 
^bor lad was cudgelling his mind to find the words of 
Phillips Brooks' "Little Star of Bethlehem." His appeal 



to me was as amusing as it was useless, and 1 soon left him, 
to return almost at once, for 1 found in my billet my first 
mail from home in which was a little pamphlet containing 
among other things "The Little Star of Bethlehem!" 

It is impossible for anyone away from the mess over 
there to realize in the least degree the intense pleasure such 
trifles as this discovery gave us. I don't believe we would 
have exchanged that little sheet of verses for much fine 
gold. It was a part of home — of our traditions that had 
suddenly, in the midst of complete abnormality, been given 
us, and we prized it as a boon from heaven. It was to our 
minds the very rose of joy, the possibility of singing that 
particular song. And the service itself was one to remem- 
ber long. 

Imagine a fifth century church in a town whose ancient 
glory is attested by ruins of a splendid Roman amphitheatre, 
mosaic floored baths and secret tunnels. Into the sacred 
edifice were crowded French soldiers on permission, bles- 
ses and civilians as well as hundreds of stalwart young 
Americans chafing with impatience to get at this old-time 
foe of France, who had been fought from the arrow slit 
windows of this very church. 

It is not strange that I should have lost sight of Joyce. 
The church packed to its ittmost capacity, Father Duffy 
completely dominating the scene. Yet I was conscious of 
him twice — in the singing of that hymn and "when he 
passed the collection hat! A real campaign hat into which 
poured American gold. 

Christmas dinner we ate together. It was the first real 
meal we had had in France, and Joyce, waxing expansive 
with satisfaction, talked long of his hopes. Of plans there 
is no talk among men at war. He spoke of our friends 
and he made them pass brilliantly before me. Most of all 
did we talk of Brooke, and tenderly. 

Late in the lowering afternoon light we were called by 
"retreat" to service in the open square, and the last notes 
of our even-song were hushed by falling snow which came 
like a benediction separating the crowd as by some strange 
magic. It was uncanny, this melting from view of our 
fellows, and we stood for a moment spellbound befort part- 
ing. 

The regiment moved early the next day. I never saw 
him again. Nor did I learn of his passing until months 
after it had happened. 

This fresh loss stung my memory bitterly. I recalled 
how he had recited to me on Christmas day his verses to 
Rupert Brooke — lately published by George H. Doran & 
Company in a volume of his works. And it seemed to me 
that no more fitting epitaph could be written for him than 
his own lines in memory of Brooke. 

"In alien earth across a troubled sea, 

His body lies that was so fair and young. 

His mouth is stopped, with half his songs unsung, 

His arm is still, that struck to make man free. 

But let no cloud of lamentation be 

Where, on a grave, a lyre is hung. 

We keep the echoes of his golden tongue, 

We keep the vision of his chivalry. 

(Continued on page 38) 



14 



ARTS and DECORATION 

IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIH 



May, 1919 





c 



Sketch and Plans 

of a House 

to be built in 

New England 



Interpretation of the 
Early Dutch Colonial 
by 

AYMOR EMBURY II. 
& LEWIS E. WELSH, 
Associate Architects 




1 IlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllillllllUllllllllllllllllIII^ 



May, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 

■■illinium 



IS 



I 




| 



The Home of 

V.'E. MINNICK, Esq., 

at Hartsdale, 

New York 




An Interesting Adaptation 
of the English Rural 
Type of House 
FRANK J. FORSTER \ 
Architect 



m 
m 

1 



lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllillill B 



16 



ARTS and D ECO RATION 



May. 1919 




Here's Flowers 
For You 



THE old King, tired of courtiers, flatterers and peti- 
tioners, was not the only one who said, "I have made 
me a garden and orchard, and planted trees and 
all kinds of fruit." As will be seen in these pictures, his 
majesty of old had many fellow lovers of the garden — trees 
and flowers. It is pleasing these spring days to realize 
there are real gardens, where people work and play and live 
and love. A garden always spells romance. Its history is 
romantic, and one's own garden thrills with romantic 
passion, since it is Nature's wooing of us at our own in- 
vitation. 

What is more alluring than to walk along the garden 
path, discovering old flower friends at every turn? For 
choice, let it be a path of flagstones, or a bricked walk, or 




perhaps a grassy By AMY L. BARRINGTON 

path with hardy bor- 
der on either side. If it is a woodland path, the dogwood 
will be there, to make an old Japanese stone lantern feel at 
home in its artistic tangle of shrubbery, as is the case here. 
Maybe the path will lead to the iris bed, where countless 
green swords are drawn to protect the fairy flower de Luce 
against all comers. But by all means in such a garden there |_ 
should be a bird bath ; the feathered tribe seem to find more 
satisfaction in a bath half buried in flowers. And it gives 
opportunity to those interested in bird lore to watch the 
birds at their toilet. Twice a day does it please my feath- 
ered lord and lady to descend into the water. The early 
morning, when you and I are deciding that another day 

has arrived and break- 
fast waits, sees the 
finish of the tubbing 
and the preening and 
plumeing of wings to 
shake off every drop of 
water. Four o'clock 
and half after, sees an- 
other onslaught. The 
robin and the che- 
wink are conversational 
while they bathe, but 
how they scatter when 
the noisy, quarrelsome 
blue jay comes along; 
he soon has the bath to 
himself. Last of all 
steals in the thrush, so 
silently he comes, and 
so woody is his color- 
ing, that one has to 
persuade oneself that it 
is a bird, not a shadow 
that crept along. Ex- 
cept for the fluttering 
of his wings, he seems 
like a wraith or a lel-t 
blown by the wind. 



May, 1010 



A RTS and D ECO R A TIO N 



17 




• 



Feathered Friends 

Too Will Be Yours The practical 

way the birds con- 
duct their baths is most interesting. Some of them walk 
into the water, others dive in, others like best to hop off a 
twig into the water. Our bird bath has been used more 
often since we bent a long branch so that it slanted into 
the water. Perhaps because some of the little fellows were 
uncertain of the depth of the water and were afraid to 
venture in, anyway, after the branch was placed more birds 
came to use the bath than before. 

They would hop down the length of the branch, then off 
into the water, back and forth, in and out, until they felt 
quite satisfied that they had enough of a bath for one day. 

We, ourselves, are the gainers when we attract the birds 
to our gardens. If you are doing some of the planting 
yourself, you will be 
surprised to find what 
an object of interest 
you are, not to your 
family or neighbors 
only, but to the birds. 
Robin, up in the tree, 
is only waiting until 
you have overturned 
enough earth for him 
to get at the worms. 
Busy with your raking 
and measuring, you 
may not see him, but 
he will alight behind 
you and soon secure 
his rations. And what 
is more, will be on hand 
to greet you in the 
morning, giving you 
good morrow with 
your garden, for, be it 
large, small, formal or 
informal, even- garden 
has its own good 
morrow to the garden 
lover. 



Formal gardens were originated by Cardinal d'Este, and 
his example of architectural settings for trees and shrubs 
has been followed all over the world. Not so largely did 
flowers enter into the scheme at that time; it was mainly 
the contrast of light and shade that was sought after, the 
charming effect that water gave when it was introduced 
into the landscape. With the Italians came the art of using 
a small amount of water and producing the greatest pos- 
sible effect, bordering it architectuarally and planting it 
picturesquely. The ilex and cypress (with its black-green 
foliage) lent themselves to aid the artist in providing a 
telling background and mass of shade. Statues, benches 
and balustrades were introduced into the vista at psycho- 
logical points. Where these were to be viewed from a 
distance, they were massive (Continued on tape 42) 







18 



ARTS and DECORATION 



May, 1919 



WAK MEMOKIALS 

What the Municipal Art Society of New.fcYork City Is Doing About Them 



PROBABLY no subject so closely touches our hearts 
as the thought of erecting somewhere in some form 
fitting memorials to our American soldiers — not only 
in memory of those who did not return, but to all who 
shared in the death combat of civilization in France, Bel- 
gium and on the seas. Instantly the armistice was signed 
these thoughts sprang fullgrown to the lips and the papers 
have been filled with numerous suggestions of more or less 
worth, all freighted with tender feelings. 

Hence, there is considerable satisfaction for all who have 
learned the plans of the Municipal Art Society of New York 
City regarding war memorials and seen their excellent and 
comprehensive booklet on this subject incorporating in its 
pages sound advice to art committees with illustrations of 
many kinds of memorials pointing out in the most construc- 
tive manner how to proceed in the loving task to the hap- 
piest end. 

In order that this earnest effort to assist the cause of art 
appreciation may be furthered, we take pleasure in quoting 
rather fully from the Society's Bulletin: 

"When the project of the War Memorial comes up be- 
fore the mayor, selectmen or a committee of citizens for 
decision and action, three questions arise : 

"The form or kind of memorial possible within the ap- 
propriation. 

"Its character, whether it shall be a work of manufacture 
or of art. 

"Whether it shall be entrusted to a professional artist or 
given outright to a business firm. 

"This Bulletin briefly discusses these three questions in 
their order, illustrating also some existing forms of Ameri- 
can memorials and suggesting others. 

THE FORM OF THE MEMORIAL 

"When the committee finally settles to business and asks 
itself what sort of a memorial it can get for its money, it 
is apparent that the amount at its disposal will exclude some 
forms which the community might prefer; and still the 
range of forms possible within any given sum is much 
greater than may at first be supposed. The limitations of 
choice are largely in our own view of the subject. Perhaps 
these pages will help to remove some of them. Let us recall 
at the very outset that in all memorial constructions beauty 
may be attained with extreme simplicity or with great elabo- 
ration, and that the old-time fretting of monuments with 
florid detail has fortunately passed. 

THE PAST ERA AND THE PRESENT 

"Compared with our own time, the Civil War period 
found every town and hamlet singularly unprepared in the 
Fine Arts, and when, at its close, soldier memorials were 
desired, no one even thought of any other form than the 
ready-made or to-order types of cemetery monuments, en- 
larged a little and furnished with artillery and ammunition. 

"Now, when a new wave of patriotism is bringing to us 
again the opportunity of dedicating new memorials, our 
first fear is of a return of that dismal stone age. Such fears 
may, however, prove unfounded, for the times have com- 
pletely changed and there is a general acquaintance with 
works of art and a growing appreciation of their part in life, 
as we have become accustomed to live with them. We are 
impatient when unworthy substitutes are offered. At all 



events, the former excuse is gone, for we now have at com- 
mand skilled and trained workers in nearly all forms of 
the arts. 

THE APPROPRIATE MEMORIAL 

"Evidence of this will be seen in our widening outlook 
upon such things and in the extended range of appropriate 
forms for memorials, many of them far preferable to the 
stony type of the older monuments. These forms, in con- 
trast to the mere records of death, are rather in league with 
the abounding life of the community, still going on, and yet 
unwilling to forget its noble dead. Most men would choose 
to have the memorial their service has inspired perpetuate 
this service in other forms, and their own devotion recalled 
in a work that shall be, in effect, its continuation. 

"It will be apparent that suitable schemes for memorials, 
and their varied handling are limited only by the thought 
and skill of those who undertake them. This widened 
horizon is due in general to the growth of intelligence of 
the clients of art, apprehending it as a social service rather 
than as a luxury, and in particular to the rise of a class of 
highly trained professional artists devoting their lives to 
such work. 

"The wider field of choice should be scanned before any 
decision is reached, in order that a just estimate of the pos- 
sibilities in each particular case may be made. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR SUITABLE WAR MEMORIALS 



Arch 


Clock Tower 


Embarkade 


Beacon 


Colonnade 


Exedra 


Bridge 


Community House 


Gateway 



Library, Open Air Theatre, Monumental Electrolier, Statue, Roster 

Column, Museum or Hall, Rostrum, Figure or Group, Fountain, 

Pylon, Cliff Sculpture, Doors, Flag Pole, Avenue, Grotto, Park. 

Arrangement of War Trophies, Mosaic or Mural Painting, Stained 
Glass Window, Tablet : relief figures, rolls of honor, inscriptions. 

"Of this list fifteen are primarily architectural construc- 
tions, but all require sculpture in varying degree for their 
completion; four are of sculpture, requiring architectural 
setting; three of pure sculpture; three of landscape archi- 
tecture, making also a place for architecture and sculpture; 
the remainder, adaptations of various arts. 

"Many of these are naturally to be used in combination 
with each other. Some offer in their own structure a place 
for a roster of names; others provide a setting for such a 
list upon an appropriate accessory part; a few, as the flag 
staff and the doors, give space for but short inscriptions, as 
of an individual, a company or regiment. 

"Whatever the form, it should be a lasting memorial. 
Large gates have to be built of iron, but iron requires con- 
stant attention and painting every few years. Other than 
these no metal but bronze should be used for work exposed 
to the weather — no plated metal anywhere. Stone balus- 
trades dignify, where iron railings cheapen a monument. 

"Artificial stones and cement compositions, detestable 
when substituted for natural stone, will surely betray our 
mean judgment and parsimony in time, even during our own 
generation. 

"Of natural stones, only the most durable should be used*^ 
for monuments : Only complete fireproof construction for 



May, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



19 



, f buildings. Local stone, it" good, has advantages of economy 
and of sentiment. 'The lettering of all inscriptions should 
be carefully studied and should be legible. A bold Roman 
type, or the Italian lettering o\ the sixteenth century based 
on it, is the type most suitable.' " 

Very logically the Society calls public attention to the 
question of the amount of money that can be raised for the 
purpose. It is most necessary that this sum be definitely 
known so that the type of memorial may be chosen and 
erected without stinting the accessories to the design. 

The community house idea, as well as public parks, are 
widely discussed in all their phases, giving concrete sugges- 
tions. However, one of the most important paragraphs 
deals with the site of the memorial. And it would be well 
for all city and community committees to pay heed to it. 
Paris has been so long named the most beautiful city in the 
world that one is likely to lose sight of the reason. It is not 
that this city has only perfect architecture : on the contrary 
there are in it some atrocious buildings. Yet, because of 
their remarkable situation, these very atrocities take on a 
beauty that is in some instances uncanny. We may learn 
much from a study of the French sense of proportion and 
fitness of situation. To continue : 

"The question of the form that the monument shall take 
within the limits of the available fund finally narrows itself 
to several equally good, of which perhaps one or two will 
be found the best because most appropriately fitting the site. 
It may not be easy to harmonize the conflicting opinions and 
interests in questions of both form and site. The decision 
calls for the most critical judgment. 

"In some towns the civic center will be favorable, or at 
least have good architectural possibilities for grouping mon- 
umental works, especially if they be few. Here they will be 
constantly seen and each enhance the dignity of the other 
k ^with cumulative effect. In such cases the monument or build- 
ing should conform with the style of the town buildings. 

"Where, however, the town plan is undeveloped and the 
town buildings liable to revision or rebuilding, the monu- 
mental structure or building may form part of a new group, 
harmonious and symmetrical, in a civic center arranged to 
contain them all. 

"But if the center of the town or village green is already 
guarded by the Civil War Soldier and his cannon, or spoiled 
for our purpose in any one of many ways, a more desirable 
place, when sought for, may presently and unexpectedly 
appear, where some natural formation of the ground will 
offer a monumental site and will virtually determine the ap- 
propriate type of the memorial. The cost of laying out the 
site should be included in the scheme. 

"When at last a completely appropriate design is selected 
for an acceptable site, enriching it and in turn enhanced by 
it, the choice will elicit the cordial interest of the citizens as 
a recognized contribution to the beauty of their town, and 
for such a scheme public money or individual contributions 
will be willingly given. Private donors of taste and dis- 
crimination will be disposed to underwrite memorials in 
their towns if they are assured of securing permanent artistic 
investments." 

Very rightly the Society urge that every municipality in- 
sist that the committee in charge, who are in fact trustees of 
pubfic funds, give them a work of fine art in every particu- 
lar — nothing else will suffice — nor that any person other 
than a competent artist shall design it, that "the expenditure 
of a substantial sum by a committee without the advice of 
the competent professional artist is in essence a misappro- 
priation of the fund." 
^ A telling appeal is made in their plea that the beauty of 
the memorial is the qualification which attests to strangers 
our appreciation of the heroic sacrifices of our men as well 



as our affection and that anything less than beauty is, in 
effect, failure. This is straight talk, but true. Straight, 
plain talk is their advice on how to proceed on selecting the 
design. 

"The method of going about the selection of site, design 
and construction is to retain at the very outset competent 
and disinterested professional advice and service. The best 
artist available should be selected. There are now to be 
found throughout the country trained architects, sculptors 
and other artists who are completely detached from com- 
mercial interests, men of cultivation and ability, giving 
their life work to these arts. These professional men do 
not advertise or employ traveling salesmen ; they may not, 
indeed, be able to out-talk the latter in committee before 
the prospective client. As with all professional men, they 
are guided in their dealings with the client and with each 
other by a code of ethics entirely different from the prac- 
tice of business, a code imposed and administered by the 
professional art associations, to which the most reputable 
men among them usually belong. 

"Not every man claiming the title of an honorable pro- 
fession considers himself bound by any code of honor. 
Some still trade on its prestige while ignoring its obliga- 
tions, and yet the majority of professional men serve their 
clients as disinterested experts, receiving from them for 
their service an agreed commission and having no other 
financial interest, direct or indirect, either from the ma- 
terials used or from the work of the contractor. Such 
men only are entitled to the confidence of the public. 

"Nor is it difficult in almost any community to ascertain 
whether particular artists belong to recognized professional 
societies and can furnish to the client the additional assur- 
ance which such membersip affords. 

"The Art Commission of the neighboring city, or even 
the art society of the town, will doubtless respond cor- 
dially to questions of this procedure. A local art commit- 
tee for investigation and conference may be formed. In 
lack of other means this Society will gladly answer inqui- 
ries as to how to proceed. But to supplement all these 
expedients and half measures a competent professional 
adviser should be retained and paid wherever a competi- 
tion is contemplated, where the amount of expenditure 
is considerable, and unless an artist of recognized ability is 
commissioned outright to undertake the work. 

"The artist or architect may be selected (a) outright by 
direct appointment on the assurance of his known ability 
as a designer and integrity as an executant; or (b) by 
competition when two or more men lay claim to equal con- 
fidence in their professional standing. When held, a com- 
petition should be conducted under provisions similar to 
those of the standard form of the American Institute of 
Architects." Obtainable by application to the Secretary of 
the Institute, The Octagon, Washington, D. C, or by ap- 
plication to the nearest Chapter of the Institute. "This 
program contains the provisions essential to the fair and 
equitable conduct of a competition. It insures proper con- 
tractual relations between the owner and the competitor. 
Under it the competition requirements are clear and def- 
inite; the competency of the competitors is assured; the 
agreement between owner and competitors definite, as be- 
comes a plain statement of business relations ; and the 
judgment would be based on expert knowledge. 

"The design that the professional man prepares will not 
be taken from stock or from a catalogue, but from the wide 
range of his study and experience. It will reflect and in- 
terpret the client's personal wishes and feelings. Except 
by special arrangement it will not be copied or used again 
for the work of any other client. The distinctive design, 
which every client secretly hopes (.Continued on page 4fi) 



20 



ARTS and DECORATION 



May, 1019 







•'. 



Do the Awnings 
Belong to Your House? 

WHAT a pageant must have been the colorful convoy 
that bore Cleopatra down the Nile to meet Antony ! 
Flower-decked barge after barge with multicolored 
sails, streaming orirlammes and grateful canopies shading 
beauty and valor from the blazing tropic sun. Imagination 
must supply what history fails to record. Yet it is easy to 
guess that bright green and silver striped the sails, royal 
blue with heraldic devices blazoned the banners while 
various rich hues shaded the loveliness of the women ac- 
cording to their tastes. And was not the pale beauty of 
the queen made more enchanting by a glorious gold-trimmed 
purple? One is certain that it was a solid color and equally 
certain that the material shading the palace loggia where the 
later greeted the Roman was of a like color but broad 
striped to conform to the monumental proportions of 
Egyptian architecture. 

It seems a far cry from Egypt and Cleopatra to the 
United States and our simpler types of building, but the 
same rules that governed awnings of that far time obtain to- 
day. 

The appearance of many a modern house is spoiled be- 
cause too little consideration is given this question that is 
in itself quite simple to answer. Europeans solved it so long- 
ago that many of them have forgotten, but the architects 
of the Renaissance in the southern countries paid it full 




May, 1919 



A RTS and D ECO R AT ION 



21 





attention with the result that no awnings have the volup- 
tuous richness of theirs aside from the fact that they seem 
to be an integral part of the house itself. 

And this is what they should seem. Awnings that strike 
the eye first or apart from the house are incorrect. They 
fail of their part of the bargain with the house however 
beautiful they may be in themselves. 

It is said that architects disapprove of awnings and prefer 
not to use them. I do not believe this, since no one realizes 
more clearly than they how completely awnings can wreck 
the beauty of a house. The obvious solution, then, is that 
the architect be instructed to include the awning in his plans 
and provide their part in the design. 

The illustrations shown here are excellent examples of 
what effects may be obtained by the proper use of canvas. 
The Georgian house at the top of the right-hand page has 
exactly the proper awnings to enhance its generous lines. 
At the same time they keep their place without losing a jot 
of their value— because their design is one with that of the 
house itself. 

The picture at lower left shows an Italian doorway awning 
not only in keeping with the architecture but ideal as regards 
shape. The reader's eyes will tell him how beautifully it 
frames the scene. It is in this type of awning that there is 
the greatest latitude to obtain color. The Italians are 
nothing if not colorful, and Mr. Roger's house at Southamp- 
ton, one of the best examples of Italian architecture in 
America, has cerulian blue awnings that glow like sapphires 
against the tawny colored house. {Continued on page 48) 



22 



ARTS and I) ECO RAT I ON 



May, 1910 




ECHOES OF THE LEMORDANT EXHIBITION 

How Some Well-Known People Expressed Themselves On Viewing His Work 



THE recent exhibition of Lieutenant Lemordant's 
sketches in the galleries of Gimpel and Wildenstein 
has received such wide publicity in the daily journals 
and monthly periodicals that little is left unsaid of them, 
yet the impression of this man's work has been so marked, 
so deep, so moving', that a few words of their effect on their 
visitors may be in itself interesting. 

To begin with, the public's thanks are due this firm for 
their disinterested service to the cause of art in bringing 
before us in so excellent a manner this splendid work. Be 
it told to their credit that their interest is purely ideal, having 
at considerable expense in labor, time, and thought presented 
what is probably the most important exhibition in years, not 
only at no cost to the artist and public but with no remunera- 
tion to themselves, the total returns on catalogues and pic- 
tures going to the artist, who, as will be remembered, was 
blinded in the first months of the war. And our compli- 
ments, too, must be made them for the extremely artistic 
hanging of the great number of subjects. 

In reporting these impressions, since no permission has 
been given to quote their utterances, names must be left to 
the reader's imagination. However, we hope that he will 
not find the remarks the less entertaining on that account. 
Said a daily attendant at the exhibition: "As alwavs, I have 



been intensely interested in the criticisms of the visitors. 
But at this show their physical attitude has impressed me 
quite as much. There is less conversation, more fixed atten- 
tion, almost a listening posture. And they say, almost at 
once, 'what color,' but with a tone of happiness, joy, in their 
voices. Then on examining the works, one hears, 'he must 
have studied with Rodin.' " 

A great tragedienne expressed her deep feeling by saying : 
"I have visited the exhibition whenever I have a moment to 
spare, and each time I see something new. It is needless to 
say how he compares as a painter or what he might have 
done had this great — no, I will not say calamity — rather, 
interruption — not occurred. He is a very great painter. But 
above all technique there are expressed emotions that speak 
to all.. Apreciation and love of humanity and the very busi- 
ness of living. He is one with Nature in all her forms. He 
has taken them all and with all 'methods' as a means bent 
them to his purpose. He has given us joy in many ways, 
but he has given us hope, for he has remembered and made 
us remember that man was made in God's image." 

An editor said : "Aside from my appreciation of the 
works as painting I feel an intense personal obligation to 
Monsieur Lemordant as he has concretized for me feelif^s 

On art in all branches and, (Continued on page 46) 



May, l'»l l ) 



A RTS and I) E CO \< A TIO X 



23 



'RAYMOND HOLLAND 

Painter of Portraits 
War and Marshes 

PITTSBURGH, New York, Amsterdam. Pans, Tan- 
gier and Silver Aline. It sounds like an Aladdin's 
journey on a magic carpet. And it is a journey lie- 
gun thirty-three years ago in the busy city on the Mononga- 
hela by Raymond Holland, painter, who is exhibiting his 
latest work with gratifying success at the Henry Rein- 
hardt & Son Galleries, New York City, 

Of the fourteen or fifteen paintings hung, none are in 
the least reminiscent or at all like those shown in his last 
exhibit, when considerable space was given oxer to the work 
of his Tangier days. It is typical of the man that new 
stuff' would he shown. He does not wish to be identified 
with any school, method or even by his own previous work, 
which is a good sign always in any artist, of bigger vision 
and stronger work. 

So much commendable criticism has heen accorded Hol- 
land that little remains to he said. However, it is note- 
worthy to remark the effect the war has had on this able 
artist. Strength almost brutal is felt in the Mills of Mars, 
seen here, yet there is a romantic flavor in its conception 
that differentiates it from any other of the war paintings 
exhibited this season and which places it at once as a decora- 
tive design of unusual feeling". 

Decorative too is the altogether charming "Marsh- 
Afternoon," a painting of Long Island Sound showing tugs, 
boats, towing barges. Excellently painted, there is a large- 
ness, a freedom of atmosphere that fairly embraces the 
ohserver and ranks the artist high. 

* Strange as it may seem, the same rare quality is sensed 
in a small picture, showing only the soil and water of the 
marshes. This one is well worth visiting for itself alone 
since it shows the artist's ability in its best form and, like 
the Maris brothers- and Israels, displays his appreciation of 
"soil values, a knowledge not too general to painters. 

Not less interesting is the quality of the snow in the war 
pictures which, since they are Pittsburgh scenes, has created 
as much comment because of its whiteness as for its soft 
natural appearance! These jokes trouble Mr. Holland no 





The Mills of Mars. 



1 he Marsh-Afternoon. 

whit. He knows his Pittsburgh and says it isn't dirty all 
the time and that he chose a clear day to paint ! With the 
same engaging frankness this artist, who took like a dapper 
American business type of citizen, tells of his student days 
in New York and abroad, where he studied for some years 
in both Amsterdam, under a Frenchman, August Henne- 
cotte, and Paris with several of best known masters. And 
it will be of intense interest to art students to know that he 
feels that he learned more from his American teachers than 
he did from any of those abroad. Said he : "I don't know 
whether it was because they couldn't explain what they 
wanted to tell me or if the fault lay in my inability to un- 
derstand, but the fact remains, I am especially indebted for 
many things to my American teachers." 

Most interesting too is his account of his time in Tangier 
where for two years he lived in the same house and worked 
frequently with Lavery and Kennedy. Not far away was 
the studio of H. C. Tanner, the Negro painter, who has 
reaped such success in Europe. Those were colorful days 
and nights, rich in experience to be stored against the future. 

Now that he has returned from his wanderings, "Silver 
Mine," the Connecticut artists' colony, is the scene of his 
labors, except when flying visits to Pittsburgh bring to him 
weighty messages such as are these war subjects, to deliver 
to us. The work of this artist, one of the last exhibitors of 
a season rich in vital paintings, is peculiarly pleasing to 
art lovers in its promise as well as in accomplishment It 
would seem that art had received a tremendous impetus 
through the war. That if one may use a weather slang, 
"atmospheric conditions are right" for a long step forward 
and upw r ard in every branch of art impulse. There has 
never been a time in the writer's memory when there was 
such concerted effort, such unity of purpose and so wide- 
spread a "pull together" feeling as at the present. It is good 
to experience this feeling after a somewhat dreary stretch 
of years during which not many desires have materialized. 
And it is of a kind to unleash one's hopes and send them 
soaring", for it is not merely a desire to cooperate as a means 
to personal ends but a sincere attitude that has its basis in 
level-headed judgment of art conditions plus a wise and 
searching self-criticism. It bids fair to lead us into new 
and uncharted channels, but wherever it leads, it will he 
good for us, since clear thinking is the rudder, and sincerity 
is at the wheel. 



24 



A R 'PS and DECO RAT EON 



Max. 1010 



iifiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiii in iimiiimimiii! mini iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiiii iiiiiini iiiiiiiiiniiii mini i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 'in i nun mini i m i miimiiiiiiimiii innm mm «|, 







The fireplace and mantel arrangement is always the center of interest in a room and this one is commendable 
for its simplicity, its nice panelling and proper placement of electric fixtures. Tire whole scheme is well balanced. 




Well balanced, too, are the furnishings of this Italian room whose patterned walls are relieved by plain hang- 
ings and a rich tuned rug. The cornice also has much character without being heavy. Decorations by Huber. 

mmiiiiiiimimiimiimimiimiiiiiiimiiiimmiimiiiiiiiiiiim 



May, I'M" 



A R tS and 1) E'G'-O K A T I ( ) \ 



25 




Tliese views of the New York home of Mr. S. M. Stroock show that the day of oak fondling is not only not 
past but that it can be light and cheerful Both panelling and rafters are commendable. Ilutaff, Decorators. 




Here again one notices with satisfaction that more and more we are overcoming our distrust of mixing 
designs in furnishings. Agreeable are the Chinese cabinet and modern portrait with the heavy Italian pieces. 






Illlllllllllll!ll!!lll!l>!li!:il!:;il!i:!!llllli!llllllllllllllil|lll!lll!llll!lllll!llllllll^ 



_'6 



ARTS and D ECORATION 



May, 1919 



1||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||IW 




The fainted mural decorations share honors with the architecture in the beauty of this Italian bedroom, 
and the electric fixtures are as charming as they are correct. ' Taylor & Levi were the architects. 



The New York Home 
of Mr. Albert Rossin 

Above all places in the United 
States, New York City is ideal for 
the employment of Italian styles of 
architecture and decorations owing to 
the lack of ground space and the con- 
sequent necessity of rich coloring in 
wall treatment. 

Rooms must not seem cluttered — 
hence the furniture must in itself be 
handsome, depending on the wall 
decoration as to whether it be ornate 
or simple. Contrary to common 
understanding, there is as wide lati- 
tude of choice in the Italian modes as 
in any style with the advantage that, 
if well done in the beginning, there 
is permanence, a quality that is not 
to be overlooked in these days when 
it is next to impossible to obtain the 
services of skilled workmen. But be- 
yond all, it provides a background of 
solid dignity that should always be 
the chief aim in building and decora- 
■tion. Among the many noteworthy 
decorative achievements in this house 
the two wall treatments seen in these 
pictures are of first rank. Damask is 
seldom used so simply or with more 
effect. 







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Balance of proportion without duplication of decorations is 
the feeling in this room that at once elicits commendation. 



B 



. i ', ; ' 1 1 i ; : i ; ' : 1 1 :. ; ■ : i ! i - : i- '■ ■ ! , .. i .: !,i i;i i ,' : ,' : / 1 ,' ■ ; i ,■ ; / 1 , , :; i ., i ,i i ;i i ,i :■ j ,: i ■; i : : i :■ i : : i : i .' i i ; i :i i :, i :; i.:; i ■ imm ;;:i i/i i, i '. i i. i !: i ';:i ; :.m !;ii i :; i i i ! :, i .. i . .i i ■! i .! i : 'ii, m ! i m .■ ; 'Mi-'i i : i'i ji;i i^, n^,-..': ,■ 



May, 1«H» 



A R TS and DECORATION 



27 



l» 



illlIIHIIIII!ll!lllll!l!ll!l!l!!llllll!lll!llllll!ll!llll!llll!!ll!!!!llll!l!llll![|!l!!l!l!ll Illlllllllllllll UUIIIII ' ' ' ; ' : ■ : ■■ i ■ i-;; ■:■, , i-,,-, :, • , ■: i : - | ; ;; T -| , n .; i. T ,. Tr ,.-, , , , , ,.,,■, ,„ ; , ; ., : ,,, 1:i ■, i^.^,, , .HIKiri. TL'I l..i I 'I :/ ■|';r l H ! l.!l'|. ' :l, '' 




We have grown so accustomed to seeing Gothic dec oration only in large houses that it comes as a sur- 
prise to see it in a small tfHi Fhis is in the New Canaan, Ct., home of Mr. 1). I'. Brinley, the painter. 




The living-room also lends itself delightfully to the Gothic. With such comforts one almost regrets that 
Mr. Brinley, who has ln-en serving his country in France, is not here to enjoy them. Lord & Hewlett, architects. 



iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuii mum inin i ill 1 lillliilliii mimmiimii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiimimiimiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii in iiiiimiimiu mill mil i i i mi iiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiimiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiimiimiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiimiimiiiil 



28 



ARTS and DECO R AT TON 



M; 



1919 



BEAUVAIS^BOUCHEK TAPESTRIES 

By GEORGE LELAND HUNTER 

Part III following Part II that was printed in the April number of Arts and Decoration 
Note:— Owing to limited space available, it has been impossible to illustrate all the series as was originally planned.— Editor 



THE eighteenth century was preeminently a Chinese 
century. By the arts of China, the arts of Europe 
were transformed What one of Boucher's biog- 
raphers calls "Chinese rubbish" opened the eyes of France 
and England to aesthetic virtues they had hardly even 
dreamed of before. To the ancient Romans of the time of 
Christ, China had been the land of the Seres, a remote and 
inaccessible region, from which by caravan through Persia 
came silk and sugar, the latter in the form of rock crystals 
for use as medicine, both raised beyond common reach by 
the cost and danger of transportation. 

To the Byzantine Romans, China did not cease to be a 
land of mystery, even though for Justinian the secret of a 
silk culture was filched by Nestorian monks. Not until 
the thirteenth century, under Kublai Rhan, whose vast em- 
pire is described so delightfully by Marco Polo, did China 
begin to emerge distinctly 
from the vastness of the un- 
known. Persia continued to 
be the intermediary. During 
the fourteenth, fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries, Persian 
rugs, manuscripts, pottery 
and paintings introduced to 
the Mediterranean world Chi- 
nese dragons, cloud bands, 
monograms and other deco- 
rative motifs. Finally, in the 
sixteenth century, the over- 
land route was largely sup- 
planted by the oversea route 
around Africa. First, the 
Portuguese, and later the 
Dutch, French and English, 
by the importations of Chi- 
nese porcelains and lacquered 
panels and furniture and 
kakemono paintings pasted in 
sets on European walls as 
"wall paper," accustomed Eu- 
ropeans to the oddities of 
Chinese art, and prepared the 

way for the "Chinese craze" of the eighteenth century, 
the mark of which is still strong on our "china," and cre- 
tonnes, and wall papers, and furniture. 

Consequently, ornament became less architectural, and 
the European color palatte was enriched by hundreds of 
pastel tones that had been developed on silk by Chinese 
landscape painters, in silk by Chinese weavers of damask 
and brocade, and later in porcelain. At the head of these 
where art was permeated with the naturalism and the chi- 
noiserie that distinguish the style of Rococo from other 
styles, stood Boucher. 

In the year 1740, Boucher designed a poster for his 
friend, Gersaint, an Oriental dealer on the Notre Dame 
bridge, who sold "all kinds of stylish novelties, jewels, 
mirrors, furniture panels, pagodas, Japanese lacquers and 
porcelains, shells and other natural curios, rare stones, 
agates, and, in general, all strange and foreign merchan- 
dise." This inscription was lettered on a drapery displayed 




"Vintage." 
One of the Noble Pastoral series of six 



by a Chinaman who stood on a lacquered chest resting on 
a table in the midst of a pile of Chinese fans, toys, shells, 
cups, etc. At Gersaint's shop and from Chinese pictures, 
Boucher acquired the knowledge that enabled him to com- 
pose the six illustrations which Huquier published in book 
form, "representing the five senses by different Chinese 
amusements" ; and also to originate the designs for No- 
verre's "Fetes Chinoises" at Monnet's Theatre; and the 
decorations of the ballet in the "Chinese Quack" at Pom- 
padour's smart private theatre; as well as illustrations and 
sketches galore for booklets and calendars and color prints 
and porcelains and furniture. 

Especially interesting in the set of prints portraying the 
"Delights of Children" (with little ones that, except for 
their shaved heads, are altogether Parisian), is the gastro- 
nomic picture explained by the quatrain: 

Les en f ants font part out 
grand' fete a la cuisine, 

Sa vapeur les remplit de de- 
lectation. 

lis ont tons, a Paris anssi bien 
qu'a la Chine, 

Pour la dicte fort pen de dis- 
position. 

In the year 1742, Boucher 
exposed at the Salon "eight 
Chinese subjects intended for 
execution on the low warp 
loom at Beauvais." Six of 
these are the prototypes of 
the Beauvais -Bouches "Chi- 
nese Set" of six tapestries 
( Nos. 20 to 25 in my master's 
list printed on pages 245, 246 
of the March number of Arts 
and Decoration), and are 
also the "6 desseins Chinois 
remis a la Nation par M. de 
Menou," when he resigned as 
director of the Beauvais Tap- 
estry Works in 1793. At the 
same time, he turned over copies of the full-size cartoons, 
"6 tableaux copies des Chinois, par Dumons." These full- 
size cartoons, cut into bands to be placed under the warp 
of the low warp, appear again, together with extra copies 
of three of them, in the Beauvais inventory of 1820. It 
is interesting to note that while usually Boucher himself 
painted the full-size color cartoons, as well as the original 
color sketches, in the case of the Chinese Set the full-size 
cartoons were by Dumons. 

I do not agree with the generally accepted opinion that 
the eight Chinese subjects exposed at the Salon in 1742 are 
part of the set of nine purchased in 1786 by the architect, 
Pierre Adrien Paris, a native of Besangon, and by him 
willed at his death to the Besancon Museum, where they 
still are. In this set of nine are to be found only four of 
the subjects that occur in the six tapestries, while parts of 
the designs woven into the tapestries do not appear in the 
corresponding sketches, and the shapes are different. 



No. 45. 



May, 1919 



A R TS and D ECO R A TIO \ T 



29 



Most romantic is the history of the "Chinese Pair" I No. 

21), belonging- to Mrs. Prentiss, of Cleveland, and shown 
on page 244 of the March issue. The colors are as bright 
and strong as the day it left the loom, and the direet copy- 
ing of the colors from Chinese silks and porcelains is more 
obvious than in those tapestries which exposure to the light 
has softened and mellowed. During the one hundred and 
fifty years that this tapestry spent in China, it was undoubt- 
edly kept shut up in the original packing case that still 
contained it returning to the Occident. It had gone out as 
one of the "six pieces of the Chinese set delivered to M. 
Bertin in 1763 to send to China. 

This was the year in which two Chinese Christians, the 
abbes Ko and Gang, came to France, where they were made 
much of by the government. Minister Bertin wishes to use 
them to advance commercial and artistic relations between 
France and the Far East. They returned to China loaded 
down with the generosity of the king. Among the treasures 
they bore away were twelve splendid mirrors, a collection of 
Sevres porcelain, and "six pieces of beautiful Beauvais 
tapestry.'* 

In 1766, M. Bertin wrote to Messrs. Ko and Gang- at 
Canton: "The intention of the King is that you exert every 
effort that the tapestries from His Majesty's factory, of 
which he made you the bearers, and which have remained 
in the magazines at Canton, should be presented to the Em- 
peror of China, not as a present from the King, but only 
to try to find out in this way what might be the Emperor's 
taste regarding the productions of our factories and our 
arts." 

In 1767, the superior of the French missionaries at 
Pekin wrote to M. Bertin: "The Grand Master of the 
Palace avowed that the Emperor was overwhelmed with 
admiration at sight of the six tapestries. lie told me that 
His Majesty, having had them placed under different points 
of view and having admired them more and more as he 
examined carefully the delicacy of the work, had at first 
thought of adorning with them the temple of his palace in 
which, here as elsewhere, are placed one's most precious 
possessions. But having reflected that attached as we are 
to our holy religion we might be distressed when we learned 
that objects we had offered to His Majesty, His Majesty 





"Chinese Fishing." 
One of the Chinese ^et of -ix designed by Boucher. 



Xo. 23. 



"Boreas and Orilhya." 

< hie of the Loves of the Gods set of nine, designed by Boucher and woven 
at Beauvais. No. 31. 



had used to decorate the temples of divinities that we do 
not recognize as such, he gave orders to have his European 
palaces searched for apartments where one could plan the 
tapestries. But no place being found in the European 
palaces where they could be hung. His Majesty gave orders 
for the construction of a new palace in which the propor- 
tions of the walls of the apartment should agree with the 
dimensions of the tapestries. Among all the Tartars and 
Chinese who have seen the tapestries and porcelains, there 
is not one who does not testify that these works are inimit- 
able in China." 

The Loves of the Gods 

Ever since Arachne, as told by Ovid in his Metamor- 
phoses, defeated Minerva in a contest of tapestry weaving, 
the "Loves of the Gods" have been a favorite subject with 
tapestry designers. Here Boucher was at his best, and the 
beauty of his wife and other models makes the frailties of 
immortals seem less inexcusable than when less charm- 
ingly suggested. First in the set of nine (Nos. 26 to 34) 
comes "Bacchus and Ariadne," with the broken architecture 
reminiscent of Boucher's visit to Rome, and the rosy nudes 
suggestive of a warmth that makes the blood flush close 
under the skin. The wooing of the wine god seems en- 
tirely to have banished from Ariadne the gloom that im- 
pelled her to suicide when she learned that she had been 
deserted on the island of Naxos by Theseus, with whom 
she had eloped from her native Crete, after having assisted 
him effectively in his battle with the Minotaur, and given 
him the spool of thread that enabled him to retrace his way 
through the Daedalian labyrinth. Like other Beauvais 
tapestries, those of Boucher were made in different sizes 
to fit the rooms they were to adorn, the designs being cut 
or enlarged as occasion demanded. The largest and most 
fascinating version of "Bacchus and Ariadne" is the one 
that hangs on the north wall of the drawing room of Mr. 
Blair's town house. 

"Pluto and Proserpine" pictures the story of the daughter 
of Ceres, whom the ruler of the nether world stole from her 
girlish companion, leaving only her girdle to mark the spot 
in Sicily where the earth opened for the downward passage 
of his chariot. "Neptune and Amymone" shows how the 
god of the sea saved the daughter of Danaus from a satyr, 
only to elope with her hinisel f , (.Continued on p age u) 



30 



A R TS and D KCd R A T-t-O N 



May, l ( »l'i 



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The Country Home of 
F. P. King, Esq. 

IF it were not that the F. P. King house at Tarry- 
town had so many other attractions, one would be 
tempted to call it the house of triumphant porches ! 

Seldom does one find this feature of the home 
handled in so masterly a fashion, with such taste and 
nicety of proportion. The scheme is the more to be 
complimented when one considers that the house is 
an old one that has been reconstructed. 

In its original form, mid-Victorian, there were the 
usual small porches, scroll work veneer and belvidere. 
It stands to-day in almost classic purity, yet so sym- 
pathetically treated as regards details that no cold- 
ness is felt. Examples of this are seen in the latticed 
rails of the lower porches and the medallions that 
break the vertical lines of those in the screened sleep- 
ing porch in the rear of the house. 

In some respects the back porch is the chef-d'oeuvre 
of them all. Beauty and utility are perfectly com- 
bined, the upper portion having the appearance of 
being suspended, which eliminates the feeling of ex- 
treme fixity too common to classic types. Nor do its 
lines interrupt the streaming grace of the columns. 
Then, too, the whole balance is perfect, a grateful touch 
of color being lent by the single line of brick flooring. 
This touch of color is carried throughout the porches 
and with the loggia makes them one design. 

It will be noticed, too, that in all the porches a 
pilaster joins and makes them one with the house. It 



\ 



m *>< 



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May, 1919 



A R T S and D E CORA T I O N 



31 



lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllilllli:!!!lllllillllllll!illliilllllllM 



At Tarrytown, N. Y. 

Aymar Embury, II., Lewis E. Welsh 
Associate Architects 



seems footless to call attention to this arrangement 
that is one of the oldest architectural ideas, yet it is so 
absolutely necessary to this type of building and so 
frequently overlooked that perhaps it is not amiss to 
remark its presence. This treatment is clearly ex- 
ampled in the upper right-hand illustration showing the 
trellised porch. See how perfectly it joins the house, 
is a part of it. Observe also the easy sweep of the steps 
and the open rafters that have beauty without losing- 
strength. What comfort will be here when the vines 
have reached their growth. 

An interior view of this porch is shown on the same 
page, and its proportions may be guessed when it is 
known that the fountain, seen in the foreground, is in 
the middle of the porch. It was wisdom that mounted 
the fountain on a base of rough stone, letting Nature 

1 play her part within as well as outside the porch. Wise, 
too", is the use of plain wicker furniture and grass rugs; 
anything else would have seemed overrich. 

Charming as are the capitals of these columns, they 
are outdone by those of the front and back porches. In 
these, palm leaves rise above acanthus leaves, and both 
are bound to the column by a narrow round band. The 
friezes on these porches are also the same, being lines 

1 and medallion-indented carving. 

A word should be said in passing on the nice balance 
of the serving wing of the house with the open porch. 








IIIIIIIIIIHIlllllllllllililllillllllllM 



32 ARTS and DECORATION 

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May, 1919 
llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllli |. 




PHI Illllllllililllllilllllllllllllllllllllllllillillllllllllllllllllllllliiillim M.l .1 U I I ;. I .:!..: I I ,. : .I i ,1 ; .1 , I , I . , ', : I .! , .1 ,: ; .: , .1- :.;.■,,,',!,, , .i , .1 ,: , ! ; ;,i ,| : I , : , .' i : , : i , ,, 1 ,1 ,:,,:.:: ;: ' , .■! i'.; , .i , i , , ,' i ; l : ^ ;' i ,: ! i'.l ,: i :',i ,i , ;| , ,| ,^ , :.,■ ! V.! i',i , .'.; , ,i ,/r^ 



Plllllllllllillllllllllllllll Illlllllllllllllllllillllllllllllillllllilllllllllllllllllllllllllira IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII Iillill!lillilillllillllllll!lll!i:illlllllllllli! 



There arc many bonds that at- 
tract the audience in Benavente's 
play, "The Bonds of Interest," 
produced April \Ath at the Garrick Theatre by The 
Theatre Guild. Bonds personal and material. Per- 
sonal because many of the old Washington Square 
players are acting as well as such well-known older 
ones as Miss Amelia Summerville. Bonds material 



Miss Helen Freeman 



since the scenery and costumes 
designed by Rollo Peters, who 
also plays, are as beautiful as 
they are unusual. Miss Freeman is a joy to look at 
as Sylvia, and aside from giving a delightful im- 
personation, pretty compliments must be made for the 
manner in which she uses her hands, for in the days 
of such skirts, ladies held their hands "to match." 



o 



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May, 1919 



A R T S and DECO R A T I O N 



33 



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minimi 



iiiiim 



.;ii;iiiiiiii:iiiiiiiiiiiiii!i Illllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll iiiiiiiiiiuii'iiiiiiii ■ i.. ; m :^; I . ; i .. n :. - m .:,;,,:.!■,: . i;. i.t ' 



Never has this charming 
actress done more interesting 
work than now as Madame de 
Monies pan in Philip Moeller's play, Molicre, where- 
in she exhibits Iter knowledge of this favorite's 
character, making her characterization what history 
tells us she was, a beautiful, selfish, scheming 
courtesan lacking the tenderness of La Valliere and 
the genuineness of La Maintenon who preceded and 



Miss Blanche Bates 



followed her in the great Louis' 
affections. Her artistry reaches 
great heights as she pronounces 
the line "Shadows are fragile things, Molicre," at 
which moment in the play the photograph shows her. 
Here all the human emotions possible to this shallozu 
woman are blended as only an actress of first abilities 
can blend them. Her beauty was never so lovely, for 
a golden wig makes her brown eyes more expressive. 









34 



ARTS and D ECO RATI. ON 

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiin iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii^ iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiii mini iiiiiiniii 



The 

New York 

Shops Hold 

these for 

You 



May, 1919 

J 

1 




Pieces that 
Possess 
Beauty, 

Comfort and 
Utility 



For the nursery is offered another 
useful adjunct that will please both the 
children and their elders. This quaint 
little blue painted Dutch set is most at- 
tractive. The table top lifts off and re- 
veals a box for sand. The whole set is 
stoutly built to withstand hard wear. 

Chinese Cabinets are more and more 
coming to be treasured. But they are 
no longer sought for merely decorative 
purposes. These like everything else 
must be utilitarian. This one, whose 
delicate gold and green design is well 
distributed, is of natural mahogany 
finish with doors that conceal plain 
shelves. 




Ballustre-shaped, this creamy-glazed 
Chinese porcelain lamp with its Chinese 
hand - woven gold thread silk tapestry 
shade in blue, coral and gold is most 
effective. Its finial is carved white jade. 
Mounted on a teak stand with three 
lights, its height is 35 inches, its width 
24 inches. 



In every living-room there is a crying 
need for comfortable chairs. There can 
never be too many. The needle - point 
covering of this English one lends itself 
delightfully to the proportions of the 
chair and makes the whole an admirable 
piece for many settings. 



t 




NOTE 

T h e s c articles 
may be found by 
addressing the Art 
Service Bureau of 
this m a g a z i u e. 
A n y information 
regarding art sub- 
jects, matters of 
interior decoration 
and house building 
will be given in- 
terested attention. 







May. 1919 



A R T S 



and DECORATION 



35 



EXHIBITIONS IN THE NEW YOP.K GALLERIES 



By PEYTON BOSWELL 



SALVATORE ANTHONY GUARINO, native New- 
York painter, who up to 1914 had passed most of his 
artistic days in Italy, and who had achieved a reputa- 
tion there, returned to America during the first year of the 



great 



war. He came on one steamship, and, owing to the 
exigencies of shipping in those first trouhlous days of the 
submarine menace, his paintings left by another. The artist 
arrived in New York safe and sound, but his paintings, 
his entire lifework with the exception of those owned by 
Italian collectors, were sent to the bottom by a German 
U-boat. An exhibition of Mr. Guarino's pictures had been 
arranged in advance, but the painter found himself with 
nothing but his genius and will to paint again. 

How great was the artistic loss when Mr. Guarino's pic- 
tures went down can be estimated from the long deferred 
exhibition at the Kraushaar Art Galleries, composed of 
work done since 1915. His art combines imagination and 
love for color; if anything, there is more of the Spanish in 
it than the Italian — a boldness and dash that does not quite 
suggest the modern eclecticism that comes out of the ancient 
"cradle of art." 

One of the most exquisite pictures is the smallest, ''Rose 
Bodice," which is a pure gem of color. "Taverna Cinese" 
is in rich but obscure tones, a nocturne with dim lanterns 
in front of a Chinese inn, an Oriental figure outside and 
another seen within. This picture is calculated especially 
to please an artist. 
* There is romance — the romance of opera — in "Italian 
Night," which is a presentment on canvas of an operatic 
stage setting, a moonlight scene, with big stars shining and 
a pair of lovers all but hidden beyond a column. But the 
most imaginative of all perhaps is "Words of Yesterday," 
■ full of the poetry of the past. In pale moonlight, a great 
balustraded staircase winds from a mansion down into a 
garden, and in the shows at its base stands the figure of a 
woman. The beholder, if he has as much imagination as 
the painter, can write his own romance. 

In sharpest contrast with this work is "Exotic Dance," 
a serpentine subject, just as "modern" and Greenwich-vil- 
lagey as a lot of other things seen down that way. "Span- 
ish Picture," which is, on a large scale, a "still life" of a 
section of the Spanish Museum here, is a reminder of 
Zuloaga and Sorolla, which pictures look down from the 
walls. 



It takes Crawford O'Gorman, globe-trotting Irishman 
and lover of bright color, to remind us of the fact that 
Mexico is a place of something else besides revolution, 
outlawry and hazardous occupation. Right in the midst 
of Mexico's that troubled country's most troublous times 
Crawford O'Gorman travelled hither and thither, wher- 
ever he pleased, with his brushes and water colors and no- 
body said him nay. Mexico loves color, and even a Mex- 
ican outlaw is friends with an artist. So Crawford went 
up and down the land, painting its sunlit corners, the relics 
of its old civilizations, its floating gardens, its old churches 
and patios, its historic buildings and its colorful and fan- 
tastic market scenes, and more than a hundred of his pic- 
tures are now on exhibition at the Dudensing Galleries, 4.5 
West 44th street. They have fine decorative quality and 



are interesting from ;i travel and historical standpoint. The 
title of the exhibition is "Mexico in Water Color." 

No use to single out single pictures for mention. All of 
them are picturesque — and Mexican. All of them are seen 
through the Irish temperament of Crawford O'Gorman, 
and what could be more romantically Irish, for the painter 
is the son of Edmond O'Gorman, personal friend and finan- 
cial backer of Parnell and the Irish Party. A motto was 
given to the family by Brian Boru after the battle of Clon- 
tarf, and it reads "Primi et ultimi in hello." With fine 
freedom, O'Gorman says this means, "Get in the first whack 
and you'll come out on top at last ;" and that, says he, is 
the reason he paints with water color; he wants to get his 
impression of a scene at the "first whack," without working 
the thing over in oils in a studio afterwards. 



Mysticism is the characteristic note in the art of Sandor 
Landau, an American painter who has spent most of his 
life in Paris, but who now has a studio in East Aurora. 
He has been given an exhibition at the Babcock Galleries. 
The fact that he has been an extensive traveller and has 
looked upon whatever he saw with an eye endowed with 
imagination, is evident from the twenty works that are 
shown. The titles of the pictures suggest Egypt, Palestine, 
Morocco and Italy, and Mr. Landau has travelled in all of 
these countries. 

For instance, he got the pale purples, blues and greens 
of "The Prodigal Son" from a Palestine night. "Prayer 
for the Lost at Sea" was awarded a gold medal at the Paris 
salon. Titles which will suggest their subject matter are : 
"Morning Light on Pearl Blossoms," "Flight Into Egypt," 
"Ancient Cypresses — Rome," and "Temple of Apollo — 
Dawn." Carried out with vivid imagination is the spectral 
moonlight subject "No Man's Land." 



At the Gimpel & Windenstein Galleries, No. 647 Fifth 
Avenue, the American public has been paying tribute to 
the striking genius of a French painter who, just arriving 
at the zenith of his power when the great war broke out, 
is now one of its blind victims, who will paint no more. 
He is Jean-Julien Lemordant, who volunteered as a private 
and who by his brilliant fighting qualities became a lieu- 
tenant and commanded a company of men in the engage- 
ment in which a German bullet shattered his forehead and 
paralyzed his optic nerve. Lemordant lives in the memo- 
ries of his achievements, and his friends hope that the 
surgeons will at last triumph and restore his eyesight. 

The exhibition was arranged by the Yale School of Fine 
Arts, for Yale University in 1918 bestowed upon Lemor- 
dant the Howland Memorial Prize, which is awarded every 
two years to a citizen of any country for an achievement 
of marked distinction in literature, the fine arts or the sci- 
ence of government. The first award, made in 1916, was 
made to Rupert Brooks, the brilliant young English poet 
who lost his life in the expedition to the Dardanelles. It 
is prescribed that the award shall always take account of 
the idealistic element in the recipient's work as an important 
factor in the choice. And it is this idealistic element that 
converted the young Breton painter and pacifist into as 



36 



ARTS and DECORATION 



May, 1919 





<oke Iwelve Oalleries 
of Juddestiorv 

QUITE often the most inviting interior 
is that which traces its inspiration to 
some unpremeditated source — which 
may account for the joy of "scheming" even 
the simplest room. 

{J| To-day, for instance, in strolling through 
^ these twelve Galleries you may happen 
upon a fine porcelain vase; on the morrow it 
flowers into a Lamp of softly glowing beauty. 
Then again, a lovely Queen Anne Settee, 
enriched with beautiful tapestry, may engage 
your admiration; ere long it evolves itself and 
companion pieces into a Georgian Living 
Room in which discriminative taste cannot 
fail to discern individuality and decorative 
significance. 

^J| Indeed, a visit to these Galleries will 
^ reveal not alone the Furniture but those 
kindred objects which will impart distinction 
to all the rooms of the well-considered house. 
Their cost, withal, is by no means prohibitive. 

Tie luxe prints of charming interiors gratis upon request 

Jfurttiture 

Becorattoe 0b)tzta 

®vimtal &up; 




Grand Rapids Rirniture Company 



INCORPORATED 



34~36West32 n -2 Street 
New^brk City 



I 






brave and quick-witted and calculating a fighter as I -Vance 
ever sent against an enemy. 

More than 300 paintings and sketches comprise the e.l 
hibition, works that were gathered by France and sent to] 
America in honor of one of her finest sons. Many of them 
are dance and folk scenes designed for French theatres 
and public buildings. Lemordant glorified the life of the 
common people, and he traced the lineaments of a rugged 
laborer or fisherman with as much enthusiasm as a court 
painter of another day would have bestowed on the beauty 
of the king's favorite. A pleasing freedom of design char- 
acterizes his sketches, together with the utmost precision 
in recording just what he wished to say concerning a figure, 
a movement or a face. 

"One-man" exhibitions, so-called, are, of course, a fix- 
ture in the art world, serving to give a complete idea of 
the work of the artist who provides the display. Neces- 
sarily- they are a bit monotonous, because they give only one 
artist's point of view. In constrast are the exhibitions 
which the art dealers arrange now and then by including 
one or two fine pictures of a dozen or so recognized artists. 
The visitor to one of these exhibitions is pretty sure to get a 
full portion of enjoyment, and to come away with broad- 
ened knowledge and appreciation. 

The Milch Galleries deserve praise for such a composite 
exhibition of the work of modern Americans. Most of 
the pictures are by contemporary artists, and a few by the 
masters of the last generation. There is a particularly in- 
teresting Inness, "Autumn in Montclair," one of the very 
last pictures he painted, being signed in 1894, the very year 
of his death. It is very rich of color as well as being 
broadly synthetic; much warmth being created by the reds 
of the foliage and the purples of the sky. 

By Inness' great contemporary, Wyant, there is a very 
broadly painted "Early Morning," from the William Tl 
Evans collection — a view over fields with a fine loci Ay 
sketched sky. Then there is a Ranger, "Spring Woods," 
one of the works bequeathed by the artist to the National 
Academy of Design, and bearing the Academy's stamp. 
It is related that Ranger painted on this picture for ten 
years. 

Of the works by contemporary men especial interest at- 
taches to "Midsummer Day," by Willard Metcalf, because 
it illustrates the progress made by this painter in the last 
few years. It is a beautiful piece of color, with its glimpse 
of a country road, flanked by a farm homestead. On the 
side of a barn, a faded circus poster that delighted the 
small boy's heart the preceding summer, gave the artist a 
motive for a fine piece of decoration. "The Winding 
Road" is another most attractive Metcalf. 

Max Bohm is going to be even better appreciated some 
clay than he is now. Only now and then is one of his pic- 
tures shown in the galleries, and "Joy" in the Milch show, 
with its two girls dancing and its galvanic sky, has a fine 
spiritual quality. "Happy Childhood," with rich greens, 
browns and reds, is a felicitous work by Elliott Dainger- 
field. Still another colorist is represented in "Moonrise — 
Montruer-sur-Mer," a silvery, poplary subject by the late 
Henry Golden Dearth. There is shown a particularly good 
"Meadows — Autumn" by J. Francis Murphy. "Southern 
Plantation," by Gari Melchers, has the atmosphere of the 
South. Robert Henri's firm hand is shown in "The Span- 
ish Girl of Segovia." 

The Macbeth Galleries have given the public another 
composite show, with fifteen paintings by twelve contem- 
porary artists. Two figure subjects are particularly attrac- 
tive — "Contemplation," by Richard E. Miller, and "Medi- 
tation," by Ivan G. Olinsky — and are enough in consonance 
to be considered "a pair." Charles W. Hawthorne has 



May, 1010 



A R T S 



am 



1 DECORATIO X 



37 



killed two artistic birds with one stone in painting "Rose," 
because the picture is a portrait and still life combined; 
the girl makes one attractive subject, ami the hat full of 
fresh roses she holds toward the spectator presents a "still 
life" of the most charming kind. 

Willard Metcalf is represented by "Cherry Blossoms," 
a visualization of a countryside in Spring, with bills be- 
vond. Emil Carlsen has two pictures, "Surf" and "Oc- 
tober," the latter a light and dainty harmony made vibrant 
by the artist's method of placing his pigment on a rough 
textured canvas. "The Torn Gown," scintillating with 
light, and "Girl With Work Basket" are typical of the art 
of Frederick C. Frieseke. Paul Dougherty shows a ringing 
marine, "Clearing After the Gale" ; Childe Hassam, "North- 
east Headlands, Isle of Shoals"; T. W, Dewing a masterly 
and conventional "Woman in Black" : Chauncey R. Ryder, 
a "Cornfield," and W. Granville Smith, "Clearing Mists." 

At the Macbeth Galleries, also, a new painter makes her 
bow to the public, Miss Felicie Waldo Howells. Born in 
Hawaii, of American parents, she has brought with her 
from the South Pacific a distinctive love for color. Her 
best quality, however, is the ability to set down local color. 
Tbe pictures are all glimpses of streets in American cities, 
mainly New York, and, despite her fine use of color, they 
have that recognizable quality which the beholder loves 
despite modern art tenets. For instance there is "New 
York Public Library," which actually is the library, with 
a typical western sky above it — the same sky which New 
Yorkers can see if they take the time to look up. In "Fifth 
Avenue" Miss Howell has caught the spirit of the street 
better than most artists who have tried to paint it. The 
same can be said of "Market Street — Philadelphia." 



p Attention has been called before in these reviews to the 

f tendency of our artists to use lighter colors in their new 
works. Now comes Mr. Percival Rosseau with his regular 
annual exhibitions of bird dog pictures at the John Levy 
Galleries. Mr. Rosseau always could paint dogs sensa- 
tionally well, but this time he has shown himself to be a 
landscapist of such excellence that his pictures have a 
double value. Not only are the pictures portraits of the 
dogs, but they are also fine representations of the fields in 
which the dogs hunt — broadly painted, mainly with the 
pallette knife. 

Perhaps the star pictures are "And It Was a Big Covey" 
and "One for All, and All for One," the first presenting 
three pointers and the latter three setters. The alertness 
and tenseness of the dogs is portrayed with magnificent 
spirit. "Fairy Beau and Brace Mate" has for its subject 
two dogs owned by Mr. Harry D. Kirkover, of Buffalo, 
the first of which has been sixteen times a winner in field 
trials. "Peggie Danstone, Beau Backing" presents two 
bird dogs belonging to Mr. P. H. Powell, of Newport. 



THE PRIDE OF CIVILIZATION 

{Continued from page 12) 

and Italian art everlasting. Beauty as well as utility was 
aimed at in those objects of daily life which men constantly 
saw.and handled. In the Middle Ages nothing was machine- 
made, hence the individuality of the craftsman was able to 
assert itself. Life was of necessity more restricted, more 
concentrated. Every joy had to be sought in the home or 
in the immediate neighborhood. Hence, perhaps, the rea- 
son why they did not neglect those matters as do we who 
buy objects ready-made and turned out by the thousand. 
'% With the advent of the machine a great number of work- 
men were cut off from the handcraftsman's delight in his 



labors; but there are those still left who will pay for and 
appreciate good work, and those who love to do it, if only 
the path is shown. These adherents to the older forms 
assist unconsciously in realizing that which should be uni- 
versally and emphatically demanded — that objects destined 
for use should also be agreeable to the eye. 

The number of people who take an interest in, and claim 
to possess some knowledge of decorative style in connection 
with the furnishing of their homes, is increasing day by day. 
This is the movement which is shaping itself in our midst, 
and public taste in this direction is making visible and rapid 
progress, and one may safely say to-day that a large pro- 
portion of wealthy householders do at least attempt, with a 
laudable measure of success, to produce something like uni- 
formity of style and harmony of color in their domestic 
surrounding. The study of the house should surely be a 
subject of engaging inquiry, because it is certainly true that 
the place in which a man dwells is, in a real sense, the ex- 
pression of himself. The theory of decoration almost nec- 
essarily implies a return to historic examples, and a free 
utilization of those distinctive features which characterize 
the outstanding periods of style. To some extent this hark- 
ing back to the past indicates a certain pause in the devolu- 
tionary progress of decorative invention, inconsistent with 
artistic originality. That pause will not continue indefin- 
itely. It is a rest for the purpose of marking time; and 
though a temporary state of chaos may prevail for a while, 
it does not imply that a full stop has been reached in deco- 
rative endeavor. 

When a decorator of high genius finds it worth his while 
to assert his sovereignty over the field of his work usually 
relegated to a skilled artificer, the result can hardly fail to 
be a production of a masterpiece of a kind at once rare, 
peculiar and characteristic. He creates something which 
has a special value and interest of its own which does not 
attach to a mere statue or a mere picture. He shows us not 
only his mastery and imagination in his own distinctive 
province of art, but the choice of material, the method of 
treatment and handling, the style of decoration, the scale 
of proportion, the relation to its surroundings which he 
considers best calculated to show his work to advantage, 
and at the same time to fulfil the purpose for which it is in- 
tended. He reveals to us, in fact, not only his powers as an 
artist, but his conception of the adaptability of great art to 
human needs, and his taste and judgment in applying it. 
The ordinary skilled artificer is himself quite capable of 
supplying us with a practically unlimited choice of schemes 
admirably adapted to their purpose, amply sufficient for our 
needs, and at a price well within the reach of all but the 
absolutely indigent ; the master effect is lacking, however, 
even though a certain dexterity is evident in the result. 

The practice of the applied arts has of recent years be- 
come an enormous industry in America, but if the craftsmen 
are to keep the future in view they must make up their 
minds to develop the talent they possess on the best possible 
national system. Such a system cannot be founded upon 
any general theory of human perfection, but must be adapted 
to the peculiar genius of the national artist, as experience 
has revealed it in his endeavor to set before the public a 
proper and definite standard of excellence. He must, how- 
ever, cherish at the same time a respect to forerunners and 
the varying evidences of past activities, even hesitating to 
brush away the cobwebs of history or the dust of time, in 
controlling his forms, to bring about a real artistic, national 
renaissance in decoration. Beyond this his patron must 
vibrate to the sensuous appeal of the best artistic forms, he 
must realize the all importance of quality and he must be 
able to decipher the message of a work of art viewed as a 
human document; if he fail in anv of these, he fails. 



38 



ARTS and DECORATION 



May, 1919 



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JOYCE KILMER'S DECORATION 

{Continue ft from page 13) 

So Israel's joy, the loveliest of kings, 

Smote now his harp, and now the hostile horde, 

To-day the starry roof of Heaven sings 

With psalms a soldier made to praise his Lord; 

And David rests beneath Eternal wings, 

Song on his lips and in his hand a sword." 

It is unnecessary to add to the eulogies of old friends. 
They have acclaimed him as a friend; the world of letters 
lauds him as a poet; Governments recognize him as a hero. 
I saw him only as a man among men who were given the 
most damnable task ever laid upon mankind, except One, 
and I know why he did not fail, though it was a "rough 
road and a steep road." 

As a poet he had something to say, and he said it beau- 
tifully; as* a friend he had something to keep, and he cher- 
ished if tenderly ; as a man he had something to do, and he 
did it gloriously. 

Decorations are worthy as the recipient is worthy. We 
are proud of this Groix de Guerre with the palm. But there 
is another order which he has won — the oldest of them all 
— by far and away the hardest to attain, conferred by the 
King of Kings, and this is the citation : 

"He that overcometh and keepeth my works unto the 
end, to him I will give power over nations. . . . 

"And I will give him the Morning Star." 



THE EFFECT OF WAR UPON ARCHITECTURE 

(Continued from page 9) 

The end came with the beginning of the classic revival dur- 
ing the reign of Elizabeth, 1558-1603. The Tudor arch and 
the English mansions were a product of this period. 

In Spain, the overthrow of the Moors, 1217-1252, begai 
a new spirit in national enthusiasm, and, as their successful 
wars had been against a Mohammedan invader, who had 
occupied the territory for five centuries, that spirit was 
necessarily Christian. The great Cathedral of Toledo, 1220, 
and Burgos, 1230, were started, the influence being almost 
entirely French. In 1401, the cathedral of Seville was 
started upon the former site of a Moorish mosque. This 
is the largest of the cathedrals. The cathedral at Sala- 
manca, 1510-1560, shows decided classic influences, so it 
is fair to say that Gothic ended during this time in Spain. 
With the ending of the Gothic influence, we began with 
the Renaissance, the return to the use of classic forms. At 
this point in the history of the world, so far as architecture 
is concerned, and which may be put at about 1420 A.D., 
when the Renaissance began in Italy, its home, we may say 
truthfully, that innovation ended, for, since the thirteenth 
century, when Gothic reached its high point, no new basic 
permanent style has been evolved. This is not to say that 
we have not experienced sporadic changes, whereby the 
visionist may choose to detect a new style or type, but there 
has been no radical permanent change since that time, every- 
thing since then being based on some precedent in design. 
At this date, about \ 420, the Florentines experienced a 
tremendous impulse in all arts, and, as would follow, in 
architecture. This was the birth of the Renaissance. Italy 
had never taken kindly to Gothic forms, a style essentially 
northern, and had used it in her own manner, and not too 
seriously. The classic influence had never lost its hold in 
this region. The change was not sudden, as no great change 
is, and at first we find the combination of Gothic and classic 
forms, a period in all countries which was most pleasing 
and picturesque, and very distinctive in each country. Con<y 
pare the early Italian Renaissance with the Elizabethan of 
England and the Louis XII. and Francis I. of France; while 



May, 1919 



ARTS and DKCOR A TIO X 



39 







all embody the Gothic with classic forms, they were each 
very distinctively national. The Italian Renaissance reached 
its high point in the years 1500-1550, during which time 
it produced such masters as Michael Angelo, Palladio, 
Yignola and others. From 1600 to 1700 it entered a 
Rococo or overdecorated period, and during the century 
later a reaction followed, where (he architects resorted to 
a servile copying of the classic forms. 

The Renaissance in France came later. The campaigns 
of Charles VIII., Louis XII., and Francis I. in northern 
Italy, during the latter part of the fifteenth and early in the 
sixteenth century, made the French acquainted with this 
new turn in architecture, and many Italian artists and work- 
men were carried back to France to teach the new idea. 
\rchitecture in France then went through the Valois period, 
1483-158°), during which we have the transition of Gothic 
to classic. In this period the chateaux were built. It natu- 
rally took longer in France than in Italy, as that count'.-)' had 
been fairlv steeped in the enthusiasm for Gothic. France 
then entered upon the Bourbon or classic period, 1589-1715, 
reaching under Louis XIV., during the latter half of the 
seventeenth century, the high point, corresponding with the 
period of Palladio in Italy. After 1715 the style became a 
florid classic, extravagant and capricious, and then under- 
went a reaction to severe design up to the time of the first 
empire. 

In England, the Renaissance arrived still later, entering 
its transition period during Elizabeth, 1558-1603, where 
classic influences began with the employment of Dutch and 
Italian artists. The early Jacobean style under James I., 
1603-25, showed an application of classic design which was 
so grotesque as to have a certain charm, especially on in- 
teriors. Inigo Jones, an English architect, and a follower 
of Palladio, did much during the first half of the seventeenth 



century to improve and clarify the usage of Renaissance 
design. Sir Christopher Wren, during the latter part of the 
seventeenth and early quarter of the eighteen centuries, also 
did much for English architecture, being known as the archi- 
tect of St. Paul's Cathedral, London. The so-called Anglo- 
Italian style, as developed by Jones and Wren, was used 
through the eighteenth century, and Robert Adams origin- 
ated during this time a charming modified classic style which 
is extensively used in this country. 

The Renaissance in all countries entered upon a style 
which was a combination of Gothic and classic, which was 
in all cases picturesque and original, developed into a style 
which was very distinctive, although based upon Roman 
precedent, degenerated into a Rococo or overornate period, 
and suffered a reaction to purer design, although copying 
literally the Greek and Roman, ending in most cases with 
the close of the eighteenth century. 

The nineteenth century began the era of industrial prog- 
ress, and when we think of industrial progress we must 
do so in terms of steel. Engineering was to have its day, 
very much at the expense of architecture, for never in the 
history of the world has so much poor architecture been 
done as during this time. The most extraordinary advances 
have been made along intellectual, scientific, mechanical and 
commercial lines, and these matters have kept the world very 
busy, but not too busy for war. Architecture suffered se- 
verely, going through a succession of short irrational styles, 
all bad in design and conception, and none permanent, and 
it has only in the last twenty or thirty years begun to catch 
up with our other progress. There has been no general 
spontaneous movement, the finest works of recent years in 
America being the results of individual exertions in design. 
Building has depended upon steel to a great extent, with 




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18th to 19th St. Ave.C 






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13 Faub'g 
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40 



ARTS and DECORATIO N 



May, 1919 




Part of a collection just brought to America by Mr. W.A. KimbeC, who 
has been in Europe seeking fine specimens for our clients. 




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PARIS: 16 Rue i Arlois 



12 West 40ih S(., NEW YORK 



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SUPER-EASY UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE 

has been produced in the workshops of B. Altman & Co. to satisfy 
the demand forcomfortable furniture of finest design. Model Chairs 
and Settees are exhibited in the Department of Interior Decoration 

Descriptive illustrated leaflets will be mailed on request 



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Thirty-fourth Street Thirty-fifth Street 



but few exceptions, and design has been a literal copying of 
Greek, Roman and Gothic, or some other style. 

The only architecture of America has been Colonial, ancP 
much has been unnecessarily written upon it, as it is no great 
development, depending more or less upon the English late 
Renaissance or Georgian. This country, while being the 
only colony of the British to gain its independence, did not 
develop any original style, but followed on with the archi- 
tectural trend of England. With few exceptions nothing 
monumental was constructed in this country during Colo- 
nial times, St. Paul's Chapel in New York being one of 
them, built 1764. 

Under the Republic a new enthusiasm was shown, which 
unfortunately did not communicate itself to our architecture. 
We were perhaps too busy at first trying to keep a baby na- 
tion alive to spend much time constructing monuments, and 
with a few exceptions, aside from the national Capitol, 
1793-1830, and the City Hall of New York, no great monu- 
ments' were built until recent years. Many massive but 
more or less ridiculous structures were built during the latter 
half of the 19th Century, corresponding with the Victorian 
period in England, noted for bad taste and design, and these 
need not be considered. 

The trend of recent years in America has been toward 
great commercial buildings first of all, and during the time 
some very fine country homes have been built. There has 
been no great spontaneous movement, but certain individuals 
have done work which compares very favorably in design 
with anything which has been done at any time. Steel has 
always set its barrier to good architecture. The constructive 
value of steel cannot be belittled, and when used frankly for 
its own sake, it has a very distinct decorative feeling, but 
steel veneered with stone and brick is not architecture. 
Good architecture has always been candid and shall always 
continue to be so. If the building or structure is to be 
of steel, build it of steel, but do not hide the very distinctive ( 
message of steel behind a curtain of imitation Renaissance 
done in limestone — steel is good enough to be admitted in 
itself. And likewise, if it is to be stone, let it be stone. But 
it cannot be a steel building done in imitation of a stone 
building and be architecturally good, any more than a struc- 
ture of stone could be when done to imitate steel. They are 
different materials and should be admitted as such. It is a 
matter of design yet to be solved perfectly. 

We have just finished a war, the greatest in the history 
of this nation, and the first real war over which we might 
be justified in feeling elation since the Revolution ; the only 
epochal war, so to speak, since then; and to add to our 
prospects, we have not paid a great price for our victory, 
and have during its early progress accumulated most of the 
money of the world. 

We were so poor and in such a formative stage during 
the early days of our country, that we could not take ad- 
vantage of the national enthusiasm of that victory in any 
material way and build, and perhaps it was rather fortunate 
from the aesthetic standpoint that we did not, for there was 
great question as to our taste at that time. Now that we 
have successfully ended the greatest war of our history, with 
the minimum of loss, and the maximum of material gain, 
we should be strong in national spirit, and rich necessarily. 
Two millions of our Americans have seen a land far richer 
in art treasures than we can be for a long time ; and many 
who never knew what Rheims Cathedral was, are now well 
informed about those things and realize that it was one of 
the art treasures of the world, and belonged to every nation. 

A greater activity in building than we have ever known 
should follow during the next fifty years, if any precedent 
is to be depended upon. Up to this time our architecture 
has been peace-loving, commercial ; we have built great offS^' 
buildings, stations, libraries, and such things. Now it is to 
be martial ; real architecture, as it always has been. Great 



1019 



ARTS and DEC O R A TION 



41 



1 



(Xwocme <j*xXX&r\&6 

157-159 East 32d St. 

Between Lexington and Third Aves. 
NEW YORK CITY 



■iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiim 

| Important Notice to the Public! | 

The Aimone Manufacturing Company, for 41 years 
Makers and Importers of the 

Highest Class Period Furniture 
and Furnishings, Italian Garden 
Marbles and Terra Cottas 

Have, on account of their Shops being contracted for to full 
capacity for a long period on special High Grade cabinet work, 
DECIDED TO DISCONTINUE ENTIRELY CARRYING 
STOCK and will close out through the Aimone Galleries, at 
their Wholesale Show Rooms, their entire collection 

Amounting to $373,473.00 
For --- $162,150.00 

(Inventory as of April 5th, 1919) 

No one interested in Fine Furnishings should fail to visit 
our Showrooms and see this remarkable and comprehensive 
Collection. 

The Aimone Manufacturing Company will stand back of 
every sale made, and purchasers may be so assured. 

All prior notices to the trade are hereby withdrawn. 

An unusual opportunity is afforded to Dealers, Decorators 
and Architects. 

Goods purchased at this sale are not subject to return or 
H exchange. 

No articles sent on approval. Out-of-town purchases care- 
fully packed at cost. 

TERMS OF SALE- NET CASH 
SALE NOW OPEN TO THE PUBLIC 

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ESTABLISHED 1878 



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MRS. MUCHMORE 

CONSULTING DECORATOR 
ONE THIRTY NINE EAST NINE- 
TEENTH STREET, NEW YORK CITY 

OLD CHINESE PAINTINGS, SILKS 
AND PORCELAIN, FURNITURE, HANG- 
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WHAT THE 

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Does to 



HELP HUMANITY 

It feeds the hungry — clothes the ragged — houses the 
homeless — cleanses the unclean — cheers the cheer- 
less — heals the sick. 

It conducts Rescue Homes — Day Nurseries — Lodging 
Houses for Down and Outers — Homes for the 
Helpless Aged — Fresh-Air Farms — Free Clinics. 

For more than half a century it has fought a winning 

fight for the poor and the lowly. 
The Salvation Army, back from the war, has resumed 

its fight against misery and poverty in American 

cities on a larger scale than ever. 

Back It Up As It Backs Up 
Our Doughboys! 

The Salvation Array Home Service Fund, May 19 to 26 

The space for this advertisement contributed to The Salvation Army by 

Arts & Decoration 



42 



ARTS and DECORATION 



May, 1919 





}iIanufacUirers of 

High Grade 
Willow Furniture 



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Lexington Ave. 

Between 40th and 41st Sts. 

NEW YORK CITY 



memorials will spring up all over the country. They will 
be monumental, which after all is the form real architect u|- 
should take. Let us hope that they will he in nature's own 
building material, stone. We do not yet know about the 
permanence of steel. Will it last over the centuries? 

The conqueror always builds unless he he a barbarian] 
and builds profusely. The conqueror who fought for a 
principle alone should build ideally. So our twentieth cen- 
tury should see in America the actual accomplishment of a 
national architecture, and the character of its structures 
should be martial. It is a nation which has found itself. 
We have won; we are rich: let us build in stone. 



"HERE'S FLOWERS FOR YOU" 

{Continued from 1'agc 17) 

in size. This style of formal garden traveled through 
France "and north to England, where there are main famous 
examples. 

America is not lacking in fine estates, and has countless 
smaller gardens that possess charm. In place of the cypress, 
so invaluable to the Italian background, our gardeners have 
used with approximate success pine, spruce, hemlock, juni- 
per, arbor vitae and cedar, transplanting them when well 
grown. For the middle ground, rhododendron and laurel, 
and for showy effects, foxglove, Canterbury bells, hydran- 
geas, iris, peonies, Madonna lilies, phlox, hollyhocks and 
larkspur. These, when planted in profusion, give wonder- 
ful color and beauty. 

Of course, there are many others that are especial favor- 
ites. Poppies flaunt their silken skirts, seemingly too frail 
for the wind's kiss ; the rose climbs to reach the sun, and 
never dreams the pergola pillar is nothing without her 
beauty. Grandmother's phlox almost rivals the rose in 
popularity, while hydrangeas and peonies create a world <^SC 
satisfaction all their own. We got our peony from the 
Chinese, who consider a garden incomplete without it. As 
their tree peony grows eight feet in height, it is not won- 
derful that they call it the queen of the garden. 

Where there are large spaces to cover effectively, espe- 
cially if there is much shade, there is nothing more suitable 
than the rhododendron. As its habitat is in the woods, 
sheltered from too severe winds, partly shaded and with 
plenty of leaf mold, it is most successfully transplanted 
when these conditions are assured. Even then it has a 
fickle habit of being ungrateful and turning a sere leaf to 
mock you on your next visit. In the matter of color plant- 
ing, an artist does not have to be told that the faint pink, 
white and coral colors look better when grouped toward 
the front, placing the deeper shades in the background. 

There is no form of garden decoration so pleasing as the 
pergolas, or that can be used in such variety of architec- 
tural effect. It can be made the most stately of garden 
acquisitions or the most informal. Some will choose the 
classic features of delicately fashioned capitals, exact spac- 
ing, and white painted woodwork with carved beam ends 
and brackets and smoothly laid floors of cement. Others, 
informal and irregular brickwork, with well raked-out 
joints, pergolas whose roof trees have the bark still on, 
quantities of vines, paths of grass instead of bricks, all of 
which give an unstudied appearance to the garden. Really 
thought out to the last degree, but apparently careless and 
informal. 

The tea house of Mr. Edward S. Harkness, shown here, 
is particularly beautiful. With its cosy steps, sphinx, great 
jars and luxurious flowers and vines all bathed in sunshine, 
it is reminiscent of the Garden of Allah. Not less love 
the entirely different pool garden of Mr. Edward Coyke 
dal, secluded in the heart of a clump of cedars. Eerie and 
weird in shadow, the sun proves it a veritable circle of 



MaV. 1919 



A R TS and D E CO R A TIO X 






43 



§ 




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44 



A R T S and D E C O RATI O N 



May, 19191 



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peace. Here surely, "When the eve is cool, God walk- 
mine." 

hi writing of gardens, one is likely to overlook the small' 
ilowers. Those heavenly little ones that have almost human 
sympathy and grow just for the plucking, and not for land- 
scape effect. Pansies, lilies of the valley, pinks, and all 
the thousand others. But the daintiest of these is the sweet 
pea. 

"Here are sweet peas, on tiptoe for a flight, 
With wings of gentle flush o'er delicate white, 
And taper fingers catching at all things, 
To bind them all about with fairy wings." 

How we regret when sweet-pea time is over, and the too 
hot sun shrivels the vines and ends her charming day ! 

Nor have we mentioned the pungent marigolds, cosmos 
and chrysanthemums that complete the year in flowers. 
Formal and informal gardens are unfinished without them. 
Color, fragrance, beauty of line, charming vista, all garden 
lovers work for one end, that they may say, "This garden 
has a world of pleasure in it." 



BEAUVAIS-BOUCHER TAPESTRIES 

(Continued from page 29) 

boring with his trident in the earth the gushing spring 
that immortalized her name. "Jupiter en Raisin," meaning 
"Jupiter as a Grape," is an error made on the books of 
the Beauvais Tapestry Works, and should read "Bacchus 
en Raisin." It commemorates the story of Bacchus and 
Erigone, the daughter of Icarius, now throned in the 
heavens as one of the Signs of the Zodiac, and known as 
the Virgin. Intoxicated by the juice of the grape into 
which Bacchus had transformed himself, Erigone lost her 
maidenly fear, and has had her love affair illustrated by 
numerous painters, among them Boucher, whose desigc* $ 
preserved in the engraving of Duflos as well as in the 
tapestry. "Mars and Venus" pictures the most notorious of 
ancient flirtations more modestly than does the painting" by 
Sodoma in the Metropolitan Museum. 

"Boreas and Orithya" reveals the dismay of the daughter 
of the Athenian king when the god of the north wind, un- 
able to breath gently and sigh softly as a fond lover should, 
returned to his true character and employed force. "Jupi- 
ter and Europa" shows the king of the gods disguised as a 
white bull in order to escape the notice of his jealous wife, 
Juno, and deceive the maiden who gave the continent of 
Europe its name. "Vulcan and Venus" emphasizes the con- 
trast between the goddess of love and her blacksmith 
husband. "Apollo and Clytie" (Sunrise) introduces the 
water nymph, whose love for the sun-god was unreturned, 
and who, from sunrise to sunset, kept her eyes fastened 
on him in his course until her body took root in the ground, 
and her face became the sunflower, turning (in the words 
of Thomas Moore) "on her god when he sets the same 
look that she turned when he rose." 

The set of five "Opera Fragments" recalls in tapestry 
decorative scenes designs by Boucher for the stage, among 
others the "Hamlet of Isse" for the opera, the color sketch 
of which was exposed at the Salon in 1742. 

Last, but not least (omitting the "Palm Pastoral" set 
sometimes attributed to Boucher, but really by Huet), come 
the six "Noble Pastoral" tapestries, the first set of which 
was started on the looms of Beauvais in 1755 for the apart- 
ments of the Dauphine at Fontainebleau. The splendid set 
of the Kami Collection, Mrs. Huntington has at her house 
in Santa Barbara. 

Other American owners of Beauvais-Boucher tapesti<^s, 
not already named, are Mr. Baker, Mr. Alexander, Senator 
Clark, Mr. Gould and Mr. Widener. 



May, 1919 



ARTS and 1) ECO RATIO \ T 



45 



The COLONY SHOPS 

GINSBURG Sr LEVY 

ANTIQUES 




Seventeenth-Century Chinese Lacquer Cabinet, 
on Contemporary/ English Stand 



WE also have 
on view in 
our s h o w- 
rooms a large collection 
of genuine early Eng' 
lish Oak Furniture and 
representative speci- 
mens of Colonial Fur- 
niture in Walnut, 
Mahogany and Curly 
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country home. 



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NEW YORK 



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the dainty painted sets of Sheraton and Adam, and the marvelous 
lacquers of Chippendale. 

DANERSK FURNITURE is an expression of the beautiful in color 
and form that belongs to the past, and is yet in the truest sense an 
interpretation of our own day and civilization. 

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ECHOES OF THE LEMORDANT EXHIBITION 

1 1 ontintted from page ' ' I ^ 

strange as it may seem, emotions of life itself, that before 
were but nebulous, unformed. And the same obligation is 
doubtless felt by many others. I shall not forget it." 

It is interesting to note that most of these critics sensed 
the fact that while he was familiar with all "schools" and 
"methods" he never lost sight of the fact that they were but 
a means to an end. A young American painter, himself a. 
recent successful exhibitor, remarked quietly : "After all, he 
had something to say and said it because he knew how. And 
knew how so well that he will go on saying it somehow in a 
better and bigger way. Blindness will become sight to this 
man and through him for many." 

It is rather remarkable, that this feeling, that Lemordant's 
greatest work is still before him, should be so general. It 
was first expressed to me by the gentleman who is most 
responsible for his coming to this country. Said he : "Like 
every one else I was overcome with grief that so brilliant a 
star should be extinguished, until I met him. Then I knew 
that such magnificent power could only be directed into an- 
other channel. I am happy now, for I am convinced that his 
greatest work is to come." 

Much the same feeling was remarked by a distinguished 
Oriental artist: "He is undoubtedly one of the greatest of 
the great French people. I regretted that there was not in 
the exhibition at least one finished work until I heard him 
address an audience, then I said : It doesn't matter ; nothing 
is past for this man." 

These are the opinions of but a few of the many people 
who have visited the show not once but time and again. 

Public appreciation has been most gratifying in every way 
and Lieutenant Lemordant's manager has been swamped by 
requests from Galleries all over the United States asking 
permission to exhibit the paintings for any possible season. 
It was said in these pages last month that it was difficult f *- 
discuss the work of this artist apart from his personality. 
It is not necessary to try. Let us look to his future. 



WAR MEMORIALS 

(Continued from page 1 Q ) 

to get, establishes its own claim, as our illustrations amply 
demonstrate. 

"While opposing artists may compete in their designs 
there is no competition in the cost of the professional 
services of sculptors and architects. Unlike commercial 
firms, these men do not bid against each other for employ- 
ment. 

"As in the case of the work of other professional men 
and artists, the services of some cost more and are worth 
more than the services of others and the client is free to 
entrust his work to whomever he will and at such a cost 
of the whole as he desires. Of the three factors, size, 
elaboration, and cost, he may choose any two. In archi- 
tectural work the cost of the design in proportion to that 
of construction is so small as to be almost negligible in con- 
sidering the appointment of one or another architect. The 
best may be — he usually is — the cheapest. 

The Three Workmen 

"(1) The service of the sculptor to the client is the 
preparation of scale and full size models and the actual exe- 
cution with his own hand and with those of his assistants 
of the sculptural work. 

"(2) The service of the architect is the original plan- 
ning with the sculptor, the making of the drawings, re- 
ceiving bids from contractors, awarding the structural wojp 
and such special supervision of every detail of ornament 
and every profile of the moldings as shall insure their con- 



May, 101') 



A RTS and I) ECO K A TIO X 



47 



<d 



LONDON 



IMPORTERS 

SINCE 

1866 




PARIS 



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FOR 
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3 West 37th Street, One door from Fifth Avenue 

SUMMER HELPS 

WILLOW FURNITURE AWNINGS SLIP COVERS WINDOW SHADES 
SUMMER DRAPERIES FURNITURE RE-UPHOLSTERED 

Imported and Domestic Cretonnes, Printed Linens, Cotton Damasks and Dimities 



WILLOW FURNITURE — Comfortable Models in Natural, 
Stained or Enamel Finish. Moderate Prices. 

SLIP COVERS— Cut and made by skilled artisans. 

AWNINGS— Plain and Striped Materials put up on best gal- 
vanized frames and fixtures. 

WINDOW SHADES— Imported Scotch, Holland and Domestic 
Shading. Hartshorne Spring Rollers. Put up complete. 



FURNITURE RE-UPHOLSTERED— Expert workmen to do the 
work. Old pieces of furniture made to look like new. Cover- 
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CLEANING— Lace Curtains and Blankets CAREFULLY cleaned. 
Stored free for summer, if desired. 

ORIENTAL and DOMESTIC CARPETS and RUGS— Cleaned, 
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WATFR COLOR paper always means 'What- 
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it out of business. I know, for I've enjoyed using it 
and it's a good, reliable friend. 

"To ask me what I think and know about 'What- 
man' is like asking me what I know about 
'Sterling' or whether 2x2=4. They are in the same 
category. I've been brought up to know that all 
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write a eulogy on water-color paper. 







DRAWING PAPERS 

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bring out your technique. 

H. REEVE ANGEL & CO. Inc., 7-11 Spruce Street, New York 

Sole Importers for the United States 
and Canada. 



\L 



li 



48 



ARTS and DECORATION 




bg-jr^y&!&&t *>;%: > 




YALE SCHOOL OF THE 
FINE ARTS 

YALE UNIVERSITY, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 
SERGEANT KENDALL, Director 

Departments of Drawing and Painting, Sculpture, 

Architecture 
CLASSES IN COMPOSITION, ANATOMY, PERSPECTIVE 

FACULTY — Painting— 'Sergeant Kendall. Draw- 
ing—Edwin C. Taylor, G. H. Langzettel, T. Diedricksen. 
Sculpture— Robert G. Eberhard. Architecture— -Everett 
V. Meeks, Franklin J. Walls, A. Kingsley Porter. Com- 
position— Edwin C. Taylor. Perspective— Theodore 
Diedricksen, Edwin C. Taylor. Anatomy— Raynham 
Townshend, M.D. 

DEGREE— The degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts 
(B.F.A.) is awarded for advanced work of distinction. 
The Winchester Fellowship for one year's study of art 
in Europe, the English Scholarship for study of art 
and travel in Europe during the summer vacation, and 
School Scholarships are awarded annually. 

Illustrated Catalogue A 

Address G. H. LANGZETTEL, Secretary 

Accompanying illustration is a sketch for a vaulted ceiling deco- 
ration. — Composition Class. 



MARTINI TEMPERA COLORS 

MADEOF AMERICAN MATERIALS.IN AMERICA, BY AMERICANS ^ B B H 

A SIMPLE PALETTE OF ZINC WHITE, CADMIUM JJA 

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NENT GREEN DEEP AND ZINC GREEN LIGHT AND B_B B B 
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US. DISTRIBUTORS: FAVOR. RUHL Cr^CO. ^Z^^l°it 




Washington University 

ST. LOUIS SCHOOL 
of FINE ARTS 

Fully equipped to give 
instruction in Drawing, 
Ceramic-Decoration, Pot- 
tery, Painting, Applied 
Arts, Composition, Mod- 
eling, Bookbinding, Crafts 
Illustration. Interior dec- 
oration. 

For full information and 

free illustrated handbook 

apply to 

E. H. WUERPEL, Director 

45th year. Next term opens September 23, 1918. 
Skinker Road and Lindell Boulevard, St. Louis, Mo. 




5W ,H '«m5UR fACIIICC A5T 




|ilHAtUIOKV»BERKELEYcAl.irO«NIA 



WRITE FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOC 



Summer Session, June 23 to August 2. 



ANTIQUES 



Old Stuart Bedstead, 



Chairs, Old Oak Chests and other pieces. 
Trade Supplied. All genuine goods. H. 
HOPKIN, 19, 20, 83 Westgate, Grant- 
ham, Lines, England. 




Haig's Famous Etching 
of Amiens Cathedral 



C5-tS9t-<= 



Widespread appreciation of this fine 
photogravure of Haig's famous etching has 
demanded the making of another edition. 

One hundred more copies are therefore 
read;? for mailing to readers of Arts & Dec- 
oration at $2.00 postpaid. 



o*SKo 



Arts & Decoration 



470 FOURTH AVENUE 



NEW YORK 1 



■;!,'M .!::■: i! ; , Li ! , i.i i... :.:: i. : '/i !.n i.;!.i;:i.l : ! i::i i:,i iin-i,,! !■ i : ,i ;„i ,:.i ; : i ; -j ,: .; i m ,: i ,, , ;m ,: i ,, i ^.iiiif,: . . :■"- 



May, 1919 

f< >nnity to his scheme. He also must 
sec it through. If, in any case thej 
architect and the sculptor should not 
he retained to control the actual 
working out of their designs, the 
client would risk losing the last re- 
finement in the very place where re- 
finement counts, and have no assur- 
ance after all of getting more than 
a stonecutter's job. 

"(3) The service of the con- 
tractor is to build the memorial, 
carrying out exactly the plans and 
models of the professional men with 
his own skilled mechanics. 

"It is an association of mutual 
service equitably divided according 
to capability, training and resources 
between them. None of them can 
do the work of the others." 

These very lucid and complete di- 
rections are, as has been said above, 
but a part of the splendid service 
offered to civic and community com- 
mittees by the Municipal Art Society 
of New York City. Further in- 
formation and assistance can be had 
by all interested on applying to the 
offices of the Society at 119 E. 19th 
Street, New York City. 



DO 



THE AWNINGS BELONG 
TO YOUR HOUSE? 



{Continued from page 21) 



> 



Not less interesting are the awn- 
ings on the Postley house at Oyster 
Bay, the porch of which is shown 
here in the smaller right-hand pic- 
ture on page twenty-one. It will be 
noted that while it shades the veranda 
satisfactorily, it does not obscure the 
view and it is in keeping with the 
house. 

The porch awning of the C. V. 
Brokaw house, upper left, harks 
back to those delightful times when 
humanity had time to enjoy nature. 
At the same time it is thoroughly 
modern in construction and con- 
venience in handling and it is so 
simple that any one can find a like 
use for its type, its single note of 
richness being its fringe border. As 
there are almost as many kinds of 
awnings as there are types of houses 
it is useless to attempt to discuss 
them here. Rather it is our desire 
to call attention to giving them con- 
sideration from the beginning of 
house planning. The same thing 
might be suggested as regards tents 
and marquees on the lawn. In these 
is opportunity for individuality and 
a free use of color that ought not 
be lost, since a rich-tinted marquee 
gives tremendous distinction anw 
adds to the general attractions of 
tea-time gatherings. 



lay, 



1919 



ARTS and DEC O RATH) X 



49 




f American 




"*The Cabinet- wood of the £,lecf 
You are rightfully proud of your 
love for Walnut. May we not have 
your name on the list for the bro- 
chure de luxe now in preparation? 

Write 

AMERICAN WALNUT MFRS' ASSOCIATION 

4i >-, 115 Broadway New York City 



Specialists m (English JlWntfure 



d/u. \Monclozi furniture /nop 

MADISON AVE., JVST SOVTH o/*34ia 



r 



JOSEPH P. MCHUGH 
-AND SONja^sSkerM'HV 

q Wesi 42 no! Street -New Yor. 

Designers andftlakers of 

Quaint Jurniiure 

Dmporlers of exclusive 

WallPapers SFabrics 



y 



F. N. DOWLING 

Furniture and Decoration 

5~th Street at Madison Avenue 
NEW YORK 

EXCLUSIVE PERIOD FURNITURE 

IMPORTED. MARBLE and WOOD MANTELS 

ELECTRIC FIXTURES 

SILKS — LINENS — TAPESTRIES 



'EVERYTHING FOR THE FIREPLACE" 

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FIREPLACE EQUIPMENT 
It contains the largest variety of 
Hearth Furniture in any catolog 

"HOME and toe FIREPLACE" 

it our little book on 

Fireplaces that Satisfy 
Both are free upon request. 
Write for your copy to-day. 

COLONIAL FIREPLACE COMPANY. 4620 W. 12th St.. Chicaio. 




OLD RARE ENGRAVINGS, Colour Prints, etc., Original 
Drawing and Paintings of the French, English, Dutch, 
and American Schools. Rare Books. Catalogues just is- 
sued: (1) Old Paintings and Drawing (Illustrated); 
(2) Rare Books; (3) Old Engraving, Colour Prints, Old 
Masters, Musical Prints; (4) Americana. Mr. Albert 
Berthel, Print Room, Picture Gallery, Antiquarian Library, 
39 & 41 New Oxford St., London W.C. 



piliiiiiiiliilL 1 



RUGS 



FINE BNTIQUE &. IYIODER1N 
ORIENTALS • VRST ASSORT- 
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SPECIAL DESIGNS £. PLPiirS 
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KeiNT-CoSTIKYftN 

. _ TRADING CO. INC. 

9 485 FIFTH AVENUE- NEW YORK 

OPPOSITE PUBLIC LIBRARY 



ilWHIHII' 




STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, 

MANAGEMENT, CIRCU1 VTION, ETC., 

REQUIRED 15Y THE ACT OF CON 

GRESS OF AUGUST -'4, 1912, 

Of Arts and Decoration, published 
monthly at Now York, N. Y., for April 1, 
1919, Stale of New York, County of New 
York, ss. Before me, a Notary Public in 
and for the State and county aforesaid, 
personally appeared Dexter W. Hewitt, 
who, having been duly sworn according to 
law, deposes and says thai he is the Busi- 
ness Manager of Arts and Decoration, 
and that the following- is, to the best of 
his knowledge and belief, a (rue statement 
of the ownership, management (and if a 
daily paper, the circulation), etc., of the 
aforesaid publication for the date shown in 
the above caption, required by the Act of 
\ngust 24, 1912, embodied in section 443, 
Postal Laws and Regulations, printed on 
the reverse of this form, to wit: 1. That the 
names and addresses of the publisher, edi- 
tor, managing editor, and business man- 
agers are: Publisher, Hewitt Publishing 
Corporation, 470 Fourth Ave., New York, 
N. Y.; Editor, J. C. Marshall, 470 Fourth 
Ave., New York, N. Y. ; Managing Editor, 
None; Business Managers, Dexter W. 
Hewitt, Elisha Hewitt, 470 Fourth Ave., 
New York, N. Y. 2. That the owners are : 
(Give names and addresses of individual 
owners, or, if a corporation, give its name 
and the names and addresses of stockhold- 
ers owning or holding 1 per cent, or more 
of the total amount of stock.) Hewitt 
Publishing Corporation, 470 Fourth Ave., 
New York, N. Y. ; Dexter W. Hewitt, 470 
Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y. ; Elisha 
Hewitt, 470 Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y. ; 
Kalon Publishing Co., Inc., 2 West 45th 
Street, New York, N. Y. ; Stockholders of 
Kalon Publishing Co., Inc., owning or hold- 
ing 1 per cent, or more of the total amount 
of stock — John Hemming Fry, 222 West 
59th St., New York, N. Y. 3. That the 
known bondholders, mortgagees, and other 
security holders owning or holding 1 per 
cent, or more of total amount of bonds, 
mortgages, or other securities are: (If 
there are none, so state) None. 4. That the 
two paragraphs next above, giving the 
names of the owners, stockholders, and se- 
curity holders, if any, contain not only the 
list of stockholders and security holders as 
they appear upon the books of the com- 
pany but also, in cases where the stock- 
holder or security holder appears upon the 
books of the company as trustee or in any 
other fiduciary relation, the name of the 
person or corporation for whom such trus- 
tee is acting, is given; also that the said two 
paragraphs contain statements embracing 
affiant's full knowledge and belief as to the 
circumstances and conditions under which 
stockholders and security holders who do 
not appear upon the books of the company 
as trustees, hold stock and securities in a 
capacity other than that of a bona fide 
owner; and this affiant has no reason to 
believe that any other person, association, 
or corporation has any interest direct or 
indirect in the said stock, bonds, or other 
securities than as so stated by him. Dexter 
W. Hewitt, Business Manager. Sworn to 
and subscribed before me this 24th day of 
March, 1919, E. De Haven. (My commis- 
sion expires March 30, 1919.) 



COOPERATION WITH PUBLIC 
SCHOOLS 

THE Board of Education of the City 
of Minneapolis has just planned a 
departure as respects art instruction 
in the public schools, by the appointment 
of Miss M. Emma Roberts as teacher of 
Art Appreciation. It is purposed to develop 
art ideals by means of bringing the pupils 
into contact with art objects, through 
illustrative lectures, in the expectation that 
interest will open the minds of the pupils 
to aesthetic impressions. The Trustees of 
the Society of Fine Arts are co-operating 
in the plan, allowing the free use of the 
classroom at the Institute whenever needed, 
and access to the galleries and collections 
in the Museum. They have also provided 
an office in the building adjoining the class 
room. 

The results of this experiment in Min- 
neapolis will be watched with very great 
interest. 



liniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiN 



T3h< 



"Ehrich (BttUertes 



Dealers in 

"UfHr. sflHantrra*' 

Exclusively 

707 FIFTH AVENUE. 

at SSth Stmt 

NEW YORK 

Marquis d'Acqueville, 
by Ainui- Duvivier, 
L786-1824. Size of 
canvas 18"x36", The 

Marquis sal to Aimee 
1 > u v i v i e r for this 
signed and dated por- 
trait in 1791. 




The Tobey Furniture Co. 

Interior Decorations 

Our aim is to assist the client, developing 
his individual ideas in harmonious form. 

Tobey-Made Furniture 

— the original designs of our studios, 
executed by hand in our own shops. 

NEW YORK : Fifth Avenue at Fifty-third Street 
CHICAGO : Wabash Avenue and Washington Street 



IRMNG ifCASSON 



DESIGNER-S AND MAKERS OF 
FINE FURNITURE AND INTERIOR TIN K5H 

DECORATIONS -UPHOLSTERY 
"WALL HANGING J 



BOSTON 

570-57S DOYL5TON ST 
COPLEY sqUAKJS 



NEW YORK 

601 FIFTH AVENUE. 

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r> f\ /~\ I/" C ON ALL SUBJECTS, including 
ri \_J 11 l\ ^ Decorative Art, Drawing, Arch- 
_ , ^^ *-*** itectural Design, etc. Text- 

Book for every examination. Second-Hand and New. 
Catalogue No. 437 post free. State wants 

W Xr C FflYIF 121-123, CHARING CROSS ROAD 
"• w "• rWILE. LONDON, W. C. 2, ENG. 



ANTIQUE 
SHOP 



LaPLACE 

Objects of Art, Curios, Rare Old Crystals and 

Sheffield Plate, Period Furniture and Replicas 

242 Fifth Ave. 1 1 East 48th St. 



near. W. 28th St., N.Y. 

DANIEL ADAMS, 
Mgr. 



near Fifth Ave. 

R. H. KINGSBURY 

Mgr. 



ANCIENT and MODERN 

RUGS 

(O^TIKVAN c§ (a; 

Shahristan Rugs Woven to special 
order on our looms in the Orient 

1 2 East 40th Street - New York 



HIGGINS' 



DRAWING INKS 
ETERNAL WRITING INK 
ENGROSSING INK 
TAURINE MUCILAGE 
PHOTO- MOUNTER PASTE 
DRAWING BOARD PASTE 
LIQUID PASTE 
OFFICE PASTE 
VEGETABLE GLUE, ETC. 

ARE THE FINEST AND BEST INKS 

AND ADHESIVES 

Emancipate yourself from the 
use of corrosive and ill- 
smelling inks and adhesive* 
and adopt the Hiffiw Inks 
and AdhetivM. They will be a 
revelation to you, they are so 
Sweet, clean and well put up. 

At Dealers Generally 

Chas. M. Higgios & Co. , Mlrs 

271 Niath Street. Brooklyn. N. Y. 

Branches: Chicago, London 




50 



A RTS and 1) ECO RAT ION 



THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL TASTE" A TRUE STORY IN ONE ADV. (See BEWIV.t 




The following conversation happened once that we know of 
(Perhaps by you.) 

"Every time I look around our new home, dear, I am than 
furniture. He said we'd have to do a lot of insisting to g 
is worth all the insisting we did." 

"Well, I told 3'ou we had an architect who was well-ground 
back' of OAK to the favor of people like us is 'not a fad b 
sense the full meaning of that advertisement wc clipped an 
about OAK furniture having the qualities of BEAUTY, D 
as you are to 'start worthy heirlooms' in our family.'' 
There is no more satisfying possession than good OAK f 
none better worth insisting upon. Have you tried INSIS 



U RE COMPARISONS" 

Probably it is paralleled many times — the country over. 



kful to the architect for being so insistent about this OAK 
et really good furniture in this noble wood — and it certainly 

ed in both his taste and his knowledge. He says the 'come 
ut a recognition' — that's the way he put it. Now I begin to 
d put in the 'new home box' — you remember? — something 
IGNITV, POISE and PERMANENCE. I'm just as glad 

urniture. There is no more safe and enduring investment — 
TING? Try it — in your best store. 



AMERICAN OAK MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION 



Will write you personal letters worth getting. Tell us of your special interest. 
ROOM 1403, 14 MAIN STREET, MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE 

ASK FOR BOOKLETS AND FINISHED SAMPLES 



Address 



May, l'M'J 



a 




urnis 



Lsningi 







\^\ / E cannot, in type, convey to you 
the true atmosphere of the 
artistic articles of utility which abound 
in such profusion at Vantines. For 
here, in all their Oriental splendor, 
are lamps that have no duplicates else- 
where, rugs of Chinese grass, or 
Japanese 'fibre. Furniture of rattan 
from old Canton, Chinaware in numer- 
ous quaint patterns, Draperies, Far 
Eastern Delicacies, etc., and countless 
accessories for house and garden that 
should be seen to be appreciated. 



A. A. VANTINE & CO., Inc. 

Fiftk Avenue and 39th Street 

NEW YORK 



Favor us with a visit when it is convenient 
for you to call, or permit us to supply by 
letter, full particulars regarding any Oriental 
article in which you may be interested. The 
individuality of our stock makes the issuance 
of a catalog impracticable this season, but our 
Personal Service Bureau awaits the pleasure 
of serving you by mail. 




No. 17 $9.75 Ml 




No. 7 $9.50 



No. 15 
$9.00. 



No. 103 
$15.00 



' <2 



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ITALIAN TABLES ON VIEW IN OVK GALLERIES 



Exhibition of 

Authoritative Examples 
of Period Furniture 

Tapestries 

Needlework 
and Decorative Accessories 



Mr. Feffercorn will be pleased to 
make appointments for consulta^ 
tion with out'of'town clients. 



/26a)\d/28 East Ztfth Street 

NEWWKK CATTY 



lllllllPIIIillUlllllllllllllllllllllllllllillllllllllllllllllillllllllllM Illllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllil lillllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllM 

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ISAAC GOLDMANN COMPANY 
HEW YORK 



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Corner of kitchen in the New York residence of 
Mrs. Albcri Herter covered with Nairn Linoleum. 



WHEN planning the floor coverings for the kitchen or 
similar rooms — whether in town or country house — 
you will find it particularly easy to select the exact tone of pat- 
tern appropriate to the room scheme if you choose from the 
famous Nairn Linoleums. 

The fact that they give longer service in wear is because their 
designs and colors are "built in" by the exclusive Nairn process. 




LIN 




LEV 



Nairn Linoleum Company, Newark, N. J. 

W. & J. Sloane 





Sole Selling Agents 


573 Fifth Avenue, New York 


216-218 Sutter St., San Francisco 


Chicago St. Louis 


Denver Galveston Kansas City 


Los Angeles 


Seattle Portland, Oregon 






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ON 



FORMERLY 

ART WORLD and ARTS &- DECORATION 



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35 CENTS 

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JUNE, 1919 



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J3eliaKtrul lrvieriors 



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^yuccess in the planning of a room depends 
^—/ upon the grace of good judgment, 
rather than lavish expenditure — 

tffl Indeed, some of the most delightful 
J«. interiors are those in which the appoint- 
ments are quite simple in character — yet so 
well disposed in relation to their setting 
that the whole effect is pleasing beyond 
expression. 

fl] The opportunity to achieve such results 

j) is nowhere better presented than at 

these interesting Galleries. On view here 

are many simple yet singularly charming 

groups and occasional pieces of Furniture 

at well within a moderate cost. In addition 

there are Reproductions of every historic 

epoch, admirable examples of English 

Upholstery, quaint Decorative Objects, 

, modern and ancient Oriental Rugs — all a 

, part of the well-appointed town or country 

",iiouse of today. 

De luxe prints of attraction 
interior* gratis upon request 

Grand Rapids furniture Company 

INCORPORATED 

34~36 West 32*2 Street 
New^fbrk City 



Tune. 1919 



A RTS and DECOR ATT N 



kLZ 



Nvr 55 



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ONE OF MANY \ROOMS FILLED WITH EXCEPTIONALLY INTERESTING FURNITURE 

AT THE FEFFERCORN GALLERIES 



ft 



Exhibition of 



Authoritative Examples 
of Period Furniture 

Tapestries 

Needlework 
and Decorative Accessories 



Mr. Feffercorn will be pleased to 
make appointments for consulta- 
tion with out'of'town clients. 



/26 and 128 East ZSth Streett 

NEVTOK CUTTY 



1SUHIMIH ' 

■ii.' iiiiini mi nun ma i .hi inn iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinii i iiiiiiini minimi : : i nan i mn 'i. - t ;i 'ii :i ih ii Miiiii'iiunr- 



56 



ARTS and ] ) E C O RATION 



June, 191! 



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ARTS & DECORATION 



VOLUME XI 



JUNE, 1919 



NUMBER 2 



CONTENTS 

THE SPIRIT OF THE WOODS Frontispiece 

"GOD MADE TWO PERFECT THINGS" 59 

NEW ARCHITECTURE FOR NEW FRANCE By Robert Allerton Parker 60 

IN CALIFORNIA'S COLONY OF BEAUTIFUL HOMES 61 

MR. EDWIN S. BAYER'S NEW YORK HOME 62 

JOHN MOWBRAY-CLARKE REVEALS HIMSELF 64 

"CARRYING ON" AT COLONIA, NEW JERSEY 65 

THE GARDENS AT SHELBURNE FARMS 66 

ELEVATIONS AND PLANS FOR AN ENGLISH STUDIO By Frank J. Forster 68 

BUILD NOW 69 

ROCKWELL KENT'S ALASKA DRAWINGS 70 

"UP HILL, DOWN DALE" By Lindsay Glen 73 

WHAT SAN ANTONIO HAS DONE WITH HER PARKS 74 

PORTRAITS OF MISS RUTH ST. DENIS 76 

WHAT AN HOTEL HAS DONE FOR ART 78 

A NEW TRIUMPH IN THE ART OF THE THEATRE 80 

RULES AND FREEDOM IN DECORATION By C. Matlack Price 82 

THE GARDEN OF HEALING WATERS — A Poem By Vivien May Parker 84 

THE ARTIST IN THE GARDEN By Vivien May Parker 85 

TRADITION AND MOVEMENTS By Clive Bell 86 

SARGENT AS A PAINTER OF WAR 87 

GARDEN SCULPTURE 88 

THESE ARE CARVINGS IN CONCRETE 89 

OUR OBLIGATIONS TO OUR INDUSTRIAL ARTS 89 

EXHIBITIONS IN THE NEW YORK GALLERIES By Peyton Boswell 90 



Published Monthly by HEWITT PUBLISHING CORPORATION 

470 FOURTH AVENUE, NEW YORK 

London: 407 Bank Chambers, Chancery Lane 

Subscription $4.00 a year in the United States, Colonies and Mexico. $4.50 in Canada. $5.00 in Foreign 

Countries. Single copies 35 cents. Entered as Second Class Matter May 27, 1918, at the Post Office at New 

York City, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Copyright 1919 by Hewitt Pub. Corp. Registered U. S. Patent Office. 



< 



une, 1919 



A R TS and DECOR A TIO X 



57 



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Illustration of a Chinese Rug made upon our own looms in China 

Symbolism in Chinese Rugs 

The rugs of China, now generally admired because of their unusual 
color effects, have an added charm in designs evolved from the great 
religious beliefs under which the people have lived. 

In the design illustrated above are depicted, upon a medium porcelain 
blue ground, the eight Buddhist symbols, also the chess boards, scrolls, 
and musical instruments, which are symbols of the Literati. The central 
medallion shows an arrangement of the Phoenix, a symbol of prosperity, 
while in the other medallions is shown the "Lung," or Dragon of Heaven, 
guarding a pearl. The designs of our Chinese Rugs follow faithfully 
those of the earlier periods. 

We have numerous other designs ready for delivery, and can make any required 
size in a reasonable time. Further imformation will be gladly given upon request. 

W. &. J. SLOANE 

Direct Importers of Eastern Rugs 

Interior Decorators Floor Coverings and Fabrics Furniture Makers 

FIFTH AVENUE AND FOKTY^SEVENTH STREET, NEW YORK 

WASHINGTON, D. C. SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 



WZ£mZtt2&E&mg3E%*m?gmSW& 



58 



ARTS and DECORATION 

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THE SPIRIT OF THE WOODS 
As interpreted by a Duncan Dancer 



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A R.T S 3 <^ 
DECORATION 



Formerly- ART WORLD and ARTS &- DECORATION 



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Volume XI 



JUNE, 1919 

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Number 2 



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"God Made Two Perfect Things" 

The Story of a French Rose Garden 



c 






'EST impossible, m'sieur, I cannot to-day, for 1 have 
much work to do with my roses." So replied the 
old Frenchman to my request for help with a little 
floral surprise for my "Buddies" in celebration of our July 
Fourth in France. "But it is our national fete, my friend," 
said I, hoping, shamefacedly, to gain my point. 

"Oh, what a difference! Your fete de 1'independence ! 
Mais oui, m'sieur — I will do it, of course, with pleasure. 
Come to my garden and make your choice. All are 
yours to choose from for the fete of your great country !" 
^ And that is how I came to know 
^«^ Jardin des Roses," near Toul, 
France. 

Can I tell you of the poesy of "This 
Garden of Roses," and make you feel 
the love of that little- wizened French- 
man for his roses and — but Fll let you 
read the tale. 

Doubly walled and moated, Toul sits 
triste and dour in the smiling valley of 
the Moselle, as if, like all fortresses of 
ancient glory, she realized her ineffec- 
tiveness in the great struggle that was 
waging breathlessly around her. Un- 
like her sister city, the chic and lovely 
Nancy — there was little gaiety within 
her portals. Indeed only where one 
heard the washerwoman's bat by the 
river side was there any feeling of nor- 
mal life, for Toul was at war — and 



*-'',.'--' 






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war is a grim business. 




Yet not far from the Porte Jeanne 
d'Arc, too near to escape the nightly 
bombing raids of the enemy planes, lay 
"The Garden of Roses" — owned and 
tended by a little old man and his bent, 

sorrow-worn wife. Four sons, their all, had been laid on 
the altar of sacrifice for the Patrie. None remained to en- 
joy the roses that nodded me welcome as I passed under 
the pink-blossomed archway. 

"A thousand apologies, m'sieur, for my roses," explained 
my host, "but with no one but me to watch them the drought 
and fearful gases of war have made a desert of the 
ga#en." 

To my eyes it seemed Erlen come again. Here were old 
friends swaying in the breeze, nodding their little heads to 



and fro as in a joyous dance, seeming to say, "What care we 
for war; have ye not our lover to defend us?" There were 
acres of them — all in formal box-bordered beds, and in 
each plot placed to best advantage was a metal scroll on 
which he had written mottoes suitable to their kind — dec- 
larations of his love for them. For the first bed — one of 
lovely pink roses: "God made two perfect things, a woman 
and a rose." 

What sentiment these Frenchmen have, thought I, and 
wondered who had inspired it. I had not yet seen or talked 
with rnadarne. We moved on to a plot 
of delicate white blossoms and my 
heart throbbed over the context of its 
motto : "A white rose planted on the 
grave of a little child is acceptable to 
God and brings joy to the hearts of 
the angels." 

"It was my wife who did that one, 
m'sieur. Always did she smile at my 
rose verses until our Jean died. Then 
she smiled no more. And now they 
are all gone ! Alas, my garden of roses 
is but a garden of memories, yet I 
love it." 

"It is plain that you do, my friend," 
said I, "but are there no red roses in 
your garden?" 

"Mais oui, m'sieur, beyond the wall, 
nearer the house. Nannine, my wife, 
loves them best, so 'tis there I placed 
them." 

And there, massed in gorgeous color 
against the old stone wall, were hun- 
dreds of them — and in their midst I 
read : 

"In the beginning God made woman. 
Then for her enjoyment he made the rose." 

"It's beautiful, my friend, how did you — " I never fin- 
ished my question, for the airplane that had been sailing 
so high above us proved the enemy's, and the guns on the 
hill broke forth in angry protest. Some minutes later, in 
the shelter of the house, I found the answer to all my won- 
derings in the person of Nannine. 

Bent by years of hard work, there was apparent in her a 
dignity of soul that told me instantly the inspiration of the 
garden of roses. (Continued on page 92) 



t ' > c? • < 






66 



A R TS and 1) LCO k AT ION 




Inn. , 1919 



NEW ARCHITECTURE FOR NEW FRANCE 



The Use of Cement and Concrete 
in the Reconstruction of France 



NEW necessities are producing a new architecture. 
Reconstruction, in France, is a matter of new 
methods, new materials, new problems. These things 
must produce new esthetics and a new beauty. Artists 
and architects of France are keenly alive to the great prob- 
lems they must solve: the problem, perhaps first of all. of 
time to be gained, of healing the wounds of the devastated 
countryside without delay. There is the great problem of 
economy : they must save the labor and expense. There is, 
moreover, the problem of transportation. Flanders, Pi- 
cardy, Lorraine, Ile-de-France, Champagne — each province 
faces these problems. Each has its own traditional and 
beloved architecture, its own 
style. Architects must respect 
these styles, yet esthetic consider- 
ations must not obstruct the argi- 
cultural and industrial reawaken- 
ing. Fortunately, the artists and 
architects of France are practical 
men, completely alive to the exi- 
gencies and the multple possibili- 
ties of the situation. 

Cement and reinforced concrete 
had, even before the war, gained 
a foothold as a building material 
in France. Among the academic 
architects there was a prejudice 
against its use. This prejudice 
was based upon a misconception 
of the nature of concrete and its 
architectural possibilities. It is 
not adaptable to the older and 
classical "types" of architecture. 
But even before the outbreak of 

the war, as well as during it, a number of striking and suc- 
cessful buildings have been erected both in Paris and the 
provinces which are worthy specimens of the artistic possi- 
bilities of cement and concrete. 

Paul Huillard and Ids associate, M. L. Sue, have been 
eminently successful in designing houses of reinforced 
concrete. The house and studio of the artist, Lucien 




Simon, as well as the residence of the artist, Moreau, are 
excellent examples of the achievement of these architects. 
The celebrated Theatre des Champs-Elysees, erected under 
the direction of the Perret brothers, shortly before the out- 
break of the war, is another striking example of the new 
architecture of concrete. The strikingly modern terraced 
houses in the Rue Vavin, designed by Sauvage and Sarra- 
zin, reveal an unusual but attractive departure from the 
usual facade of the modern apartment house. In the new 
railway stations at Rouen and Biarritz, Mr. Dervaux has 
achieved excellent and thoroughly satisfactory results. 
Later examples are the recently completed cinema of 

moving - picture theatre in the 
Avenue du Maine, Paris, and the 



toy factory, the Jouet de 



France, on Puteaux Island, jgfp 
opposite the Bois de Boulogne. 
Concrete steamboats are to be 
noticed in the Seine nowadays. 
Younger architects are experi- 
menting in the new medium. 
Sculptors and decorators are tak- 



ing notice. 



Plan and elevations for an inn that might well be copied 
in this country. 



Let us give up that too com- 
mon fallacy, Leandre Vaillat re- 
cently urged upon the artists and 
architects of France, of calling 
everying "Bochc" which happens 
to be new, which belongs to our 
own day and age. If cement and 
concrete are not adaptable to the 
old ideas, let us not forget that 
beauty is never the result of su- 
perimposed ornamentation, of the 
abundance and the number of decorations, whatever the 
nature of the building or fagade to which they adhere. 
This gingerbread idea, which dates from the second half 
of the nineteenth century, is to be found in any number of 
dreadful houses in Paris. It is, moreover, the fundamental 
error of the Municipal Council of Paris in organizing con- 
tests •among constructors in the {Continued on page 92) 




FACVDFi 



A 




t 



June, 1919 



ARTS and D KCOR A T I O X' 



61 



fl'* 




hi the garden of Mr. 
Andrew Welch, in that 
peninsular Paradise, San 
M a t e o, we find this 
charming setting for a 
Platonic dialog or the 
birth of a modern ro- 
mance.-- Left. 



( 'asl stone has been used 
with pleasing effect to 
enhance this facade of 
the beautiful home oj 
Mr. Templeton Crocker 
in Hillsborough, that 
c o I o n y of California 
aristocrats. The house 
was designed by Willis 
Polk, while the foun- 
tain and other effective 
sculptural bits here de- 
picted were designed by 
Mr. Rognier. — High t. 




IN CALIFORNIA'S COLONY OF 
BEAUTIFUL HOMES 



Artistic Bits from Hillsborough, Menlo Park and San Mateo 



H 



Color has been most effectively used in this beautiful garden designed for the James Flood estate in Menlo Park, California. The swimming pool, 
pergola, and garden furniture, simple and massive, is toned with yellow ochre. Mr. G. Rognier of San Mateo is the architect who achieved this 

most pleasing effect. 



.* v » 




Photos by Courtesy of Atlas Portland Cement Co. 



62 



ARTS and DECORATION 



June, 1019 




Like humans, books require light and air to insure Sony life. Their arrangement in this library not only provides that but gives access to them as e £- 

well as making them a part of the decorative scheme. 

Interior Views of 
Mr. Edwin S. Bayers' 

SOME day some clever person will publish a complete 
symposium on windows, — the various kinds and their 
fitness to the different types of architecture common 
to this country, and will gain thereby not only enduring 
fame but will confer a lasting benefit on his fellowman. 

When this material is gathered, it will of necessity in- 
clude many illustrations of interior since it is by their light 
that they will be judged to a great extent. 

Who can doubt in looking at these views of Mr. Edwin 
S. Bayers' town house that the splendid light seen, and 
requisite for inside photography, is natural since all have 
the clarity that only daylight possesses. And rarely does 
one see even in country houses such glorious streaming 
sunshine as in the upper right-hand picture. Both Mr. 
Bayers and the architects are to be congratulated for hav- 
ing accomplished such a wonder. 

However, windows are not the only good points in this 
house. The woodwork is superb. Every detail is carefully 
wrought and there is considerable originality in the designs 
themselves. Particularly interesting is the arrangement of 
the book cases to form a freize around the plain panelled 
library walls. Yet it will be observed that on either side of 
the carved door panel smaller cases form, by means of 
carved scrolls, the capitals of pilaster-like panels. These 
match others flanking the mantel. 




There is a royal dignity here, with a simplicity rarely found in 
Italian settings. 



In the smaller right-hand picture it will be noticed that 



* 



Tunc, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



63 




1 Gillies 

Plenty of tables and chairs with sufficient light of both, natural and artificial, gives comfort precedence over beauty — though the latter lacks nothing 

in any particular. 



. New York City Home 

Taylor 6- Levi, Architects 

the conventional panel outlined by moldings is broken at 
the top by the medallions of the festooned carvings, them- 
selves superb in the balance of design and detail. Such a 
treatment requires and receives here well developed pilasters 
and the supporting dado around the room. 

The dining room walls are altogether different. Extreme 
simplicity as to panelling, relieved by a long horizontal panel 
at the top, throws into high effect the ceiling which reflects 
the richness of the Italian furnishings. 

The mantels, too, hold a lesson for all who either enjoy 
beauty for its own sake or contemplate building. All of 
them possess that quality of being a part of the house, that 
"built in" effect, that all mantels should have and very 
many do not. Especially is this true of the library mantel 
and its oval over decoration somewhat sunk in the wall it- 
self gives a perspective equalled only by a window that gives 
upon a charming outdoor scene. Not only is this the correct 
mode "for this kind of decoration but, incidentally, all por- 
traits are more effective when so framed. And a single 
painting so treated can be made with entire success, the only 
decoration in a room. Imagine the joy of having a brilliant 
Zuloaga, such as Mr. Willard Straight's "Toreador," em- 
panelled in oak as she has hers, the only picture in the room ! 
^The electric wall fixtures are also to be commended and 
sTudied, for they, too, have been correctly mounted. As has 
been said above, nothing is so important to our comfort. 




Perfect balance, so often stiff and ovcrformal, is relieved here by the 
charmingly carved festoons. 



64 



A R T S and DECORATION 



June, 1919 



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John Mowbray-Clarke Reveals Himself 



Examples of His Work from a Group 
on Exhibition at the Kevorkian Galleries 



NOT since the unforgeta"ble Armory Exhibition 
—yes, seven years have passed already — has 
John Mowbray-Clarke shown his work until 
the present comprehensive exhibition at the Kevorkian 
Galleries in Fifty-seventh Street. The present show 
covers a period of twelve years' activity. But the 
wide diversity of style, we are informed, marks no 
gradual change in the artist's style. These differences 
express the changing moods of Mowbray-Clarke's 
imagination. There are, for instance, the purely poetic 
and imaginative figures, like the two here reproduced, 
there are the ventures into the rarified 
atmosphere of plastic speculation. But 
most striking perhaps are those revela- 
tions of the artist's own convictions — 
sculptures which seem to indicate a 
surprizing blend of Oriental mysticism 
and Anglo-Saxon radicalism. "I was 
brought up under the majesty of civil- 
ized laws," the sculptor writes in the 
catalogue, "but have come to think 
them as ruthless as the most primi- 
tive." 

The group named "The Parasites" 
symbolizes "the social family, its re- 
ligion and its waste products." "Their 





Gods 1 ' depicts "self-complacency, and the predatory 
who take advantage of that state." I [ere is a sculptor 
who models in the spirit of Samuel Butler, Bernard 
Shaw, H. G. Wells. "The New Movement," and 
"Whither," on the other hand, pokes deliberate fun 
at half-baked champions of the New. "The Weaker 
Vessel" is an effective satire of the sort of feminism 
that appeals so little — satire summed up in a line, a 
gesture that reveals everything. "The Sacrifice" sug- 
gests a Dunsany drama — and future producers of the 
plays might find valuable suggestions in Mowbray- 
Clarke's treatment of these plastic 
groups. "Aphrodite," as Miss Amy 
Murray suggests, is a London com- 
panion piece to Rodin's "La Belle 
Heaulmiere" — a creature "luckless, 
dropped down in the drizzle, gin-be- 
mused." 

These sculptures bear, one must con- 
fess, a heavy burden of illustration. 
That is because Mr. Mowbray-Clarke, 
one guesses, is one of those independent 
souls who, while never a conservative, 
is not interested in "movements" in 
the Newness for Newness's sake, but 
rather in eternal and timely verities. 



The Mask of 
ROLLO PETERS 

The present exhibi- 
tion is a worthy record 
of the spiritual devel- 
opment of the artist. 
Mowbray-Clarke seems 
no longer interested in 
externalities, no mat- 
ter how appealing 
these may be, but has, 
instead, become a 
searcher for internal 
significance and beauty. 
As this search goes 
on, we may expect the 
sculptor to purge his 
art of the dualism that 
now makes it some- 
what puzzling to the 
impartial observer. 

Ananda Coomar'as- 
wamy thinks that this 
sculptor belongs to 
that order of artists 
who express a consis- 
tent and definite reac- 
tion to this life of ours. 




THE BREEZE 



DAWN 



c"; 



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r S and DECOR A T I C) N 




Copyright by Western Newspaper Union 



"CARRYING ON" at COLONIA, NEW JERSEY 



HOW many of us realize we are cripples? We 
have trie usual quota of legs and arms, fingers 
and toes, but we're cripples just the same. 
Samuel Hopkins Adams made the discovery while 
studying reconstruction of maimed soldiers at Walter 
Reed General Hospital, Washington. Describing the 
incident in the Red Cross Magazine, he writes : 

' 'I suppose you regard yourself as a whole man,' 
demanded one of the vocational therapy experts. 

"Looking myself hastily over to make sure that I 
had not lost anything in the surgical ward, I replied 
that I could count the usual number of arms, legs and 
other appurtenances. 

' 'All right,' said the expert, 'but you're sort of a 
cripple at that. You're atrophied.' 

' 'If I am, I've never discovered it,' I assured him. 

' 'Of course not. People never do until they're 
shown. You haven't got anything like the full use of 
more than four fingers and two thumbs out of a total 
of ten. The normal man — the man who believes him- 
self normal, I mean — never has. Can you light a 
safety match with one hand?' 

"He handed me the box and the match. After the 
second abortive attempt the match fell on the floor 
and the box fell on that match. 

" 'That's elementary, that stunt,' remarked the in- 
structor. 'Our one-arms can do that before they get 
out of bed. You see, your two smaller fingers are 
really cripples. Now we teach our fellows to do the 



work with those fingers that you have to use another 
hand for. There's the whole physical principle of 
our training in its simplest form — substitution.' ' 

A significant word "substitution." At the modern 
hospital for war cripples in Colonia, New Jersey, the 
word can be applied to the reconstruction work there 
in the truest sense of its meaning. From the time the 
crippled soldier begins to convalesce, he is taught to 
substitute new solutions to the difficult problems that 
lie ahead of him. If the loss of an arm incapacitates 
him for his old job, and the old bugaboo depression 
grips him, he is not allowed to surrender weakly to a 
mental state of "dependency." The Red Cross and 
Uncle Sam substitute a new vigorous sane outlook 
on life, by refusing to baby him, by teaching him a 
new and more remunerative trade. He has the in- 
centive to make good when he leaves the hospital. 

Very seldom does a war cripple "lay down on the 
job." He may have a shattered body, and worn out 
nerves, but the will to go on fighting is nearly always 
there. 

One soldier lost both hands at the wrists. For a 
while he refused to buck up. He talked continually 
of living on his pension — a life of glorious ease. His 
Red Cross nurse in charge noticed his dependent atti- 
tude with some anxiety, and suggested that he take a 
walk through the government shops attached to the 
hospital, where his buddies were learning to repair 
automobiles, paint china, make {Continued on page 93) 



IIIIUI1IIIII 



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66 



ARTS and DECORATION 



June, 1919 




The Gardens 

at «? 

Shelburne Farms 

Across the terraced lawns and 
flower beds one may gaze from 
Mrs. Webb's house down to the 
changing waters of Lake Cham- 
plain. Note, in the photographs 
above, the effective treatment of 
the parapet at the lakeside. 

This scene shows the fore- 
ground of the large picture on 
the right-hand page. Altogether, 
there are five terraces in the de- 
scent to the parapet. 



Roses, roses, everywhere — at 
least in the proper season — give 
just the color and mood to 
awaken inspiring thoughts in the 
house they surround and beau- 
tify. And there are walks of 
never-ending promise and delight. 
If one deserves flowers, they are 
here in profusion; but if the soli- 
tude of the woods calls, they, 
too, are near in friendly waiting. 
Here pure joy is exampled in the 
thousand and one "pretend" plays 
of youth in a perfect setting. 

The pergola and swimming 
pool for the children (at the 
right) form one of the real de- 
lights of Mrs. Seward Webb's 
garden. 




[line, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



67 




• 



Mrs. Seward Webb's 

Home at 

Shelburne, Vermont 

Flower beds of unending and 
untiring beauty stretch in all di- 
' rections, seeming, from the beau- 
tifully placed home. 

Needless to say, the house in 
such a setting is itself all a home 
should be, with plenty of galleries 
and windows from which to en- 
joy even fleeting glimpses of the 
glorious changing panorama of 
the lake. Imagine viewing lake 
and mountains in a glance. 





The reflections in the water of 
this pool translate into color and 
mood the beautiful harmonies of 
the music of Debussy. As a dec- 
orative scheme it can hardly be 
surpassed. 

When looking at such a scene 
one instinctively thinks of Italy 
or mythological Greece! It seems 
as though the walks had been 
flower-decked especially for some 
lovely youthful goddess who, in 
passing, would touch and trans- 
form them into equally lovely 
creatures of her kind. However 
that may be, they have given us 
divine thrill, and that is very 
much. 



68 ARTS and DECORATION J une - 1919 

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< 




Elevations and Plans for an English Studio 

The Cases of Housekeeping are deduced to the Last Degree 
by the Simplicity and Modern Equipment of This House 
That Might be Built Successfully Anywhere in America 

By FRANK j. FOSTER, Architect 



THE possibility of attaining the spacious studio 
or living room of the large suburban or coun- 
try house in a bungalow or cottage of reason- 
able price is effectively illustrated in the sketches and 
plans we are able to present here. Although this 
house, as the plan shows us, is limited to very few 
rooms, the central studio presents a great possibilities 
of roominess, light, comfort and beauty. The center 
of interest is, of course, the great fireplace in the 
center of the thirty-foot room. 

As suggested by the architect, there is a small tiled 
entry. One enters this hall through a heavy oaken 
door, and then through an arched opening into the 
studio itself. This studio comprises the full height 
of the low, rambling house. It is opened to the roof 
with exposed rafters. Two large and rough oaken 
beams act as ties to the building. The walls are of 
rough sand plaster, thoroughly in keeping with the 
style of the studio. The floors here should be of wide 
oaken boards, though this detail may, like most de- 
tails, be varied. 

At the north end of the studio a large window of 
simple and generous proportions give an even light. 
At the south end a doorway of ample proportions 
leads to a charming garden, which may be enclosed, 
in the English style, by a brick wall, topped by a lat- 
tice. Under this wall may be placed a rustic seat or 
bench. In the charmingly thought-out garden, the 
sun-dial is one of the chief spots of interest. A kitchen 
garden and court is another possibility that has not 
been overlooked by the architect. 



As the plan indicates, the two bedrooms and bath 
have been arranged in a most comfortable and con- 
venient fashion, the hall on the north side of the house 
adding to the general roominess. 

The exterior appearance of the studio is low and 
rambling, with many points of interest. The effect on 
the whole is one of simplicity. The side walls are 
rough cast. The low roof is shingled and stained a 



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UlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllUllllllilllllllllllllllllllllllU 



June, 1919 



ARTS and DECORATION 



69 






1 » 



I ! 




silver-gray. One of the chimneys is of stone, and the Hammered iron for lighting fixtures and similar 

other may be of brick, give color and variety to the accessories is used in striking combination with the 

general appearance of the little home. oaken doors, floors and rafters. 



BUILD NOW 

More Americans Should Own Their Own Homes 



IF we need urging to make us build homes, the re- 
cent pamphlet issued by the U. S. Department of 
Labor will start us planning forthwith, for therein 
are set down not only the patriotic reasons for so 
doing, but those that appeal to all, the home-building 
instincts common to normal human beings. 

Under the heading of "More Americans should own 
their own homes" are these trenchant lines : 

"Somewhere in the heart of every man is the desire 
to be independent. Independence is the measure of 
one's standing in the community. 

"The first step along the road to independence is to 
own one's home. The man who owns his home is the 
respected, the trusted man in every community. 

"One of the largest employers of labor in the country 
ordered a canvass of his factories to determine what 
percentage of his employees owned their own homes. 
At the same time, he urged all employees in the estab- 
lishment to become home owners or home buyers. 

"Sound logic prompted this action. The responsible 
man is the valuable employee. The home owner has 
a deeper sense of civic pride. He is established ; he is 
responsible; he is interested in everything that tends 
toward the peace and security and upbuilding of the 
community." 

Admitting the fact that the Liberty Loans have in- 
stilled in us ideas of thrift, it follows that every man 
can afford to build now by continuing to save and by 
so doing meet the double need of having a home and 
serving his country through helping solve the labor 
problem. To quote: 

. "This is the period of readjustment, and idle dollars 
are as detrimental to the national welfare as idle men. 
"Building is a basic industry. To build a home, aside 
from the obvious benefits to the home owner, is to 
make an important and direct contribution to national 
readjustment and reconstruction. 

"First, the country needs thousands of homes. After 



that the home builder creates a demand for stone, 
bricks, lumber, hardware, concrete, paint, etc., etc. ; 
money circulates — only blood that circulates makes for 
health. Building absorbs labor. That is of prime im- 
portance right now, when thousands of soldiers are 
being released from the army and industry is in tran- 
sition from the war to peace gear. 

"Homes, the very foundation of the social structure; 
schools, the mold in which our citizenship is cast; 
roads, the arteries of commerce ; churches, springs of 
spiritual inspiration ! These we need in increasing 
numbers throughout the land if America is to be made 
a better place in which to live. 

"Ambitions may be realized in your children if you 
have the home environment which transmits to them 
the ambition. The basic need is a home and the sense 
of shelter and security which goes with ownership. 

"Like father like son! The next generation will 
not be a home-owning one if the present generation 
doesn't show the benefits of home owning and incul- 
cate the home-owing ambition." 

These common-sense arguments are driven home by 
the conclusion that "a universal building program 
means more to the United States right now than at any 
time in its history. It means efficiency for labor; it 
means increased production in all correlated indus- 
tries ; it means increased material demands until pro- 
duction reaches the quantity production level necessary 
for reducing unit costs ; eventually, it means lower 
prices. This country is the soundest, healthiest, wealth- 
iest in the world. If you need a home or a building 
do not hesitate a day longer in going to work on it. 

"Prices will not be lower until